Drought – Mitigation Measures

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Drought – Mitigation Measures: 

Drought – Mitigation Measures Presented By : Suvajit Singha , Disaster Management Officer, Directorate of Disaster Management, W.B. E-mail : suvajit.singha@rediffmail.com

What is Drought?: 

What is Drought? Drought is either absence or deficiency of rainfall from its normal pattern in a region for an extended period of time leading to general suffering in the society .

Some features :: 

Some features : It is a slow on-set disaster and it is difficult to demarcate the time of its onset and the end . Any unusual dry period which results in a shortage of useful water . Drought can occur by improper distribution of rain in time and space, and not just by its amount. Drought is negative balance between precipitation and water use ( through evaporation , transpiration by plants , domestic and industrial uses etc) in a geographical region.

An eye-opener :: 

An eye-opener : Approximately 80 per cent of earth’s surface is covered with water but only 1% of it is fresh water that we can use . About 2.7 per cent of the total water available on the earth is fresh water of which about 75.2 per cent lies frozen in Polar Regions and another 22.6 per cent is present as ground water.

Contd…: 

Contd … The rest is available in lakes , rivers , atmosphere, moisture, soil and vegetation. This 1% of water is now threatened by pollution!

Contd..: 

Contd.. Today, we have approximately the same amount of water as when the Earth was formed. Earth will not get / generate any more water! We are using up the fresh water faster than we are recharging our groundwater

General Characteristics:: 

General Characteristics: Types of droughts : Meteorological drought : Meteorological drought is simple absence/deficit of rainfall from the normal. Hydrological drought : Hydrological drought often leads to reduction of natural stream flows or ground water levels, plus stored water supplies . The main impact is on water resource systems . Agricultural drought : This form of drought occurs when moisture level in soil is insufficient to maintain average crop yields . An extreme agricultural drought can lead to a famine causing widespread disease and death from starvation .

Causes: 

Causes Prolonged scanty rainfall causes drought . Environmental Degradation, especially the loss of green cover affects rainfall received in the region , increasing the possibility of water s tress . What causes Environmental Degradation ? Cutting down trees Soil Erosion Excessive use of ground or surface water Loss of biodiversity Global Warming

Vulnerability factors :: 

Vulnerability factors : Low soil moisture holding capacity Absence of irrigation facilities Livestock without adequate fodder storage facilities Poor water management Deforestation Over grazing Water consuming cropping patterns Excessive ground water draft Soil erosion Population growth and urbanization Industrialization Global warming

Drought Mathematics: 

Drought Mathematics Criteria set by the Indian Meteorological Division (IMD ) for identifying the drought : Onset of drought: Deficiency of a particular year’s rainfall exceeding 25 per cent of normal. Moderate drought : Deficit of rainfall between 26-50 per cent of normal. Severe drought : Deficit of rainfall more than 50 per cent of normal.

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Drought Farmers Poor Families Children Women Employment

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Drought Migration Drop Out higher child- labour Effects on Children

Long- term Mitigation Strategies : : 

Long- term Mitigation Strategies : Construction of Community Based Rain Water Harvesting Structures. Promoting Watershed Programmes . Increasing Forest cover through plantations. Adopting drought resistant varieties of paddy and other crops . Using alternative crops in drought conditions. Capacity building of communities in Drought Management and introducing livelihood options besides agriculture and animal husbandry which are water intensive. Encouraging crop and Seed insurance schemes.

What can students do?: 

What can students do? Conserve water : Prevent misuse and wastage of water, and encourage recycling of water . Harvest Rain water at home and in schools : Find out the way one can collect rain water and store it, or use it to recharge a well, bore-well source or sump . Plant trees and care for them : Carry out campaigns for plantations. Find out the right trees for your area.

Important Don’t-s in drought prone areas :: 

Important Don’t-s in drought prone areas : Misuse or waste precious water. Destroy natural vegetation such as forests, pastures, trees, etc. Overgraze domestic animals. Grow water-loving plants in water scarce areas . Promote monoculture, and encourage mixed cropping.

Government Initiatives for Mitigation :: 

Government Initiatives for Mitigation : Integrated Child Development Scheme : Globally recognized community based early child care programme which addresses health, nutrition and education needs of children.

Government Initiatives for Mitigation :: 

Government Initiatives for Mitigation : Mid-Day meal Scheme : The Midday Meal Scheme was rolled out across India from 1995 in order to improve children’s nutrition and learning. it aims to enhance enrolment, retention and attendance among primary school children while simultaneously improving their nutritional levels.

Government Initiatives for Mitigation :: 

Government Initiatives for Mitigation : MGNREGA : Primary Objectives : Supplementing employment Auxiliary Objectives : Eco-restoration & regeneration of natural resource base for sustainable rural livelihood.

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Plant Trees Save Water