The Case for a Moratorium on Shale Gas Drilling in PA v6

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Presentation Description

An organic farmer in western Pennsylvania assembles the case for a moratorium on unconventional drilling for natural gas in the Marcellus Shale. He offers a deeply researched and deeply personal appeal to fellow citizens to understand the risks of this type of drilling and to advocate for a halt to it until it is known that it cannot cause irreparable harm to the environment and public health.

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Marcellus Shale Gas Drilling in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania The Case for a Moratorium

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Presented by: http://www.pacwa.org/

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Lucinda Hart- González , PhD March 31, 1950 - November 14, 2011

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This presentation borrows heavily from the work of many people, both those in favor of and those opposed to unconventional drilling for natural gas. We have done our best to document the sources of information. We are a small grassroots group seeking a moratorium on the drilling. We are not copyright experts , so if we have used or misused information under copyright we are most happy to correct such errors. Any person or anyone representing any corporate body whose work is utilized in this presentation is welcome to write the principal author Dr. J. Stephen Cleghorn at the email address included on the final slide and ask that their information either be altered or removed.

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We begin with two words: “Experimentation” and “Sacrifice”

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“(The natural gas) industry needs to practice" and there will need to be some " necessary sacrifice ” for Pennsylvanians. Dr. Terry Engelder, Penn State Univ., talking at LaPorte, PA – 1/14/11 “Industrial experiments usually take place in contained buildings, not out in the midst of our communities. The industry plan so far is Fire, Ready, Aim.” Dr. Anthony Ingraffea, Cornell Univ., talking at LaPorte, PA – 1/14/11 http://shaleshockmedia.org/2011/01/30/1-intro-cumulative-environmental-effects-of-gas-drilling/

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The Marcellus Shale in PA Where the “experiment” and Pennsylvanian’s “necessary sacrifice” will take place over the next 50 years

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Two very different visions of Pennsylvania's future are competing for our attention . What are they? Image at http://www.pxleyes.com/photoshop-picture/4b524a06542a7/BATTLE.html

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The gas industry promotes these B enefits of Drilling Environmental – A proven practice, been doing it for 60 years Fewer well pads, less surface impact Minimal, temporary impact on quality of life Safe for our environment over the long term Energy – Natural gas burns cleaner than other fuels A bridge to renewable energy sources Meets US Energy needs, reduces imports Economic – Lots of jobs Billions in leasing and royalties for some Spurring of other businesses, lifting all boats

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However… …Many expert voices see something very different in Pennsylvania’s future.

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Industrial development of huge areas, heavy equipment going 24/7/365. Per Dr. Terry Engelder, PSU estimate of square miles to be developed: http://www.geosc.psu.edu/~jte2/references/link155.pdf 50% of PA’s land mass (22,835 square miles) developed for gas extraction over the next 50 years. The Facts of Fracking – Dr. Anthony Ingraffea , Cornell University www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_05A3Rr4t0

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“I am afraid for the future of this state. It is hanging in the balance.” John Quigley, former Secretary, PA Department of Conservation and Natural Resources "The cumulative impacts of Marcellus development will dwarf all of the impacts on Pennsylvania of timbering and oil and coal combined .”

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Conventional Drilling for Gas vs. Unconventional Drilling What’s the difference?

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http://mdsenergy.net/what.php WHAT IS A MARCELLUS WELL? Not your father’s gas well… http://www.srbc.net/programs/docs/ProjectReviewMarcellusShale%28NEW%29%281_2010%29.pdf

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UNCONVENTIONAL WELLS (from tight shales in narrow seams far below the surface) H igh V olume S lickwater F rac k ing from L ong L aterals HVSFLL The Facts of Fracking – Dr. Anthony Ingraffea , Cornell University http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_05A3Rr4t0

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The Four New Technologies of HVSFLL The Facts of Fracking – Dr. Anthony Ingraffea , Cornell University http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_05A3Rr4t0 High Fluid Volume in fracking to release gas from existing and newly produced fractures “ Slickwater ” to maintain pressure over long distances to make fracking possible Directional or horizontal drilling into thin shale Multi-Well Pads to access all the gas, preferably over an entire square mile area

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HV SF LL -- High Volume Large amounts of water (2-9 Million gallons per well bore), mixed with tons of sand and chemicals Pressures up to 15,000 psi Fracture (“frack”) the shale and create cracks for gas to flow.

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HV SF LL -- S lickwater F racking “Lubricating” the water with chemicals : Friction reducer --Make water travel far & fast Biocide -- Kills subsurface life to prevent slime Surfactant -- Prevent clogging Scale inhibitor -- Prevent pipe coating Rust inhibitor -- Prevent corrosion Includes cancer-causing agents & endocrine disruptors - some harmful enough to contaminate entire aquifers at very low levels The Facts of Fracking – Dr. Anthony Ingraffea & Dr. Theo Colburn, TEDX, http://www.marcellus-shale.us/pdf/Frac-Fluids-Pa.pdf http://www.csmonitor.com/Environment/2011/0417/New-warning-of-poisonous-chemicals-in-natural-gas-hydrofracking

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http://naturalgasforeurope.com/diagram-how-horizontal-drilling-and-hydraulic-fracturing-works.htm Hydraulic fracturing – Used in both conventional and unconventional wells but very different volumes, area, and direction .

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Industry simulation of fracking Chesapeake Energy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=73mv-Wl5cgg

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A Real Life View of Fracking See and hear on YouTube for “Frac Job” by 96stroke http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RMBFXzluFaY&feature=related

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HVSF LL -- L ong L aterals Directional/Horizontal bores through the shale can extend more than a mile. Long Laterals via Directional Drilling from Multi-well Pads

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Directional Drilling Vertical (Conventional) vs. Horizontal (Unconventional) ( More extensive hydraulic fracking in horizontal drilling )

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Multi-Well Pads

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Copyright WVSORO http://www.wvsoro.org/resources/industrialization_of_rural_wv/slide_02.html

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Not just gas wells, but a gas field must be built. What else will be in that gas field? http://www.dcppartners.com/Company/Pages/MidstreamIndustryOverview.aspx

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Compressor Stations Pipelines Wetzel County Action Group http://wcag-wv.org http://www.choosenepa.com/2010/01/22/marcellus-shale-opportunities-and-challenges-for-pennsylvania/

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“Midstream” facilities for processing gas into marketable products http://www.marcellus-shale.us/Marcellus-gas-facilities.htm

Waste Disposal:

Waste Disposal http://www.efdsystems.org/Portals/25/Hydraulic%20Fracturing%20BMPs%20White%20Paper.pdf

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And LOTS of Trucks

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AFTER FRACKING– RECLAMATION (may take many years to “finish” a well and get to reclamation) http://marcelluscoalition.org/about/ Jack Ossont, Courtesy of Dr. Tony Ingraffea Cornell University Cooperative Extension http://cce.cornell.edu/EnergyClimateChange /NaturalGasDev/Documents/PDFs/CCE_NatGas _Roadshow1a_2010_Final_.pdf “The size of a 2-car garage” ??? Industry says it’s… We’ll see.

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What will living in a 22,835 square mile Pennsylvania gas field be like?

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It will be everywhere, at a density of development never before seen in the state. over half the land mass of Pennsylvania

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DENSITY (“Ideal”) Experts such as Dr. Engelder, PSU and industry predict 1 pad per square mile (with each pad having 8 wells that frack into 80 acres each), with roads and pipelines going to each pad . Dr. Terry Engelder in Fort Worth Basin Oil & Gas article, August 2009

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What would ideal spacing look like in order to get to all the shale under the 22,835 square miles* in PA that experts expect to be drilled? * Dr. Terry Engelder. Fort Worth Basin Oil & Gas Magazine August 2009 edition.

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Ideal spacing — Per Chesapeake Energy proposal In New York State Chesapeake Energy Fewest well pads Some in residential areas

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http://www.nature.org/media/pa/tnc_energy_analysis.pdf - page 15

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Density: REALITY The gas industry sells that spacing ideal as “lower impact” on surface. But in reality, it will be two to three times more pads per square mile than the ideal because of physical and legal surface constraints.

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REALITY: Density of Marcellus development, so far, in southwest PA near Hickory & Houston. 40 sq mi, 82 well pads. Ideal would be 40 pads. Not done drilling in this area, yet already TWICE the ideal density.

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With that as background let’s look one-at-a-time at the Promoted Benefits of Drilling vs. Known & Unknown Risks

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The gas industry promotes these: B enefits of Drilling Environmental – A safe practice, been doing it for 60 years Fewer well pads, less surface impact Minimal, temporary impact on quality of life Safe for our environment over the long term Energy – Natural gas burns cleaner than other fuels A bridge to renewable energy sources Meets US Energy needs, reduces imports Economic – Lots of jobs Billions in leasing and royalties for some Spurring of other businesses, lifting all boats

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The energy lobby says: “Hydraulic fracturing is not new.” “Fracking” for more than 60 years. “More than a million wells drilled using hydraulic fracturing ” A proven, safe technology http://www.energyindustryphotos.com/what_is_hydraulic_fracturing.htm

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Scientists and Government Officials note the following: “Fracking” is not HVSFLL. Vertical Drilling (“conventional” drilling) has been fracking since the 1940s. Most of those million fracked wells are verticals. Only ≈ 30,000 are HVSFLL in the four largest U.S. shale plays* *Email communication with PSU Marcellus Center for Outreach and Research

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Unconventional drilling – 4 technologies first developed and combined ( HVSFLL) 20 years ago. Dr. Anthony Ingraffea of Cornell University’s School of Civil & Environmental Engineering “The very first (PA) Marcellus gas well was drilled in 2005.” – John Hanger DEP Secretary John Hanger offers parting words | Pittsburgh Business Times http://www.bizjournals.com/pittsburgh/blog/energy/2011/01/dep-hanger-offers-parting-words.html

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THIS: FRACTURING 22,835 SQUARE MILES OF SHALE UNDER PENNSYLVANIA, ALL OF IT , IF POSSIBLE. THIS: WILL NOT HAVE THE SAME IMPACT AS

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vMlRc0CSCc See also Shale Gas 101: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AW2qGewjb7k One-half of the land area of Pennsylvania fractured from below.

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“Been doing it for sixty years…” a claim simply not true. An entirely new combination of technologies entailing many known risks and many risks not known or very poorly understood at this time.

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The Gas Industry Promotes: B enefits of Drilling Environmental – A safe practice, been doing it for 60 years Fewer well pads, less surface impact Minimal, temporary impact on quality of life Safe for our environment over the long term Energy – Natural gas burns cleaner than other fuels A bridge to renewable energy sources Meets US Energy needs, reduces imports Economic – Lots of jobs Billions in leasing and royalties for some Spurring of other businesses, lifting all boats

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Gas Industry Claim: “Increasing our energy while decreasing our impact” at the surface. www.energytomorrow.org

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One Marcellus well pad during drilling and fracking, plus roads and other infrastructure, will be about 8.8 acres, 26 times larger than the pad needed to drill a conventional vertical gas well. One Marcellus “production” pad - after drilling completed is 1/3 acre, about 22 times larger than the pad left behind from a conventional vertical well. However… http://insideclimatenews.org/news/20110421/natural-gas-fracking-environmental-footprint-marcellus-shale-pennsylvania-forests?page=2 Source for 8.8 acres figure.

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At the surface Marcellus well pads will require 72% more land during the construction and 52% more land after reclamation than all 350,000 conventional shallow wells ever drilled in PA since 1859. (not including land required for all other gas field infrastructure: compressor stations and mid-stream facilities) Figures developed by Dr. Cleghorn are based on Engelder projections of pads from: http://fwbog.com/upload/file/EngelderlayoutLowRes.pdf and estimated number of shallow wells from: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/38380210/ns/us_news-life/

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The Gas Industry Promotes: B enefits of Drilling Environmental – A safe practice, been doing it for 60 years Fewer well pads, less surface impact Minimal, temporary impact on quality of life Safe for our environment over the long term Energy – Natural gas burns cleaner than other fuels A bridge to renewable energy sources Meets US Energy needs, reduces imports Economic – Lots of jobs Billions in leasing and royalties for some Spurring of other businesses, lifting all boats

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The truth: well pads (and their trucks, noise, bright lights, waste water & air pollution) may claim 5-10 acres of land for up to 30 years. PA State Law defines the “finish” of a well vaguely, and only after the “finish” of a well must the site be reclaimed to near its original look. Multiple wells per pad means the drill rigs can return many times over the years to drill, frack and re-frack wells.

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What is “minimal” or “temporary” about the following? And…

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Developing 50% of PA’s land mass For the next 50 Years

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The Gas Industry Promotes: B enefits of Drilling Environmental – A safe practice, been doing it for 60 years Fewer well pads, less surface impact Minimal, temporary impact on quality of life Safe for our environment over the long term Energy – Natural gas burns cleaner than other fuels A bridge to renewable energy sources Meets US Energy needs, reduces imports Economic – Lots of jobs Billions in leasing and royalties for some Spurring of other businesses, lifting all boats

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Gas Industry Claim Hydraulic fracturing “employed over one million times without a single incidence of drinking water contamination .” - Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA) http://www.marcellusfacts.com/pdf/HydraulicFracturingQ&A.pdf

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But that claim has been revealed as false http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/11215/1164864-100.stm?cmpid=latest.xml

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“ EPA’s long-ignored 1987 report found that fracturing fluid from a shale gas well more than 4,000 feet deep had contaminated well water…(and) was ‘illustrative’ of the types of pollution associated with natural gas and oil drilling . “Cracks in the Façade” report by Environmental Working Group http://static.ewg.org/reports/2011/fracking/cracks_in_the_facade.pdf

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“A former EPA official who worked on the 1987 report…said that the agency was aware of other cases of groundwater pollution involving hydraulic fracturing but did not include them in the report because the details were sealed under confidential legal settlements reached between affected property owners and energy companies.” “Cracks in the Façade” report by Environmental Working Group http://static.ewg.org/reports/2011/fracking/cracks_in_the_facade.pdf

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Fluid Migration Government studies have found that oil and natural gas waste fluids injected underground can migrate up old oil and natural gas wells. Breakout into Aquifer These fluids can break into aquifers near the surface if the old wells have deteriorating casings, lack cement plugs or contain cracked cement. “Cracks in the Façade” report by Environmental Working Group http://static.ewg.org/reports/2011/fracking/cracks_in_the_facade.pdf

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“Wells drilled deep into an aquifer in Pavillion, Wyo. Contain high levels of cancer-causing compounds and at least one chemical commonly used in hydraulic fracturing…” More proof of water contamination by fracking chemicals

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Bradford County, PA: 81 compromised wells

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The Marcellus Shale Coalition calls it “this environmentally-proven production” MCS Issue Alert, 1-13-2011, http://marcelluscoalition.org/2011/01/what-are-you-waiting-for-new-york/

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But Range Resources reports to the Security and Exchange Commission and to its investors— “ As we begin to drill in deeper horizons and in more geologically complex areas, we could experience a greater increase in operating and financial risks due to inherent higher reservoir pressures and unknown downhole risk exposures .” Range Resources, Prospectus 2006 to SEC, p. S-13 (5/18/06)

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“Geologic discontinuities such as fractures and faults can dominate fracture geometry in a way that makes predicting hydraulic fracture behavior difficult ." Schlumberger's publication “Oilfield Review,” Winter 2005/2006

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HVSFLL is so new that “ They’re still inventing it. It’s still an industrial process that has yet to reach a steady-state operating procedure , because every well is going to be different, every formation is going to be different .” (Dr. Anthony Ingraffea, Cornell University School of Civil & Environmental Engineering)

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“I don’t think the actual optimum technology set for producing shale gas has yet been defined.” “At the moment, we’re doing it by brute force and ignorance.” - Andrew Gould, CEO of oil services giant Schlumberger http://m.bnet.com/blog/clean-energy/schlumberger-smith-deal-a-11b-bet-on-hard-to-reach-oil-and-gas/1239

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Safe for our environment over the long term? The plain truth is we do not know. “The Marcellus Shale is alive . It is more like a coral reef than it is an inert bunch of rock. We are destroying a living ecosystem without any real knowledge of what role it might play in the larger functioning of the biosphere .” Sandra Steingraber, Ph.D. Distinguished Scholar in Residence Department of Environmental Studies Ithaca College From her talk at Fracking the Finger Lakes Sept 15,2011 in Hammondsport NY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=euRmu3h_Ubk

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“Deep geological strata, including shale formations, are living ecosystems . They house complex communities of relic organisms that biologists collectively call deep life . Researchers now believe that, by weight, more than half of all life on Earth likely lies within deep geological strata. Indeed, these microbes play an important role in the formation of rock itself and in the cycling of elements in the biosphere . It is possible that deep life organisms thereby contribute to climate stability through pathways that we have not yet elucidated.” - Dr. Sandra Steingraber

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Hydraulic fracturing for methane gas threatens to systematically destroy an ecosystem we do not yet understand .

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“more like a coral reef than it is an inert bunch of rock.” – Dr. Sandra Steingraber

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How can systematically fracturing the Marcellus Shale and injecting life-killing chemicals into it, on purpose, be considered as “safe for our environment over the long term”?

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Risks to public health from a compromised environment

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The critical environmental nexus: QUALITY OF LIFE DEPENDS ON HEALTH AND SAFETY DEPENDS ON CLEAN AIR & CLEAN WATER DEPENDS ON OUR ENVIRONMENT

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RISKS: KNOWN AND UNKNOWN http://www.mvs.usace.army.mil/eng-con/expertise/fusrap-health.html#Exposure%20Pathways

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What are the RISKS of Drilling for Gas in the Marcellus Shale? Environmental Impacts Water Air Health – Human, Livestock, Crops

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Contamination of Water Risks from below Migration (from new and old boreholes; from faulty casing; from the shale; over the short term and the long term) Risks from above Leaks / Spills (from frack ponds, pipes) Material handling (truck transport) Violations (well pads, trucks) Frack Water Disposal Migration from spills/leaks

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Migration — The movement of gas or fluid through fissures and porous openings in the rock, whether pre-existing or caused by drilling. Dimock , PA well water contamination - by methane from shale & toxic chemicals - was from faulty casing while drilling. Result - Migration .

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http://thetimes-tribune.com/news/epa-dimock-water-supplies-merit-further-investigation-1.1251334#ixzz1i7mmpVhb Dimock, PA: A Migration Story Not Finished Yet

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http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/05/02/1100682108.full.pdf+html Duke University Peer-Reviewed Research 51 of 60 wells tested within 3,000 feet of wells were contaminated

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Duke University Study: Concentrations of methane were 17 times higher in those drinking water wells within one kilometer (about 3,000 feet) of an active natural gas well than those farther away. Drinking water wells must be properly ventilated to reduce the risk of explosion. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=fracking-for-natural-gas-pollutes-water-wells&print=true

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In Bradford Township (McKean County, PA) two homes exploded, one in December 2010 and one in February 2011, after methane built up in the homes. Methane migration from nearby drilling is suspected. http://www2.nbc4i.com/m/news/2011/may/12/3/thursday-6-pm-nbc4-investigates-proposed-drilling--ar-482322/

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The Big Unanswered Question CAN chemical-laced drilling fluids, as well as toxic & radioactive components of the shale itself, migrate upwards into groundwater over time? Six views from experts…

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1. “It cannot happen.” Dr. Terry Engelder Geologist, Penn State University http://www.jlcny.org/site/attachments/article/293/Groudwater%20Protection%20Council%20Presentation%20by%20Terry%20Engelder.pdf

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2. “Improbable but not impossible.” Dr. Anthony Ingraffea, Cornell University http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_05A3Rr4t0

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Existing connections to deeper strata can transmit pressurized fluids … upward to the vicinity of the fresh water aquifer… New York City Department of Environmental Protection, Final Impact Assessment Report by Hazen and Sawyer, Environmental Engineers and Scientists. p.40 http://www.cwconline.org/news/final%20hazn%20sawyr%20report-on-drilling.pdf

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The steel and concrete of closed gas wells will degrade over time, providing “conduits” for gas under extreme pressure from below to “become manifest on the surface Dr. Marc Durand, Professor of Applied Geology, University of Quebec at Montreal http://www.facebook.com/notes/shale-gas-info/conventional-gas-vs-hydrofracturing-gas-shale/189332287769369

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4. (Continued) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AW2qGewjb7k&feature=mfu_in_order&list=UL Thousands of feet of protective rock between all who live on the surface and the shale (with its toxic hydrocarbons, naturally occurring radioactive materials, and the tons of hazardous chemicals injected into it) will be compromised for generations to come by hundreds of thousands of permeable well bores throughout PA. “Even perfectly sealed, the (wellbore) has a permeability many thousands of times greater than the rock in which it was drilled .”

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5. A 2004 EPA study noted that hydraulic fracturing fluids “ migrated unpredictably -- through different rock layers , and to greater distances than previously thought.” http://www.propublica.org/article/buried-secrets-is-natural-gas-drilling-endangering-us-water-supplies-1113 A 2007 EPA study in West Virginia found that fracturing fluids had contaminated groundwater and private water wells. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/11215/1164864-100.stm?cmpid=latest.xml

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6. Migration modeling Computer modeling shows that theoretically the gas & fluids can rise thousands of feet . (perhaps to enter old well bores or faults and fractures extending to the surface) Dr. Michel C. Boufadel, Hydrology Temple University http://mediasite.cidde.pitt.edu/mediasite/Viewer/?peid=7948d41114454ab2ae4d35c1e0f356b7

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“ There’s no such thing as a perfect well seal. Occasionally sooner, often later, well seals can and do fail, period. Hydraulic fracturing as it’s practiced today will contaminate our aquifers . Not might contaminate our aquifers. Hydraulic fracturing will contaminate New York’s aquifers. If you were looking for a way to poison the drinking water supply here in the Northeast you couldn’t find a more chillingly effective and thorough method of doing so than with hydraulic fracturing. ” - Paul Hetzler http://www.watertowndailytimes.com/article/20111213/OPINION02/712139975

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Other risks from below : what gets mobilized down there and what can come up with the “flowback” or “produced” water? http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=marcellus-shale-natural-gas-drilling-radioactive-wastewater

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'Fracking' Mobilizes Uranium in Marcellus Shale, UB Research Finds University of Buffalo Press Release (10/25/2010) “(Fracking) causes uranium that is naturally trapped inside Marcellus shale to be released” http://www.buffalo.edu/news/11885

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Another RISK FROM BELOW Gas industry is exempt from federal Safe Drinking Water Act, and the industry is fighting hard to keep it that way Why is this important? http://www.ima-na.org/Hydraulic-Fracturing-Exclusion-from-the-Safe-Drinking-Water-Act http://www.energyindepth.org/2010/08/house-call-on-the-frac-act/

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“The oil and gas industry is the only industry in America allowed to inject hazardous materials – unchecked – directly into, or adjacent to, underground drinking water supplies.” Wes Wilson, EPA retired http://www.spectraenergywatch.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/timeline-e28093-sdwa.pdf

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“Not a problem,” says the gas industry’s lobby Energy in Depth: only about 0.49% of the fracking fluid is chemicals . http://www.energyindepth.org/tag/petroleum-distillates/

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But 0.49% of a typical hydraulic fracturing job is still a lot. 0.49% = 90 tons of chemicals in a typical 4 million gallon fracturing job. http://www.powderriverbasin.org/assets/Uploads/files/cbm-publications/hydraulic-fracturing-facts-2010.pdf http://www.chk.com/Media/Educational-Library/Fact-Sheets/Marcellus/Marcellus_Water_Use_Fact_Sheet.pdf

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LET’S DO THE MATH… If 90% of drilling fluids stay in ground,* a typical four million gallon frack job will leave 81 tons of chemicals in the ground, per well bore * Email communication from Marcellus Center for Outreach and Research, Penn State University

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Doing the math: Each square mile of shale, assuming 8 wells drilled at 80-acre spacing, will have 648 tons of chemicals injected into and staying in the shale. That’s one ton per acre of chemicals left below. 22,835 square miles in PA expected to be drilled. Thus: the gas industry over 50 years will place 14.8 Million tons of chemicals, many of them toxic,* under half of Pennsylvania. * http://www.marcellus-shale.us/pdf/Frac-Fluids-Pa.pdf http://www.csmonitor.com/Environment/2011/0417/New-warning-of-poisonous-chemicals-in-natural-gas-hydrofracking

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Many chemicals used are toxic to humans in small quantities. Some like biocides kill everything . Then there are the petroleum distillates . Industry states that about 18% of these chemicals are petroleum distillates . That comes to about 14.5 tons of petroleum distillates per well. (.18 x 81 tons per well = 14.5 tons) Still doing the math on risk from below:

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Industry says “Not to worry” about petroleum distillates . They claim that the “petroleum distillates” used to “slick” the water are not much different than what we use in make-up remover, laxatives and candy. http://www.energyindepth.org/tag/petroleum-distillates/

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But according to the Environmental Working Group “ Petroleum distillates are likely to contain all of the so-called BTEX chemicals – benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. The EPA has concluded that all of these substances are toxic in water at very low levels .” http://www.ewg.org/EWG_Warns_of_Drilling_Threat_to_NYC_Drinking_Water

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Environmental Working Group (cont.) If just 6,400 gallons of petroleum distillate were to contaminate a water supply, it would likely take somewhere between 896 million and 119 billion gallons of water to dilute the benzene to EPA’s safe levels . Context: New York State uses 9-10 Billion gallons per day. http://www.ewg.org/EWG_Warns_of_Drilling_Threat_to_NYC_Drinking_Water

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SO WE CONCLUDE : Just two wells will inject enough petroleum distillates to contaminate more than all the water used by New York State in a day. REMEMBER: There will be 8-16 wells per pad, and there will be about 22,835 well pads accessing shale under 50% of the PA land mass.

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That is a lot of “make-up remover, laxatives and candy” lurking underground for generations to come. Will it stay there?

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And this: “Even perfectly sealed, the (wellbore) has a permeability many thousands of times greater than the rock in which it was drilled.” Thousands of feet of protective rock between all water-dependent life on the surface and the toxic shale could be compromised for generations to come by hundreds of thousands of permeable well bores throughout PA.

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Risks from Above Spills and Leaks (from fracwater/ flowback ponds, truck accidents) Violations (by illegal dumping, burying waste) Resulting Migration Frackwater (Waste) Disposal

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http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/27/us/27gas.html?emc=eta1 New York Times Major investigation finds: More than 1.3 billion gallons of waste-water… sent to treatment plants not equipped to remove many of the toxic materials in drilling waste. “contains radioactivity at levels…far higher than…is safe for these treatment plants to handle.”

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Spills Red on liner at back of pond shows overflow spots on that side. Brown in foreground is spill line dead vegetation. Foam is surfactant from frack fluid. Note dead vegetation in foreground. http://www.marcellus-shale.us/impoundments.htm

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http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/11156/1151527-503.stm Like this stream in Moshannon State Forest, contaminated two years ago with chemical pollutants spiked to as much as 200 times safe drinking water standards when a plastic liner of a frac fluid pond failed. Leakage through flowback fluid impoundment liners that can be multiple sheets of plastic held down by rocks or can tear and leak.

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“A deadly swath was carved from the drilling pad to our pond, killing everything. Big old oak trees to tiny peppermint plants that we planted. ” Bradford County http://www.fractracker.org/2011/01/whats-impact-of-one-spill.html Or spills from well drilling pads

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Accidents that can spill toxic waste (Also an emergency preparedness (HAZMAT) issue)

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What becomes of a spill if not remediated ASAP?

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Migration from a spill – a 200 year legacy Spill Year 1 Drinking Water Wells Spill Year 2 Spill Year 7 Spill Year 10 Spill Year 12 Spill Year 18 Spill Year 50 Spill Year 200 http://mediasite.cidde.pitt.edu/mediasite/Viewer/?peid=7948d41114454ab2ae4d35c1e0f356b7

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Violations WELLS (from Jan. 2008 to August 2010) 45 drilling companies 1614 violations 1056 violations with environmental risks On average 1.7 violations every day 1.1 environmental-risk violations every day Pennsylvania Land Trust Association http://conserveland.org/violationsrpt

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PA Data Shows Marcellus Wells 1.5 to 4 Times More Likely to Have Violations than Conventional Wells http://www.fractracker.org/2010/11/pa-data-shows-marcellus-wells-15-to-4.html Marcellus Shale wells clearly have more violations per well than their conventional counterparts, and that among the Marcellus wells, those that were drilled horizontally have more violations associated with them than vertical wells do. …and consequences more serious.

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Violations TRUCKS (3 days in October 2010) 1,100 trucks inspected 208 trucks removed from service 140 trucks removed were wastewater trucks 45 drivers removed “Leaking” tanks was a common violation 41 percent of inspections on Marcellus shale trucks and truckers resulted in violations that took them off the road . The trucking industry average is 23 percent http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/s_703110.html

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The Human Risk : Moving Too Fast http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/12008/1202172-503-0.stm

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Whether from below Or from the surface

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Growing # of reports of water contamination http://www.propublica.org/article/epa-chemicals-found-in-wyo.-drinking-water-might-be-from-fracking-825 We believe that hundreds and more likely thousands of property owners have already had the water beneath their surface essentially ruined as a result of nearby drilling and fracking in the Barnett Shale." –TX lawsuit charges http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/amall/two_more_cases_of_drinking_wat.html

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More than 1,000 cases of contaminated water reported from shale drilling areas around the country. http://www.propublica.org/article/buried-secrets-is-natural-gas-drilling-endangering-us-water-supplies-1113

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The common story: My well was fine before the gas well went in. I have lived here many years. Water was fine. Then my water went bad after the well went in. Are these thousands of cases best explained as coincidence or preponderance of the evidence?

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CONCLUSIONS on Water Contamination Q: WILL GROUNDWATER BE CONTAMINATED FROM SURFACE-LEVEL EVENTS? A: YES. “How often?” and “Where” are points of contention and risk analysis not yet done. Q: WILL GROUNDWATER BE CONTAMINATED FROM HVSFLL OF DEEP SHALE FORMATIONS? A: YES, but... Not enough known. IT’S A GAMBLE.

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What about Air Quality ? Yes, we need clean water. But we also need clean air. What are the risks?

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There is this.

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And this. About 1,500 truck trips for each Marcellus well http://www.lockhaven.com/page/content.detail/id/525487/Marcellus-Shale--Rebuilding-our-workforce-and-infrastructure.html?nav=5015

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Flaring a Well Flares emit a host of air pollutants. People living near flaring report headaches and nausea. Researchers have measured more than 60 air pollutants downwind of natural gas flares . http://www.earthworksaction.org/airpollutionsources.cfm#FLARING

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Air pollution beyond trucks: Fugitive Emissions Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) seen escaping through use of an infrared camera

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“A frack pond … will offgas its organic compounds into the air.” Little data available, research needed Dr. Conrad “Dan” Volz, formerly with University of Pittsburgh Center for Healthy Environment and Communities Leaks and Off-Gassing of VOCs

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http://www.marcellus-shale.us/impoundments.htm

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Air pollution in Dallas-Fort Worth area Barnett Shale gas drilling = All traffic SMU 2009 study http://www.marcellus-shale.us/Marcellus-air-quality.htm http://www.edf.org/documents/9235_Barnett_Shale_Report.pdf

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http://wilderness.org/content/la-style-pollution-greater-yellowstone Sublette County, WY (Winter 2010-2011): ground level ozone layers “equal to those experienced on bad air pollution days in the summer in Los Angeles.”

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Health Problems Being Reported by People Living in Natural Gas Development Areas Water+Air=Health

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Health Problems Reported by People Living Near Gas Wells (water & air problems) Loss of smell and taste Nosebleeds Onset of asthma Shortness of breath Swelling Skin rashes and lesions Chemical sensitivities Severe headaches Nausea Vomiting “Same stories, different people, thousands of miles apart.” Abraham Lustgarten, ProPublica http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2AnUq3L1PzU

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Lisa Parr, Wise County, TX Barnett Shale country Breathing trouble Nausea Headaches Violent rashes up and down her body Body scarred with pockmarks Balance and neurological problems Chemicals in her blood that match those in an air sample taken by state of TX.

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7-year old Emma and 50-year old Bob Parr dealing with nosebleeds from air pollution http://earthworksaction.org/TXOGAP-CaseStudy-Parr.cfm

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From Silt Mesa, Colorado Beth Strudley and family Severe nosebleeds Rash over much of their bodies Passing out Grand Junction physician, Dr. Joseph Wezensky of Kokopelli Health & Wellness told the Strudleys: ‘Get out of that house, now!' http://www.postindependent.com/article/20110104/VALLEYNEWS/110109981

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From Silt Mesa, Colorado

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Phyllis Carr family Fayette County, PA Lives downhill from three compressors “A strong chlorine-like smell comes in waves” “A good whiff will put blisters up your nose .” Children covered in rashes and lesions air analysis revealed measurable levels of several toxic compounds including acetone, benzene, chloromethane, ethanol, hexane, methylene chloride, and toluene. http://www.frackcheckwv.net/2011/01/17/a-good-whiff-will-put-blisters-up-your-nose/

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Ambulance and Hospital ER staff need training Colorado ER nurse exposed 10 minutes to “frac fluid” on a gas worker’s boots (Her) skin turned yellow. She began vomiting and retaining fluid. Critical condition Diagnosis: Chemical Poisoning http://www.newsweek.com/2008/08/19/a-toxic-spew.html

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Even Death? Dr. Kendall Gerdes of Colorado Springs: “I think that [Mobaldi's exposure to drilling chemicals] was causative. I am simply looking at time, cause and effect relationships.” http://www.postindependent.com/article/20101117/VALLEYNEWS/101119897 See also: http://splitestate.com/

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Conclusion: Health issues associated with living near gas wells Many people are reporting health issues living near gas development. Symptoms much the same. More studies are underway to determine causation, but doctors treating patients see the connection. Q: Will people get ill in the presence of this industry? A: People in gas fields are saying “Yes.” Q: Will those people be my family? A: Depends on where we live, what we do.

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What About Our Food and Livestock? http://www.alternet.org/food/147634/fracking_with_food:_how_the_natural_gas_industry_poisons_cows_and_crops/ http://www.propublica.org/article/16-cattle-drop-dead-near-mysterious-fluid-at-gas-drilling-site-430 A tomato farmer in Avella, Penn . reported a series of problems with the water and soil on his property after drilling started: he found arsenic levels 2,600 times what is recommended, as well as dangerously high levels of benzene and naphthalene – all known fracking components . http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/11/09/us-fracking-suit-idUSTRE5A80PP20091109

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July 1, 2010 28 cows drink spilled frac pond fluid, are quarantined http://www.sungazette.com/page/content.detail/id/545449.html?nav=5011 http://protectingourwaters.wordpress.com/2011/10/18/dead-calves-and-silences-quarantined-cows-gave-birth-to-stillborn-calves/ October 18, 2011 “of the eleven calves born this spring, eight were born dead or were so weak that they died shortly afterwards .”

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http://video.nytimes.com/video/2011/02/26/us/100000000650773/natgas.html?ref=us Garfield County, Colorado Floyd and Lisa Green, Silt, CO, move off their farm after this happened to their chickens and goats, which they attribute to gas field air pollution. Chickens drop dead Goat kids mortality, birth defects

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The most common cause of illness or death following exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons is aspiration pneumonia , which may cause a chronic progressive deterioration of health , with death after several days or weeks. Toxicology of oil field wastes. Hazards to livestock associated with the petroleum industry http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2667711

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A growing literature on the threats posed to the food supply by unconventional gas wells. http://www.pasafarming.org/resource/publications/Local.pdf http://www.gilttaste.com/stories/327-what-will-fracking-do-to-your-food-supply

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http://un-naturalgas.org/organizers.htm http://www.sportsmenalliance.org/ Sportsmen are concerned that wildlife will be degraded or become unfit to eat if contaminated.

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So is unconventional drilling for gas safe for the PA environment over the long term? Now, let’s look at the other claims made by the gas industry on the ENERGY and ECONOMIC benefits. NOT!

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The gas industry promotes these: B enefits of Drilling Environmental – A safe practice, been doing it for 60 years Fewer well pads, less environmental impact Minimal, temporary impact on quality of life Safe for our environment over the long term Energy – Natural gas burns cleaner than other fuels A bridge to renewable energy sources Meets US Energy needs, reduces imports Economic – Lots of jobs Billions in leasing and royalties for some Spurring of other businesses, lifting all boats

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Gas Industry Claim The end product (natural gas) burns cleaner than other fossil fuels, will be a bridge to renewable energy sources.

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The reality is more complex. What does it take to get the natural gas?

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http://www.springerlink.com/content/e384226wr4160653/fulltext.pdf Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Footprint of Natural Gas from Shale Formations Obtained by High-Volume, Slick-Water Hydraulic Fracturing Robert W. Howarth, David R. Atkinson Professor of Ecology & Environmental Biology, Cornell University “Lifecycle” analysis of shale gas extraction (what it takes to get it out of shale and to market) suggests it may be as harmful or more harmful than coal or oil.

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"The nature of natural gas as a clean bridge fuel to renewable energy is highly suspect because of its environmental footprint, lack of ability to scale and full-cycle greenhouse gas emissions" that could be exponentially worse than coal in the short term. "Will Natural Gas Fuel America in the 21st Century?” The Post Carbon Institute & Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas-Canada http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/greenspace/2011/05/natural-gas-fuel.html

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http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/6/4/044008/pdf/1748-9326_6_4_044008.pdf On Shale Gas, Warming and Whiplash http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/06/on-shale-gas-warming-and-whiplash/

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Annual federal subsidies to coal, oil, gas, nuclear and ethanol (which is based on fossil fuels) = $ 64 Billion Annual federal subsidies to renewable energy sources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal) = $ 6 Billion Fossil fuels subsidies crowd out national investment in renewable energy sources. http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Politics/2011/0309/Budget-hawks-Does-US-need-to-give-gas-and-oil-companies-41-billion-a-year

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http://www.rechargenews.com/business_area/politics/article284626.ece “Frankly, if we build the future economy on shale gas, we will have lost the fight to control ­climate change.” James Leape, director-general of World Wildlife Fund International

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The reality: Extreme gas extraction burns the bridge to renewable energy sources

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The Gas Industry Promotes: Claimed B enefits of Drilling Environmental – A safe practice, been doing it for 60 years Fewer well pads, less environmental impact Minimal, temporary impact on quality of life Energy – Natural gas burns cleaner than other fuels A bridge to renewable energy sources Meets US energy needs, reduces imports Economic – Lots of jobs Billions in leasing and royalties for some Spurring of other businesses, lifting all boats

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Natural Gas for America? American energy independence?

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What the Industry Is Doing Assembling 500,000 acres in Butler, Armstrong, Jefferson, Indiana and Clarion counties for sale by the Royal Bank of Canada to Japanese and other foreign investors . Preparing to ship LNG overseas

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http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/10/26/us-lng-cheniere-idUSTRE79P3DO20111026

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http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/s_741745.html The Global Market: profits for gas companies come before keeping prices lower for Americans

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Is that why U.S. natural gas exports are way up in the era of shale gas drilling since 2000? http://www.eia.doe.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9130us2a.htm

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Cost of natural gas in PA is dropping, but in constant 2010 dollars gas costs 20% more per thousand cubic feet than it did in 2000. http://www.eia.doe.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3010pa3a.htm Calculations of constant dollars comparison by Dr. J. Stephen Cleghorn

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But here’s the problem: “A corporate business plan is not a national energy strategy." Dr. Anthony Ingraffea, Cornell University

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The gas industry promotes: B enefits of Drilling Environmental – A safe practice, been doing it for 60 years Fewer well pads, less environmental impact Minimal, temporary impact on quality of life Safe for our environment over the long term Energy – Natural gas burns cleaner than other fuels A bridge to renewable energy sources Meets US Energy needs, reduces imports Economic – Lots of jobs (88,588 by 2010) Billions in leasing and royalties for some Spurring of other businesses, lifting all boats

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Economic Impacts Yes, some will get rich. But will the money stay in the regional economy? Will the community be better off when the drilling is over? Too soon to tell on that.

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Economic Impacts Beware the hype. Ask questions. Do your own thinking.

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UNANSWERED QUESTIONS Who will get the jobs that are created? What are the costs of shale gas drilling to the public? How will the costs and benefits be distributed? How will other regional industries, such as tourism, be affected? Where will the royalty money be spent? How long will the boom last, and what happens when it ends? What will be short-term (economic impact) and long-term (economic development) consequences? http://catskillcitizens.org/learn_one.cfm?t=2&c=22 http://catskillcitizens.org/learnmore/SCNRUpdatedfinalMarcellusPolicyWorkingPaper5.6.11[1].pdf

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Marcellus Shale Coalition Email Alert “The Mighty Marcellus” (4/1/11) Analysis of new gas drilling jobs created Sept ’09-Sept ’10 in nine most active PA counties. 1,188 wells drilled = 3,806 new jobs (with construction jobs included). 3 new jobs per well drilled . Mighty?

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“Marcellus core industries have created about 9,300 jobs since the shale boom began in 2007 - far below projections.” Hydrofracking a boom-bust endeavor Dr. Susan Christopherson, Professor: City and Regional Planning Department, Cornell University http://www.timesunion.com/default/article/Hydrofracking-a-boom-bust-endeavor-1971392.php

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http://mediasite.cidde.pitt.edu/mediasite/Viewer/?peid=3e0aee8977274210ba1c4cd2e961ffe5 A Boom-Bust Industry

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Studies of Oil & Gas Drilling Counties out West & in gas-producing PA counties : Loss of People Fewer Types of Jobs Bigger Gap between Haves and Have Nots http://headwaterseconomics.org/pubs/energy/HeadwatersEconomics_EnergyFocusing.pdf

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Industrializing the countryside could compromise and diminish other larger drivers of rural economies. Will gas field jobs destroy other jobs that employ more people?

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IN PA (Marcellus): Pike County Courier (Northeast PA) Jennifer Canfield, a real estate broker in the Upper Delaware Valley. “The phone stopped ringing when it became widely known how many thousands of acres were signed up.” http://www.strausnews.com/articles/2010/06/08/pike_county_courier/news/1.txt Property Values $ $

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http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/20/us/rush-to-drill-for-gas-creates-mortgage-conflicts.html?_r=2&pagewanted=all “some banks have become reluctant to grant mortgages on properties leased for gas drilling.”

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At the bottom line, not one of the promoted benefits of unconventional drilling withstands close scrutiny.

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Finally, this. An industry that exhibits a profound lack of integrity.

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CASE IN POINT: Claiming in public a commitment to environmental stewardship, but out of public view fighting new regulations.

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Flowback (Waste) Water Disposal AP story of waste discharge into PA drinking supplies http://hosted.ap.org/specials/interactives/_national/marcellus-water/index.html?SITE=AP

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Flowback (waste) water disposal “The industry is committed to being a zero-discharge operation in the state’s surface waters and continues to lead the nation in recycling technologies and practices.” (Marcellus Shale Coalition) responding to AP story http://www.centredaily.com/2011/01/07/2439807/the-rest-of-the-story.html#ixzz1BTtfVs4x

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Frackwater (waste) disposal DEP responding to AP story : “ The new rules enacted Aug. 1 (2010) are more comprehensive than the (AP) story implies.” but… “The industry opposed us at every step of the way,” John Hanger says http://www.centralpennbusiness.com/article-multiple/85689?task=view

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Which is it? The industry welcomes more regulation and is committed to a zero-discharge objective. (Marcellus Shale Coalition) OR The industry resists new waste controls “every step of the way.” (John Hanger, former DEP Sec.)

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Telling the Big Lie Over and Over Again The Lie: “Not a single documented case of water contamination from hydraulic fracturing in over 1 million wells.” The truth: A 1987 EPA study documented a case of water contamination from hydraulic fracturing, called the case “illustrative” of what happens with this type of gas drilling, and concluded that many other cases bore investigation but were ‘sealed’ by court settlements between the gas companies and people who had claimed cases of contamination.

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Why have so many gas companies required that hundreds of court settlements on claims of pollution be sealed? Why the gag orders from an industry that claims it is being completely transparent with the public about what it does?

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Telling the half-truths to hide the full truth. Half-truth : Only .49% of drilling fluid is chemicals. The full truth: 90 tons of chemicals per well bore. Half-truth: “Petroleum distillates” like those we use in make-up remover, laxatives and candy. The full truth: Petroleum distillates they use are toxic in water at very low levels; about 14.5 tons of petroleum distillates are used per well.

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Telling the half-truths to hide the full truth. Half-truth : Increasing our energy while decreasing our impact at the surface. The full truth: Yes, fewer well pads, but larger size will consume more land and a “gas field” to support all the wells will be larger still. Overall, much greater land disturbance impact than conventional wells.

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Telling the half-truths to hide the full truth. …and many more. http://www.earthworksaction.org/pubs/FS_hydraulic-fracturing_myths-factsFINAL.pdf

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And if “superb investigative journalism” such as that which has appeared in the New York Times (source of some slides in this presentation) gets too close to the truth, says Robert F. Kennedy Jr ., we see “top shelf actors like Exxon and Chesapeake” orchestrating a “campaign of intimidation and obfuscation” to go after such critics. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-f-kennedy-jr/fracking-natural-gas-new-york-times-_b_1022337.html

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An Occupying Army? http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/11317/1189273-503-0.stm “recommended using military-style psychological operations strategies, or psyops, to deal with media inquiries and citizen opposition “

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TO CONCLUDE… Why a moratorium is required. Now.

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“Shale gas development is rushing forward in the absence of sufficient knowledge- -the science on geology, health, and climate, for example, is just now getting started--and protections for health and air & water quality. It does so with special exemptions from provisions of major environmental laws designed to protect all Americans.” Nadia Steinzor, Earthworks http://www.earthworksaction.org/library/detail/loopholes_for_polluters It is happening so fast, with the state so ill-prepared for it, that even DEP does not have a record of almost 500 gas wells in production or ready to produce. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/12008/1202172-503-0.stm Rushing Ahead Without Adequate Controls

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Not Good Enough Reasons The profit motives of multinational corporations A few tens of thousands of present-day jobs in an industry that could ruin Pennsylvania for future generations

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And why now? What’s the rush? The shale is not going anywhere. There are other new energy sources that we know are safe. Let’s work on those . New technologies for shale gas extraction might be safe There is plenty of other natural gas to use if we need a “bridge” http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-01-09/shale-bubble-inflates-on-near-record-prices-for-untested-fields.html

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The Precautionary Principle When credible evidence exists that irreparable harm to the public health or the environment is possible, and in the absence of scientific consensus that an activity cannot cause such irreparable harm, the burden of proof for proceeding with such activity falls upon those who wish to undertake it. (Based on UNESCO statement of the principle) SOURCE: World Press Review, Aug. 1998

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Such proof has not been provided by the gas industry, nor by science, nor by government. That makes the current activity which risks irreparable environmental harm fundamentally unethical . In the European Union such risks are illegal .

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So now we reside in Dr. Engelder’s era of “experimentation” in which many Pennsylvanians will be asked to make a “necessary sacrifice” of their homes and farms, water and air and health , in the name of national energy security or something noble like that, while private corporations and a few people make lots of…

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All because on August 17, 2009: Investor’s Business Daily proclaimed the Marcellus… http://www.investors.com/NewsAndAnalysis/Article.aspx?id=503603

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But too few have asked: Do we really want to be Saudi Arabia? Do we want the wholesale industrialization of Pennsylvania?

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“The face of this state is about to change. This gas drilling will dwarf all the others that came before it — timber, oil, coal. This will dwarf all of those combined.” http://www.pennlive.com/midstate/index.ssf/2011/03/commentary_governor_should_reg.html John Quigley, former Secretary Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Secretary

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It is time to Time to call for a moratorium – NOW - before Pennsylvania is ruined.

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If the government will not stop it, the people will.

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RESOURCES & SOURCES on Natural Gas Drilling Basic Information and Presentations of Unconventional Natural Gas Drilling Issues: Video: PBS Documentary on YouTube , “The Price of Gas” www.youtube.com/watch?v=2AnUq3L1PzU (20-minute general introduction to the issue of water and air contamination near gas well sites) Video : Dr. Ingraffea “The Facts of Fracking” on YouTube: www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_05A3Rr4t0 (A 1 hr, 50 minute detailed explanation of the fracking and its environmental risks) Video: Dr. Michel Boufadel (Temple Univ.) Long term and cumulative assessment of the impact of Marcellus Shale drilling: (Discussion of how fracwater contamination will migrate through the ground) http://mediasite.cidde.pitt.edu/mediasite/Viewer/?peid=7948d41114454ab2ae4d35c1e0f356b7 Videos: OGAP Peoples Summit November 2010: www.earthworksaction.org/POGsummit2010.cfm Eyewitness testimony from people living near gas wells; expert testimony re various issues Earthworks (OGAP) Hydraulic Fracturing Myths and Facts: www.earthworksaction.org/publications.cfm?pubiD=395 Video: YouTube video of fracking job : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RMBFXzluFaY&feature=related (Provides a sense of noise, air pollution associated with the Fracking process) Amy Mall (Natural Resources Defense Council): Incidents where hydraulic fracturing is a suspected cause of drinking water contamination http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/amall/incidents_where_hydraulic_frac.html Video: James Northrup - Hydrofracking & Aquifer Pollution via Faults : http://vimeo.com/14295502

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RESOURCES & SOURCES on Natural Gas Drilling News Reports (Series or Multiple Articles) Examining Natural Gas Drilling ProPublica series: www.propublica.org/series/buried-secrets-gas-drillings-environmental-threat (The most comprehensive reporting available on the Internet) Pitts.Tribune-Review series: www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/news/specialreports/marcellusshale/ Pittsburgh Post-Gazette: extensive reporting, use Google to search Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Marcellus Find articles on all Marcellus issues, like this http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/10099/1048898-28.stm Organizations Working on Natural Gas Drilling: West Virginia Surface Owners; Rights Organization: www.wvsoro.org/index.html (One of the very best sources of practical advice on leasing, pipelines etc and many good pictures) The Industrialization of Rural WV (outstanding set of pictures): http://www.wvsoro.org/resources/industrialization_of_rural_wv/slide_01.html Damascus Citizens for Sustainability: www.damascuscitizens.org/ (Led by some of nation's leading scientists and experts and top environmental lawyers) Responsible Drilling Alliance: www.responsibledrillingalliance.org/ ShaleTest: www.shaletest.org/ (helps with air and water testing for low-income households) FrackCheckWV: www.frackcheckwv.net/ See report: www.frackcheckwv.net/2011/01/17/a-good-whiff-will-put-blisters-up-your-nose/ Marcellus Protest: www.marcellusprotest.org ShaleShock: http://shaleshock.org/ Sustainable Otsego: www.sustainableotsego.org/

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The Endocrine Disruption Exchange: www.endocrinedisruption.com/home.php Video: The Endocrine Disruption Exchange: www.endocrinedisruption.com/chemicals.videoplayer.php (an examination of health risks associated with fracking chemicals) U-Pitt Center for Healthy Environments and Communities (CHEC): www.chec.pitt.edu/ FracTracker : www.fractracker.org/ - a project of CHEC Un-natural Gas: www.un-naturalgas.org/index.htm Marcellus-Shale. US: marcellus-shale.us/ (excellent source of photos) Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund: www.celdf.org/ (Providing leadership on local ordinances, such as Pittsburgh’s, to ban natural gas drilling) Allegheny Defense Project: www.alleghenydefense.org/ (focus on forest & riparian rights) Journey of the Forsaken: www.journeyoftheforsaken.com/ (from Divide Creek, Colorado) Blue Daze Drilling Reform for Texas (Barnett Shale): An informative blog from “Texas Sharon” http://txsharon.blogspot.com/ Pennsylvania Alliance for Clean Water and Air: www.pacwa.org/ (local organization) Industry Resources: Chesapeake Energy YouTube video : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=73mv-Wl5cgg&feature=related (one of the better videos on how hydraulic fracturing works) Range Resources : http://www.rangeresources.com/ Marcellus Shale Coalition : http://marcelluscoalition.org/

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Important Documents EPA Outline for Research on Hydraulic Fracturing : yosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/0/3B745430D624ED3B852576D400514B76/$File/Hydraulic+Frac+Scoping+Doc+for+SAB-3-22-10+Final.pdf Natural Gas Drilling Better for the Environment? www.damascuscitizens.org/GHGemissions_Cornell.pdf Riverkeepers: www.riverkeeper.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Riverkeeper-Gas-Drilling-Reporter-Vol.-6.pdf Riverkeepers’ “Fractured Communities” Report : www.riverkeeper.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Fractured-Communities-FINAL-September-2010.pdf Dr. Terry Engelder PowerPoint to Groundwater Protection Council: http://www.jlcny.org/site/attachments/article/293/Groudwater Protection Council Presentation by Terry Engelder.pdf (Technical presentation on whether gas & chemicals can migrate upwards) Cornell Cooperative Extension/PRI Introduction to Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Development http://cce.cornell.edu/EnergyClimateChange/NaturalGasDev/Documents/PDFs/CCE_NatGas_Roadshow1a_2010_Final_.pdf (an excellent overview of the gas drilling processes in PowerPoint) SMU Study on Air Quality in Barnett Shale – Dallas-Fort Worth area: http://www.edf.org/documents/9235_Barnett_Shale_Report.pdf Videos Available through Netflix : GasLand : http://movies.netflix.com/Movie/GasLand/70129353?trkid=2361637#height1707 Split Estate : http://movies.netflix.com/Movie/Split_Estate/70124096?trkid=2361637#height838

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Elected Officials to Contact: Henderson Township Supervisors: Todd Peace, Harold Pifer , Bernie Pifer Contact: Sec. Ruth Reitz at 814-427-2485 (Home) or 814-427-5013 (Office) Jefferson County Commissioner Jeffrey Pisarcik (Chair of Jefferson County’s Natural Gas Task Force) jpisarcik@jeffersoncountypa.com State Senator Joseph Scarnati - (717) 787-7084 (Harrisburg) or (814) 726-7201 (Warren office) http://www.senatorscarnati.com/ Speaker (District 66 Rep.) Samuel H. Smith : (717) 787-3845 (Harrisburg) or (814) 938-4225 (Punxsutawney) U.S. Representative Glenn Thompson : http://thompson.house.gov/ Phone: (202) 225-5121 or (814) 353-0215 Member of the US House of Representatives Natural Gas Caucus http://naturalgascaucus.murphy.house.gov/ U.S. Senator Robert P. Casey, Jr .: (202) 224-6324 (D.C.) http://casey.senate.gov/ (Co-sponsor of FRAC Act) U.S. Senator Patrick Toomey : (202) 224-4254 (D.C.) http://www.senate.gov May we suggest joining a group forum? They really do a great job of posting state and national news on natural gas north-central-pa-forum@googlegroups.com citizensconcernedaboutnatgasdrilling@googlegroups.com

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Presented by: http://www.pacwa.org/ Thank you PowerPoint presentation researched and prepared by: J. Stephen Cleghorn , PhD Lucinda Hart-Gonzalez, PhD Paradise Gardens and Farm LLC Contact: jstephencleghorn@yahoo.com

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