The Early Middle Ages: The Early Middle Ages 7th to the 10th Century
Roman Empire Decline
German Invasions Affecting Artistic Development and Other
Radical Changes in Social & Political Organizations
In addition to the German invasions were those from Islam.
Islamic Art: Islamic Art Idolatry forbidden
Consisted mainly of abstracts, floral patterns, or other geometric objects
Sculpture almost nonexistent
Abundance of monumental architecture & architectural decorations
Islamic Art Expressions: Islamic Art Expressions Mosque:
A place to pray and face towards Mecca
Sahn: enclosed courtyard that all mosques have.
Qibla: prayer wall
Mihrab: small nitche to indicate the direction of Mecca. Exterior:
Large and elaborate
Hagia Sophia changed into a mosque Islam : Islam Islam means “submission to God’s will”
Founded by the prophet Muhammed
Message is “brotherhood of Man” & equality before God (Allah)
Differs from Christianity
No priesthood, no religious hierarchy, sacraments or requirements of literagy
Does include rulers and leaders in prayer Islamic Instruction : Islamic Instruction Faithfully conduct their daily lives
Circumcise male infants
Pray to Allah five times a day facing Mecca.
Worship in the mosque on Fridays
Give to the poor, Fast and practice abstinence in the daylight during Ramaden
Allowed multiple wives The Great Mosque, Cordoba: The Great Mosque, Cordoba Mosque built in capital city
Striking example of Islamic art
Double arches first used here were duplicated in additions.
(11.1,11.2, 11.3 & 11.4)
Christians later turned this into a cathedral but it still conveys the original orientation of Islam. Northern European Art: Northern European Art Influenced by the Germanic tribes
New focus on artistic and political activities
No monumental structure, paintings or sculpture was done to the constant invasions
Invaders stimulated a new craft. . .
Metalwork designs and techniques Anglo-Saxon Metalwork: Anglo-Saxon Metalwork Purse cover from the 17th century.
Found among a pagan ship wreckage treasures suggesting royalty
Is of gold decoration; cloisonne enamel originally on ivory or bone & dark red garnets.
Early Christian intelace designs and Near Eastern motifs SuttonHoo purse cover from East Anglia, England, 630 AD
Merging animal forms suggest invasion Beowulf: Beowulf Earliest surviving European epic
German folklore with strong Christian morality.
A strange king child found adrift Denmark “Scyld Scefing”
Famed was this Beowulf: far flew the boast of him, son of Scyld, in the Scandian lands. So becomes it a youth to quit him well with his father's friends, by fee and gift, that to aid him, aged, in after days, come warriors willing, should war draw nigh, liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds shall an earl have honor in every clan. Hiberno-Saxon Art: Hiberno-Saxon Art Ireland escaped invasions at this time
St. Patrick spread Christianity throughout Ireland and for years later it became a haven for scholars, missionaries, monasteries, . .
Christian art also prevailed across Ireland.
Style has been called Insular and Hiberno-Saxon (Hiberno is Latin for “Ireland”)
Manuscript Illumination: Manuscript Illumination Illuminated manuscripts produced by monks in monasteries.
Illustrated the Word of God; Visual pleasures
Used a strict unity of color and form.
Crisp, clear sometines contrasting colors; flat surfaces; patterning Lion Symbol of St. John, from the Book of Durrow, After AD650. Represents St. John, Evangelist as a lion . . . .later an eagle. Carolingian Period: Carolingian Period Book of Kells
Corresponds with the crowning of Charles the Great-Roman empr.
Charlemagne ruled over the Holy Roman Empire and surrounding territories and revived culture.
Network of learning was created
Latin manuscript texts. . .7LibArts
11.7 Tunc Crucifixerant XPI, from the Book of Kells (Matthew 27:38) Then they crucified Christ & with him two thieves Manuscripts: Manuscripts Charlemagne’s rule involved the Roman revival of culture with manuscripts
Manuscripts worked towards development of a practical form of portable artistic and educational communication
They continued after Charlemagne’s death but more apocalyptic approach
Flatter space, figures connected by geometric design rather than landscapes. Revelation & the Four Symbols of Evangelsits: Revelation & the Four Symbols of Evangelsits Revelation-last book of the New Testament
Written by St. John
John’s account of Christ’s word in his appearance to him.
Visionary work with scripture, literary tradition and symbols: lion, bull, man, eagle.
Lion: St. Mark; Bull: St. Luke; Man: St. Matthew, Eagle: St. John. 11.8 Four Evangelists, from a Carolingian Gospel Book Monasteries: Monasteries Each monastery:
Network for artists and scholars to communicate.
Religious and Administrative Center for economic functions
Communal living quarters for Monks Plans for monstery of St.Gall, Switzerland; plan placed church in the center; building around in order of importance of education Ottonian Period: Ottonian Period Charlemagne’s grandsons were ineffective rulers of the European reign & fell to invaders.
After the Vikings takeover, the Saxons crowned Otto I as Otto the Great, emperor.
Ottonian refers to rulers named Otto who worked to continue Charlemagne’s revival of Classical antiquity. Major Works of the Ottonian Period: Major Works of the Ottonian Period Architectural work:
Benedictine abbey church of St. Michael’s
Metalwork at Hildesheim