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Prospects for European Space Weather Measurements: 

Prospects for European Space Weather Measurements Volker Bothmer Institute for Astrophysikcs, University Göttingen, Germany Third Space Weather Week, 13-17 November 2006, Brussels, Belgium

In this presentation Space Mission are primarily taken into account in the timeframe 2006 until beyond 2010 if they involve European Participation and if the Instrumentations provide measurements that will further our insights about the physics of the complex Sun-Earth System - i.e. the Sun, inner heliosphere, Earth‘s magnetosphere, ionosphere and lower atmospheric layers - either through newly developed devices or through monitoring strategies. However, because of the variety of individual missions, it must not necessarily be overall complete. Mission Overview provided by G. Withbroe for ILWS. Planetary Missions (e.g., Bepi Colombo) not included.: 

Definition of Space Weather Measurements In this presentation Space Mission are primarily taken into account in the timeframe 2006 until beyond 2010 if they involve European Participation and if the Instrumentations provide measurements that will further our insights about the physics of the complex Sun-Earth System - i.e. the Sun, inner heliosphere, Earth‘s magnetosphere, ionosphere and lower atmospheric layers - either through newly developed devices or through monitoring strategies. However, because of the variety of individual missions, it must not necessarily be overall complete. Mission Overview provided by G. Withbroe for ILWS. Planetary Missions (e.g., Bepi Colombo) not included. 3 2 1 4,5

Slide3: 

Part I a) Ongoing Solar Missions Due to the variety of missions summarized there might be slight errors in some parameters! These can be checked through the mission summary provided at the ILWS website.

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Overview Solar Missions

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Part I b) New Solar Missions

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ASPIICS, Twin satellite system - formation flight, LEO, inner corona and CMEs in EUV white-light, Lyman alpha, science firsts, under study for ESA Proba 3 (Chandraayana-1, Polar lunar orbit, X-ray imaging, 2007-2008, 2 yrs, Indian Space Agency) CORONAS-Photon, LEO, EUV, gammas, hard and soft X-rays, energetic particles, launch planned for 2007, RUS EarthShine, L1, Sun eneregy output and Earth‘s atmosphere, UK, under study by RAL KuaFu, L1 and B1, B2 in polar orbits, Sun-Earth-System, NSF China, under study L5 mission, L5, Stereotype mission, in-situ and remote sensing, NICT/CRL (Japan), next solar max Lyot/Mirages, LEO, solar corona, remote sensing incl. FIR, CNES, after 2012 Picard, sun-sync. LEO, Irradiance, CNES, 2008 Proba 2, LEO sun-sync., high-res. EUV and irradiance, ESA (Russian launcher), 2007 SDO, incl. geosync., high-res. remote sensing, helioseismology, irradiance, EUV but NO CORONAGRAPH, NASA, 2008 SMESE, CSSAR, LEO, flares and CMEs, China, 2009-2010 SolACES, ISS, irradiation monitor for UV and EUV, Shuttle launch, DLR, NASA, 2007 SOLSPEC, ISS, solar spectrometer in the UV, visible, IR, irradiance, Shuttle launch, IASB, ESA, NASA, 2007 Overview New Solar Missions

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SOVIM, inner heliospheric with high incl., in-situ near Sun package, RMI Belgium, ESA, to be developed Solar Orbiter, heliosynchronous, perihel inside Mercury orbit, inclined orbit, in-situ and remote sensing package, ESA, 2015 Solar Probe, polar heliocentric, coronal encounter, in-situ and remote sensing package, NASA, 2013 SPORT, solar orbit with high incl., mother sat. plus 8 tethered children, in-situ and remote sensing, CME and plasma tracking, Chinese Academy of Sciences, under study SST, sun-sync. 800 km, remote sensing, X/γ-rays, radio, solar magnetic field, flares, CNSA (China), 2008 Sunrise, balloon flight, high-res. magnetic fields at the Sun, MPS, Germany, 2008 Overview New Solar Missions

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Overview Inner Heliospheric Missions

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Part II b) New Inner Heliospheric Missions

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Geostorm, L1, solar wind, NOAA, under study Interhelioprobe, heliocentric, perihel inside Mercury orbit, in-situ and remote sensing, IZMIRAN, IKI, NPO (RUS), 2007-2008 Plasma-F, 7-8 days out of 9 in ip medium, Package on SPECTR-R satellite, IKI (Hungary), 2007 Sentinels, multiple spacecraft in heliocentric orbits, in-siut packages, NASA, 2015 Overview New Inner Heliospheric Missions

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Part III a) Ongoing Magnetospheric Missions

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Overview Magnetospheric Missions

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Part III b) New Magnetospheric Missions

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GEC, four satellites in changing orbit, geospace electrodynamics, NASA, 2013 Interball-PROGNOZ, multiple sat system, 1 Sat in outer magnetosphere and tail, 3 ionospheric satelllites, IKI, NPO (Russia), Brazil and other countries, 2008 Maxwell/APEX, twin geostationary system, magnetospheric physics, UK, proposed as ESA Flexi MMS, 4 satellites in magnetospheric orbits, magnetospheric processes, N ASA, 2013 M3, Multi-spacecraft mission in Magnetosphere, magnetospheric processes, ESA, 2015-2025 Orbitals, multiple satellites in magnetosphere, radiation belts, CSA (Canada), 2012 Radiation Belt Storm Probes, twin system in elliptical near eq. orbits, characteristics of magnetosphere, NASA, 2011 Resonance, 2 spacecraft in special magnetospheric orbits, inner magnetosphere, IKI, IPF (RUS), under study ROY, 4 plus 1 spacecraft in polar orbit, magnetospheric scales, RASA (RUS), under study SCOPE, 4 plus 1 spacecraft in magnetotail, magnetotail, ISAS, 2012 STORMS, eq. orbits, inner magnetospheric studies, Finland, under study, 2007 SWARM, 4 sat. in 2 polar orbits, geomagnetic field survey, ESA, 2009 SWISE, 3 sat. in magnetosphere, response of geospace to solar and interplanetary conditions, CNSA (China), 2020 THEMIS, 3 inner magnetospheric probes, magnetospheric substorms, NASA, 2006 TWINS, 2 high incl. sat., multi-scale magnetospheric processes, NASA, 2006/2007 Overview New Magnetospheric Missions

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Part IV a) Ongoing Ionospheric/Atmospheric Missions

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Overview Ionospheric/Atmospheric Missions

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Part IV b) New Ionospheric/Atmospheric Missions

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AIM (Aeronomy of ICE in the Mesosphere), NASA, Polar Mesospheric Clouds, LEO sun-sync., launch 2006? CINDI/CNOFS, LEO, F-region characteristics, NASA, DoD, launch planned for 2006 EarthShine, L1, Sun eneregy output and Earth‘s atmosphere, UK, under study by RAL Environment, LEO, microsatellite Chibis, EM ionosphere, RUS and other Eastern European Countries, launch planned for 2006 EPOP, LEO, ionospheric conditions, CSA (Canada), launch planned for 2006 EQUARS, LEO, atmospheric coupling, INPE (Brazil), launch planned for 2006 FUV Imager, LEO high lat., ionosphere and thermosphere, NASA, 2012 Heracles, LEO, microsats, geospace environment, France, under study Ionosphere/Thermosphere Probes, twin spacecraft, inclined LEO, mid-latitude ionosphere, NASA, 2015 TARANIS, LEO, atmospheric, magnetospheric, ionospheric couplings, CNES (France), 2009 New Ionospheric/Atmospheric Missions

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Part V Conclusions

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Conclusions (of the presenter!) The variety of missions in operation and under study made it almost impossible to clearly identify the missions WITHOUT European participation – being prominent in either mission development, science or instrumentation! (Note that I did not find it adequate to advertise individual projects in this presentation!). This clearly documents our high level of excellence in space science and the field of space weather! However, there appears a general lack of L1 solar wind monitoring missions! Despite the large number of missions, no clear focussed space weather mission (covering major space weather issues) in the different fields of the SE-systems exists so far!

Slide21: 

Conclusions (of the presenter!) It thus appears to me as one of the most important task for the community to day to define an integrated (covering the major issues of space weather), concept for a space weather mission, preferentially in LEO (optimization of technical and cost issues compared to L1 missions). This could be achieved probably fastest through national activities or a network combining these efforts (ESA). An L1 mission would complement the space weather mission, but is not mandatory. This task is urgent with respect to the upcoming solar maximum in a couple of years and our invention of the Galileo system, also with respect to the fast path some nations already go.

Slide22: 

Special Thanks to the People who helped to built EIT it did a lot to advertise solar activity and effects on geospace!

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