Athletic Footwear Industry Analysis: Athletic Footwear Industry Analysis Angela Gieras
Tom Parrish January 17, 2003 Background: Background Athletic footwear was first developed by the ancient Greeks in order to provide protection when moving over rough terrain in varying weather conditions.
The modern athletic shoe was developed in eighteenth century England as a result of an increasing interest in the sport of running and other outdoor activities.
Joseph William Foster founded the first large-scale sports shoe company in Boulton, UK in the 1890’s. During this period, other sport shoes could be found in mail order catalogues, such as Sears and Montgomery Ward’s.
In 1917, the Converse and Keds corporations entered the American athletic shoe market.
In 1958, Joseph William Foster’s grandson renamed his grandfather’s company Reebok .
Athletic footwear forever changed in 1962 when Phil Knight and Bill Bowerman created "Blue Ribbon Sports," the forerunner of Nike.
Source: Digital Dissertations: Gurian, Brian. “The Impact of the Sneaker and the Sneaker Industry on Modern Society.” St. John’s University, 2002. Size of Market: Size of Market Source: The NPD Group, Inc. In the first half of 2002, NPD Group estimates that athletic footwear spending resulted in 1.4% year-to-year growth to $7.40 billion from $7.29 billion in the comparable year-earlier period. (Euromonitor) Size of Market: Size of Market Source: The NPD Group, Inc. Expected Growth Rate: Expected Growth Rate Source: Euromonitor According to the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association, athletic footwear accounts for almost 35% of all footwear purchases. (The NPD Group, Inc.) Growth Rates in Sports Participation: Growth Rates in Sports Participation Source: National Sporting Goods Association Market Sales - Seasonality: Market Sales - Seasonality The US market for footwear is seasonal in nature due to consumer spending patterns, with higher back to school, Christmas, and Easter holiday seasonal sales.
Source: Euromonitor and The NPD Group, Inc. Market Sales: Market Sales In 2001, NPD estimates that spending for athletic footwear rose 2% to $15.42 billion, from $15.12 billion in 2000.
Consumers purchased 401.9 million pairs of athletic shoes, down 1.5% from 408.0 million pairs in 2000.
The average price paid per pair rose 3.5%, to $38.36, from $37.05 in 2000; however, this was still well below the $40.07 paid in 1998.
Running shoes captured the biggest share of consumer spending, with 29.0% of the total market. Sales of running shoes rose 3.8% to $4.55 billion, from $4.38 billion in 2000.
Source: Standard & Poor’s Net Advantage Consumer Demographics: Baby Boomer Generation
77 million Americans
Healthcare, leisure, retirement compete for fashion dollars
Fashion spending is waning, but still spend the most
Conservative, large sizes appeal to this group
Are typically marketed to in a similar fashion as Generation Y’s
Marketing focus may be lost between Baby Boomers and Generation Y Consumer Demographics Source: Standard & Poor’s Net Advantage Consumer Demographics: Consumer Demographics Generation Y
75 million Americans (25% of population)
Focus of marketing in recent years
Teen girls spend 75% of earnings on clothing and accessories
Comparatively, teen boys spend 52%
Loyal to footwear and apparel name brands
Generally support smaller footwear companies in tune with fashions
Comprised one-quarter of all athletic footwear spending
Advertisers attempt to reach more through non-traditional mediums (i.e. Internet) Source: Standard & Poor’s Net Advantage Athletic Footwear Purchases by Age: Athletic Footwear Purchases by Age Source: National Sporting Goods Association Market Segments: Market Segments Source:Euromonitor Product Segments: Product Segments Source: SGMA International Consumer Purchasing Habits: Consumer Purchasing Habits Traditional
Internet, television (i.e. QVC, HSN, ShopNBC)
Footwear is one of fastest growing categories on QVC & HSN
QVC and HSN reach 100 million homes
ShopNBC reaches 52 million homes
Source: Footwear Journal USA Consumer Purchasing Habits: Consumer Purchasing Habits Who?
Men spend more per pair and buy more pairs of athletic footwear than women
Women’s and Children’s shoe sales growing more rapidly than Men’s
Nearly 33% of all athletic footwear spending is done by those aged 13-24
Less than 30% of athletic shoes purchased are for use in sports or fitness activities
Internet orders (via websites)
Telephone orders (i.e. QVC)
Walk-in orders (mall, outlets, etc)
Source: SGMA International & Standard & Poor’s Net Advantage Major Competitors: Major Competitors Nike- Principal business activities involve design, development, and worldwide marketing of quality footwear, apparel, equipment, and accessory products. The largest seller of athletic footwear and athletic apparel in the world. All footwear products are produced outside the United States by independent contractors. Nike places emphasis on high quality construction and innovative design.
Adidas- German based Adidas-Saloman is the second largest manufacturer of athletic equipment, footwear , and apparel in the world. Adidas America oversees marketing, merchandising, distribution, and sales of Adidas products in the U.S. Their mission is to become the best sports brand in the world. Adidas believes in creating a product to perform. Form follows function.
Source: Company websites and company 10K reports,
competitor information from Standard & Poor’s Major Competitors: Major Competitors Reebok International- Global company engaged in the design and marketing of sports and fitness products, including footwear, apparel, and accessories. They devote significant resources to advertising products to a variety of audiences through various media. Revenues are primarily driven from wholesale distribution of products to selected athletic specialty stores, high-end retail shops, as well as sporting goods and department stores.
New Balance Athletic- A privately held company in Massachusetts, New Balance was founded as a manufacturer of arch supports and orthopedic shoes. New Balance’s mission is “to be recognized as the world’s leading manufacturer of high performance footwear and apparel.”
Source: Company websites and company 10K reports,
competitor information from Standard & Poor’s Major Competitors: Major Competitors Skechers U.S.A.- A newer player in the athletic footwear market. A global leader in the lifestyle footwear industry, Skechers designs, develops, and markets lifestyle footwear that appeals to trend-savvy men, women, and children. Product offerings have grown from utility-styled work boots to include sports, casual, dress, dress casual, and roller skates.
Source: Company websites and company 10K reports,
competitor information from Standard & Poor’s Best Selling Product Categories: Best Selling Product Categories Nike- Running, basketball, children’s, cross-training, and women’s shoes
Adidas- Basketball, training, baseball, football, urban, originals, workout, and walking
Reebok International- Running, walking , aerobic
New Balance Athletic- Running, walking, cross-training
Skechers U.S.A.- Casuals, utility, steel toe
Source: Company websites and corporate 10K reports Competitor Business Strategies: Competitor Business Strategies Nike
High quality construction
Collection based marketing
Focus sales on distributors, licensees, and subsidiaries Adidas
Form follows function
Marketing department begins design process
Greater emphasis placed on design for an athlete’s need
Source: Nike website and 10K and Adidas website Competitor Business Strategies: Competitor Business Strategies Reebok
Grow sales through distribution channels
Focus on relationship with major sports figures to enhance brand image
Resources devoted to advertising through various media Skechers
Does not concentrate on performance
International expansion by leveraging domestic brand image
Building brand image Source: Reebok and Skechers websites and 10K reports Brand Development: Brand Development According to Forrester Research, 69% of teens said that when they find a brand they like, they remain loyal
Firms use celebrities and athletes
Nike: Michael Jordan and Tiger Woods
Skechers: Brittany Spears
Adidas: Kobe Bryant Source: “Drivers of Change,” http://www.duke.edu/web/soc142/team2/drivers.html 2001 Competitor Ratio Analysis: 2001 Competitor Ratio Analysis Source: Bloomberg and Adidas consolidated financial statements, financial information unavailable for New Balance 2000 Market Share of Athletic Shoe Competitors: 2000 Market Share of Athletic Shoe Competitors Source: Market Share Reporter Historical Government Legislation and Trade Restrictions: Historical Government Legislation and Trade Restrictions May 1974: Multifibre Agreement (MFA) import quotas replace the regulations under the GATT agreements as the primary regulator of footwear trade
Protects countries whose domestic industries are severely threatened by imports
December 1993: North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Created the world’s largest free trade zone between the United States, Mexico, and Canada
July 1995: The World Trade Organization created the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) to replace the Multifibre Agreement
May 2000: Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA) and the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), passed under the heading of the Trade and Development Act
Effective October 1, 2000, authorized for eight years
Duty-free treatment and reduced duties on footwear imports for potentially 72 countries Source: “The Politics of Footwear,” http://www.duke.edu/web/soc142/team2/Politics.html Historical Government Legislation and Trade Restrictions (cont.): Historical Government Legislation and Trade Restrictions (cont.) April 2001: Summit of the Americas Conference in Quebec
Delegates agreed to a draft to eliminate all trade barriers within North and South America, final text due January 2005
October 2001:Vietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement
Established normal commercial trade relations subject to annual review by Congress
October 2001: Bilateral Trade Agreement with the Kingdom of Jordan
Mandates that “all footwear articles must meet the basic 35% local content origin rule”
November 2001: China enters the World Trade Organization
China allowed to ship apparel and footwear to the U.S. under reduced tariffs
December 2001: Congress directed attention to numerous labor issues in the footwear industry, but instituted no actions regarding sweatshop and child labor conditions Source: “The Politics of Footwear,” http://www.duke.edu/web/soc142/team2/Politics.html Latest Trade Legislation: Latest Trade Legislation July 2002: Trade Act of 2002
Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) – grants the President the right to negotiate trade agreements and gives Congress the final authority to approve or disapprove those agreements
Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA)
Duty-free access to virtually all footwear from the Andean region (Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru)
Retroactive modifications to the May 2000 Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA) and the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA)
Expected Consequences of Latest Legislation
Increase in imports from the Caribbean basin and Andean region, and to a lesser extent sub-Saharan Africa
Erosion of Asia’s share of U.S. imports in the short term
Increasing amounts of footwear imports from China in the long-run
Eventual erosion of Mexican and Caribbean share of U.S. imports due to lower labor costs in China
Source: Standard & Poor’s Net Advantage Labor Practices: Labor Practices Labor practices and environmental issues in the footwear industry have been historical issues
Example: Nike (Historical)
In Indonesia, production workers were paid 86 cents per hour for a 12 hour day, no overtime, no breaks
In Vietnam, factory workers earned 20 cents per hour
In China (where Nike has 40% of its production), workers worked 84 hours per week and earned $1.50 per shoe made
The International Labor Office reports a recent trend in self-regulation, including “voluntary initiatives,” due to pressure from labor and special interest groups
Footwear companies are concerned with public image and corporate citizenship Source: “The Politics of Footwear,” http://www.duke.edu/web/soc142/team2/Politics.html Labor Practices (cont.): Labor Practices (cont.) Government Actions
President Clinton worked with UNITE to form worldwide labor regulations for the footwear industry, limiting the work week to 60 hours and establishing a minimum wage
Source: “The Politics of Footwear,” http://www.duke.edu/web/soc142/team2/Politics.html Economic Factors: Economic Factors Apparel and footwear sales are driven strongly by economic conditions, demographics, and pricing
With expected economic recovery in 2003, footwear sales should begin a gradual recovery
A wave of consolidation is expected as firm’s attempt to gain leverage in distribution channels. The slow economy has led athletic footwear manufacturers to lay off workers, freeze hiring, find less expensive sourcing, and cut non-fixed costs like technology, travel, and entertainment Source: Standard & Poor’s Net Advantage Benefits of Economic Downturn: Benefits of Economic Downturn Retailer position becomes “If it isn’t moving, mark it down” – while bad for margins, it is good for inventory
Since 1995, the industry inventory-to-sales ratio has declined Source: Standard & Poor’s Net Advantage Consumer Confidence Index: Consumer Confidence Index Declines in the Consumer Confidence Index tend to curtail spending on discretionary items like apparel and footwear, causing retailers to reduce and cancel orders
September 11 terrorist attacks dramatically slowed consumer spending, exacerbating the problem
While consumer spending for athletic footwear was up about 7% before the attacks, sales dropped more than 10% after
In October 2002, the Consumer Confidence Index reached a nine year low of 79.4 Source: Standard & Poor’s Net Advantage Consumer Confidence Index (cont.): Consumer Confidence Index (cont.) Consumer spending is expected to rise 3.0% for the full-year 2002 and 2.5% in 2003
Disposable income expected to rise 5.8% in 2002 and 4.7% in 2003 Source: Standard & Poor’s Net Advantage Good News for Consumers, Bad News for Manufacturers: Good News for Consumers, Bad News for Manufacturers Poor economy and high competition leads to extreme price pressure, deflating prices and margins
Consumers are more value-conscious, wanting quality at a low price – evident in the growth of mass merchant and off-price retail stores
Discounts and bargain shopping maintained sales level, but hurt profit margins
While spending for all men, women, and children’s athletic shoe categories increased, the pattern of buying more for less was consistent among all segments
Years of price promotion have tarnished the image of athletic footwear
Also contributing to price deflation have been an increase in imports and market share gains by discounters
Despite a 6% rise in average prices for athletic shoes in 2001, which reversed the trend beginning in 1997, analysts believe the reversal is temporary
Source: Standard & Poor’s Net Advantage Average Price of Athletic Footwear: Average Price of Athletic Footwear Source: National Sporting Goods Association Options for Survival: Options for Survival There is a necessity to diversify in terms of product line, market segment, and distribution channels
Expands acquirer’s top line and market share
Example: Nike acquired surf wear manufacturer Hurley International
Offer new products while leveraging current brands
Example: Perry Ellis International has swimwear licenses with Nike and Reebok Source: Standard & Poor’s Net Advantage Expected Change in the Industry: Expected Change in the Industry Product diversification
Athletic apparel viewed as the new growth component for firms
Slower growth due to competition and price-conscious consumers
Granting of exclusive rights to retailers by manufacturers
Issuing limited editions of high-fashion and high-tech models
Increased competition from the growing popularity of traditional designer shoes, which have taken on more athletic designs, and casual shoe styles
Athletic footwear manufacturers introducing styles not meant for sports and targeting different segments (i.e. girls, women, and older casual wearers)
Increased number of imports Source: Standard & Poor’s Net Advantage Industry Trade Organizations: Industry Trade Organizations Footwear Industries of America (FIA)
National association for footwear manufacturers, importers, distributors, and suppliers to the leather and allied trades
Represents the industry in Washington, DC
Footwear Distributors and Retailers of America (FDRA)
Provides representation on U.S. and international government relations for U.S.-based retail chain shoe retailers and the footwear brands
National Shoe Retailers Association (NSRA)
Trade organization representing independent shoe retailers
Athletic Footwear Association (AFA)
Serves an international group of athletic footwear manufacturers and marketers
About 140 members
Part of the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association (SGMA)
Source: “Contacts and Links,” www.infomat.com/information/research/industry/
Reports/USA_Footwear.html Sources: Sources “An Inside Look at America’s Sneaker Biz.” SGMA International. 14 Jan. 2003 <http://www.sgma.com/sgma-press-releases.html>.
“Apparel and Footwear Industry Survey.” Standard and Poor’s Net Advantage. 15 Jan. 2003 <http://www.netadvantage.standardandpoor.com/>.
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“Athletic Footwear: Adjusting to a Changing Market.” SGMA International. 14 Jan. 2003 <http://www.sgma.com/sgma-press-releases.html>.
“Athletic Footwear Sales Climb 2% in 2001 As Customers Pay More Per Pair.” SGMA International. 14 Jan. 2003 <http://www.sgma.com/sgma-press-releases.html>.
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Ellis, Kristi. “Lobbyists Say Trade Act Falls Short; Only Columbia, Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador to See Footwear Duty, Quota Breaks.” Footwear News. 19 Aug. 2002.
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Reebok. Edgar Online, Inc. “10K report for Reebok.” 14 Jan. 2003.
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Taylor, Sarah. “Phoning It In; Footwear Is Now One of the Fastest Growing Categories for Home-Shopping Networks QVC; HSN and ShopNBC; Vendors Couldn’t Be More Thrilled, but Retailers? That’s Another Story.” Footwear News. 29 Jul. 2002.
“US Sporting Goods Market Outlook 2002.” SGMA International. 14 Jan. 2003 <http://www.sgma.com/sgma-press-releases.html>. Sources (cont.): Sources (cont.) Company Websites