Millennium Development Goals-DR SURAJ CHAWLA

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Millennium Development Goals

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MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS : 

MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS Dr. Suraj Chawla Junior Resident, Community Medicine PGIMS, Rohtak MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS 1

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Milestones Introduction Discussion of MDGs : Targets & Indicators World scenario Indian scenario Barriers towards achieving MDGs Current policies of INDIA Contents 2

Milestones: 

1990 Watershed in the evolution of ideas about poverty reduction World Bank’s World Development Report UNDP’s Human Development Reports World Summit for Children in New York, to which the processes leading to the MDGs can be traced back 1993 World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, advanced the recognition of the rights of women Milestones 3

Milestones: 

1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, focused on reductions in child, infant and maternal mortality and access to reproductive health services 1995 World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen, crucial for the MDGs as a global consensus was reached that poverty reduction was the priority goal for development Milestones 4

Introduction: 

189 heads of state in September 2000 adopted the Millennium Declaration during the UN Millennium summit The plan was for countries and development partners to work together to reduce poverty and hunger, tackle ill-health, gender inequality, lack of education, lack of access to clean water and environmental degradation They established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), with targets set for 2015, and to be measured in terms of progress since 1990 Introduction 5

Cont.: 

Each year, the Secretary-General presents a report to the UN General Assembly on progress achieved towards implementing the Declaration The goals, targets and indicators as developed in 2002 were used until 2007 to measure progress towards the MDGs In 2007, the MDGs monitoring framework was revised to include four new targets as agreed by member states at the 2005 World Summit and recommended in 2006 Cont. 6

Cont.: 

In 2007, the General Assembly took note of the Secretary-General's report in which he presented the new framework, including the indicators to monitor progress towards the new targets as recommended by the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on MDG Indicators (IAEG ). The 8 MDGs , break down into 21 quantifiable targets that are measured by 60 indicators , effective since January 15, 2008 Cont. 7

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Inter-Related 8

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‘ Overcoming poverty is not a gesture of charity. It is an act of justice. ’ - Nelson Mandela. 9

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ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER TARGETS INDICATORS 1.A: Halve ( between 1990 and 2015) the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day 1.1 Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day 1.2 Poverty gap ratio 1.3 Share of poorest quintile in national consumption GOAL- 1 10

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ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER TARGETS INDICATORS 1.B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people 1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed 1.5 Employment to population ratio 1.6 Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day 1.7 Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment GOAL- 1 11

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ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER TARGETS INDICATORS 1.C: Halve ( between 1990 and 2015 ) the proportion of people who suffer from hunger 1.8 Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age 1.9 Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption GOAL- 1 12

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The global economic crises has slowed down the progress, but world is still on track to meet the poverty reduction target MDGs REPORT 2010 ( world scenario ) 13

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MDGs REPORT 2010 ( world scenario) Hunger may have spiked in 2009, one of the many dire consequences of the global food & financial crises 14

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Declining poverty needs to be accelerated … Proportion of people below the national poverty line (poverty headcount ratio or PHR) : 37.2% (1990) 27.5 % ( 2004‐05 ) Target is to reduce it by half to 18.6% (2015) R ate of decline in poverty ratio per annum : 0.8 % (1990‐2005 ) 1.4% (2005‐06) This improved rate , if persists, India will be able to achieve the 2015 target by 2012‐13. GOAL-1 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO ) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 Sign of improvement 15

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Hunger , particularly undernourishment among children, persists as major food insecurity issue… Proportion of underweight children below 3 years of age : 53.5% (1990) 46% (2005-06) Target is to reduce it to 26.8% by 2015 GOAL-1 PROGRESS Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 Expected to come down to about 40% (2015) GOAL-1 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO ) 16

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Addressing the poverty burden in the heartland is vital … The major states namely, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh , MP, Maharashtra, Orissa , UP and Uttarakhand , are among the slow‐moving States & are not likely to achieve their target of halving the poverty. GOAL-1 PROGRESS Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 GOAL-1 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO ) 17

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‘Education is a human right with immense power to transform. On its foundation rest the cornerstone of freedom, democracy and sustainable human development.’ - Kofi Annan 18

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ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION TARGETS INDICATORS 2.A: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling 2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education 2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary 2.3 Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds, women and men GOAL- 2 19

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MDGs REPORT 2010 ( world scenario) Hope dims for universal primary education by 2015, even as many poor countries make tremendous strides 20

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Universal primary education is imminent ... The country is tending to achieve 2015 target of universal primary education for all children aged 6‐11 years. Primary enrolment of 6‐11 year old children by their NER : 83 % ( 2000) 95 % ( 2007‐08 ) Survival rate in the primary stage up to Grade V : 62 % ( 1999) 72% (2007-08) Y outh literacy : 82.1 % ( 2007 ) Expected 100% by the end of 2012. GOAL-2 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 21

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‘ Women hold up half the sky ’. - Ancient Chinese saying 22

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PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN TARGETS INDICATORS 3.A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 3.1 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education 3.2 Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector 3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament GOAL- 3 23

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MDGs REPORT 2010 ( world scenario) For girls in some regions, education remains elusive 24

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Gender disparity in primary and secondary education is set to disappear … Gender P arity Index (GPI) ratios in primary and secondary education are : 76 and 60 respectively (1990‐91) 94 and 82 respectively (2006‐07) GOAL-3 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 25

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Empowerment of women is still far & too slow to reckon ... Participation of women in employment and decision making remains far less than that of men and the disparity is not likely to be eliminated by 2015. P ercentage share of women parliamentarians 9.7% (1991) 9.1 % (2007) 10.3 % after the 15th General Election held in April‐May 2009 Though a marginal increase, this can be a turning point for the better to come by. GOAL-3 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 26

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‘ A child like all other human beings has inalienable rights.’ - Lucrezia Molt 27

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REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY TARGETS INDICATORS 4.A: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate 4.1 Under-five mortality rate 4.2 Infant mortality rate 4.3 Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized against measles GOAL- 4 28

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MDGs REPORT 2010 ( world scenario) Child deaths are falling, but not quickly enough to reach the target 29

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Much sharper focus is needed for faster improvement in child-survival prospect … U5MR per thousand live births : 125 (1990) 74.6 (2005-06) Target is to reduce it to 42 (2015) GOAL-4 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 Expected near 70 by 2015 30

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Much sharper focus is needed for faster improvement in child-survival prospect IMR per thousand live births : 80 (1990) 53 (2008) Target is to reduce it to 26.7 (2015) T he proportion of 1 year olds immunised against measles reached 69.6 % in 2007‐08 GOAL-4 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 Expected near 46 by 2015 Expected to reach 97% by 2015 31

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‘There is simply no good reason why in the 21 st century thousands of women and children should be dying during childbirth.’ - Aileen Carroll 32

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IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH TARGETS INDICATORS 5.A: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio 5.1 Maternal mortality ratio 5.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel GOAL- 5 33

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MDGs REPORT 2010 ( world scenario) Giving birth is especially risky in southern A sia & sub- Saharan Africa, where most women deliver without skilled care 34

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Life risk to motherhood takes a turn for the better … MMR per 100,000 live births : 301 (2001‐2003) 254 (2004-2006) Target is to reduce it to 109 by 2015 Coverage of deliveries by skilled personnel : 33% ( 1992-1993) 52% ( 2007-2008) Target - universal coverage by 2015 GOAL-5 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 Expected to reach 135 by 2015 Expected to reach 62% by 2015 35

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‘ Of all the forms of inequality, injustice in health is the most shocking and the most inhumane.’ - Martin Luther King 36

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COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES TARGETS INDICATORS 6.A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS 6.1 HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years 6.2 Condom use at last high-risk sex 6.3 Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS 6.4 Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years GOAL- 6 37

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COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES TARGETS INDICATORS 6B: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it 6.5 Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs GOAL- 6 38

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COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES TARGETS INDICATORS 6C: Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases 6.6 Incidence and death rates associated with malaria 6.7 Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets 6.8 Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti-malarial drugs GOAL- 6 39

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COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES TARGETS INDICATORS 6C: Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases 6.9 Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis 6.10 Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course GOAL- 6 40

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MDGs REPORT 2010 ( world scenario) The spread of HIV appears to have stabilized in most regions, and more peoples are surviving longer 41

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MDGs REPORT 2010 ( world scenario) About Malaria … Global procurement of more effective antimalarial drugs continues to rise rapidly Poverty continues to limit the use of insecticide treated mosquito nets External funding is helping to reduce malaria incidence and deaths, but additional support is needed 42

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MDGs REPORT 2010 ( world scenario) If current trends are sustained, the world as a whole will have already achieved the target of halting and reversing the incidence of Tuberculosis in 2004 About Tuberculosis… Incidence fell to 139 cases per 100,000 peoples in 2008 after peaking in 2004 at 143 cases per 100,000 people Though Tuberculosis prevalence is decreasing in most regions, it remains the second leading killer after HIV/AIDS 43

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GOAL-6 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO) Trend reversal in prevalence of HIV/AIDS looks lasting … Estimated adult prevalence : 0.45 % ( 2002) 0.34% (2007) Prevalence among pregnant women of 15‐24 years : 0.86 % ( 2004) 0.49% (2007) Proportion of people aged 15‐49 having correct awareness about HIV/AIDS : 17.6 % ( 2001 ) 29.3 % ( 2006) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 44

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GOAL-6 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO) Trend reversal in prevalence of HIV/AIDS looks lasting … Condom use as percentage of all contraceptive methods is low, particularly in rural areas (3.3% in 2005‐06 ) Condom use is however, quite prevalent (71% in 2005‐06) among non regular sex partners Total number of females living with HIV/AIDS : 1.07 million (2002) 0.95 million (2007 ) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 45

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Prevalence of Malaria and TB moves to a halt … Incidence of the Malaria : 1.74 % ( 2005) 1.52 % (Sept . 2009) In the malaria prone states like the North East States, Gujarat, Karnataka , Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa , Rajasthan, Tripura and West Bengal, the number of deaths of malaria patients has consistently declined . GOAL-6 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 46

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Prevalence of Malaria and TB moves to a halt … The prevalence of TB per 100,000 population : 586 (1990) 283 (2007) T he case detection rate under DOTS for new smear positive cases has improved from near 1% in 1997 to 68% in 2007, which is just short of 70% ‐ the desired level prescribed under DOTS The treatment success rate has remained steady at 86 %‐87 % level during the last five years GOAL-6 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 47

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‘ Take care of earth and it will take care of you .’ 48

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ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY TARGETS INDICATORS 7.A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources 7.1 Proportion of land area covered by forest 7.2 CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP) 7.3 Consumption of ozone-depleting substances 7.4 Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits 7.5 Proportion of total water resources used GOAL- 7 49

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ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY TARGETS INDICATORS 7.B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss 7.6 Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected 7.7 Proportion of species threatened with extinction GOAL- 7 50

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ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY TARGETS INDICATORS 7.C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation 7.8 Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source 7.9 Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility GOAL- 7 51

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ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY TARGETS INDICATORS 7.D: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers 7.10 Proportion of urban population living in slums GOAL- 7 52

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MDGs REPORT 2010 ( world scenario) The rate of deforestation shows sign of decreasing, but is still alarmingly high 53

About biodiversity…: 

MDGs REPORT 2010 (world scenario) The unparalleled success of the Montreal Protocol shows that action on climate change is within our grasp About biodiversity… The world has missed the 2010 target for biodiversity conservation, with potentially grave consequences The number of species facing extinction is growing by the day, especially in developing countries About safe drinking water & sanitation … T he world is on track to meet the drinking water target, though much remains to be done in some regions With half the population of developing regions without sanitation, the 2015 target appears to be out of reach 54

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Environmental measures covered up much of losses … India’s forest cover has increased by 0.03% ( 728 sq.km) of the country’s geographical area : 20.99% (2005) 21.02% (2007 ) There was a significant loss of forest in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands because of the Tsunami in 2004 Most of the major forest losing states namely Arunachal Pradesh , Assam, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka , Madhya Pradesh and Manipur had much lesser loss of forest during 2005‐07 as compared to the earlier 3 years GOAL-7 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 55

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Environmental measures covered up much of losses … The coverage of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries (protected areas) in India has increased from 4.74% in 2006 to 4.83 % in 2009 of the country’s geographical area. The per capita emission of carbon dioxide was 1.31 metric tonne in 2006, which is still much lower than that in some of advanced countries .. GOAL-7 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 56

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Access to safe drinking water tends to reach all … The overall proportion of households having access to improved water sources : 68.2 % ( 1992‐93) 84.4 % (2007‐08) The urban coverage has increased to 95% from 87.6% during the same period . The growth in rural coverage is not less significant, being about 19% 61 % ( 1992‐93) 79.6% (2007-08) GOAL-7 PROGRESS ( INDIAN SCENARIO ) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 57

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Sanitation facility still eludes half the population … The proportion of households without any toilet facility : 70 % (1992‐93) 51 % ( 2007‐08) The rural‐urban gap in access/use of sanitation facility continues to be very high 66 % of rural households do not have toilet facilities against 19% of urban households(2007‐08) The target is to reduce the proportion of the household having no access to improved sanitation to 38% by 2015 GOAL-7 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 58

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‘The world’s leader won’t act unless they hear enough people telling them. And every day they fail to act thousand’s of people die because they can’t afford the basics of survival.’ 59

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DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT TARGETS INDICATORS 8.A: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction - both nationally and internationally Official development assistance (ODA) 8.1 Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as percentage of OECD/DAC (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/ Development Assistance Committee) donors' gross national income 8.2 Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation) 8.3 Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untied GOAL- 8 60

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DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT TARGETS INDICATORS 8.B: Address the special needs of the least developed countries Includes: tariff and quota free access for the least developed countries' exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction 8.4 ODA received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their gross national incomes 8.5 ODA received in small island developing States as a proportion of their gross national incomes GOAL- 8 61

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DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT TARGETS INDICATORS 8.C : Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly) Market access 8.6 Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and least developed countries, admitted free of duty 8.7 Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries 8.8 Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their gross domestic product 8.9 Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity GOAL- 8 62

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DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT TARGETS INDICATORS 8.D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term Debt sustainability 8.10 Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC (heavily indebted poor countries) decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) 8.11 Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI Initiatives 8.12 Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services GOAL- 8 63

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DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT TARGETS INDICATORS 8.E: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries 8.13 Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis 8.F: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications 8.14 Telephone lines per 100 population 8.15 Cellular subscribers per 100 population 8.16 Internet users per 100 population GOAL- 8 64

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MDGs REPORT 2010 ( world scenario) Growth in mobile telephony remains strongest in the developing world, where, by end-2009, mobile penetration had passed the 50 per cent mark ( Information & Communication Technology partnership ) Aid remains well below the United Nations target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income for most donors. In 2009, the only countries to reach or exceed the target were Denmark, Luxembourg , the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. The largest donors by volume in 2009 were the United States, followed by France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Japan . 65

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MDGs REPORT 2010 ( world scenario) In 2009, net disbursements of official development assistance (ODA ) amounted to $119.6 billion (0.31%) of the combined national income of developed countries US is contributing only 0.22 per cent of GNI Least developed countries benefit most from tariff reductions, especially on their agricultural products Access to the World Wide Web is still closed to the majority of the world’s people 66

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Technology partnership drives connectivity fast … The tele -density per hundred population : 0.67 (1991) 36.98 ( March 2009) The tele -density has more than doubled in the last two years The total number of telephones, both fixed and wireless : 22.8 million ( 1999 ) 467.7 million ( March 2009) GOAL-8 PROGRESS ( INDIAN SCENARIO) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 67

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Technology partnership drives connectivity fast … The number of internet subscribers 0.21 million ( 1999) 13.54 million ( 2009) The Govt. of India is contemplating of raising internet subscriber base to 100 million by 2014 and is planning to provide internet connectivity to all villages in the country by that time GOAL-8 PROGRESS ( INDIAN SCENARIO) Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009 68

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Many people throughout the developed world are unaware of the plight of billions in developing countries. Television and other media typically do not report on these issues. It is not “news,” the information is depressing, and people will not pay attention. Diffusion of responsibility: It is someone else’s problem. Developed countries have their own issues; why should they help other countries when plenty of people in their own land live in poverty? Corrupt leaders in many developing countries have squandered or diverted foreign aid leaving developed countries feeling angry and fed up. Problems beget more problems: Witness Sub-Saharan Africa. Barriers towards Achieving the Millennium Development Goals 69

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Keeping the promise Building on successes The economic growth momentum in developing regions remains strong learning from the many successes of even the most challenged countries Bridging the gaps L ocal government officials should put the issue of the Millennium Development Goals at the forefront of their attention and legislative work Proper implementation of programs and policies How MDGs can be achieved ? 70

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CURRENT POLICIES OF INDIA 71

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Introduction of NREGA guaranteed 100 days of employment per household every year at the minimum wage level. The human rights approach to policy is a developmental step to improving the lives of millions, however problem of i mplementation have meant the average employment is still much less than the 100 day baseline. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 72

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Announced in the 2008/09 budget and extended in the 2009/10 budget, this one time bank waiver of nearly Rs . 71,000 crore to an estimated 40 million farmers aimed to resolve the issue of agrarian debt . T he act failed to address the private debts of farmers as those were difficult to assess. However, it was announced in the 2009/10 budget that in Maharashtra, a state badly affected, a task force has been set up to look into the issue Agricultural debt waiver and debt relief scheme ( 2008) 73

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The Right of children to Free and Compulsory Education Act has come into force from 1 st April 2010 Provides for free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years All private schools shall be required to enroll children from weaker sections in their incoming class to the extent of 25% of their enrolment, by simple random selection Right To Education Act 2009 74

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In India, public spending in the year 2009/10 stood just 2% of GDP. This means there is major deficiency in the amount of money being paid into primary school education This is one of the leading causes as to why public schools are suffering from high rates of teacher absenteeism, lack of resources and basic infrastructure 12 crore children from government schools ranging from class 1-5 are covered by the Mid-day Meal scheme Public spending on education 75

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The act defines domestic violence to incorporate sexual, physical, economical and social abuse As domestic violence typically takes place behind closed doors, the implementation of the act is difficult, however it should be recommended for being an incremental step in ending discrimination Domestic Violence Act 2005 76

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Under the IMNCI, baseline workers are trained in holistic management of measles, malaria, pneumonia, diarrhoea and Malnutrition From Nov 2009 IMNCI has been shifted to F-IMNCI : with added component of asphyxia management & care of sick born at facility level Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI) 77

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Universal access to public health services Women’s health Child health Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Immunization Nutrition National Rural Health Mission (NRHM ) 78

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Phase III of the NACP was implemented in 2007-08 and will run for five years: it aims to halt and reverse the HIV epidemic during its time frame The National and State Action Plans for Adolescence Education, aims to deliver to Grade IX and above: information of growing up, HIV/AIDS, life skills and extracurricular activities National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) 79

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Launched in June 2008 Emphasizes the need for sustainable development through clean energy technology, however it does not set targets for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions India’s stance is that developed countries should support developing countries should fulfill their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC) 80

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Accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals simply… “ Provides every individual with the capacity to fulfill, their greatest potential” -Dr. Manmohan Singh …an accomplishment that is simply a human right, and hardly a lofty goal. 81

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“ We must not fail the billions who look to the international community to fulfill the promise of the Millennium Declaration for a better world. Let us keep the promise.” -UN Secretary- General Ban Ki-moon 82

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The Millennium Development Goals Report 2010 UNITED NATIONS NEW YORK, 2010 United Nations Economic and Social Council. 2008. Report of the Secretary-General on the indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals. http :// www.un.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws.asp?m=A/RES/60/1 New and Revised MDG Targets and Indicators According to the revised MDG framework, effective 15 January 2008 MDG Government of India Report 2009 Fact Sheets on MDGs in South Asia. www.mdgasiapacific.org References 83

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