Class3 Electronics

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Slide 1: 

MAS836 – Sensor Technologies for Interactive Environments Lecture 3 – Analog Conditioning Electronics, Pt. 3

Passive RC Filters: 

Passive RC Filters Passive LP Filter: RC network: fc = 1/(2πRC) Passive HP filter: RC network: fc = 1/(2πRC) -3dB = 0.707 Correction - To take the magnitude of a complex impedance, add the real and imaginary parts in quadrature

Biasing: 

Biasing AC Coupling Biasing noninverting input Biasing at inverting input Buffer the voltage divider’s output and use it everywhere...

Biasing an entire circuit with a Buffered Voltage: 

Biasing an entire circuit with a Buffered Voltage X11 noninverting stage AC Coupling Capacitor Bias Buffer X10 inverting stage X10 inverting stage AC Coupling Capacitor (decouple accumulated offset errors) A 60 dB (x1100) high-impedance, AC-Coupled amplifier with bias made from a quad OpAmp

Sampling: 

Sampling Nyquist: fin < fs/2 Bandlimited (demodulation) sampling Dfin < fs/2 Loose absolute phase information Don’t know whether phase moves forward or backward Quadrature sampling Bandlimited sampling at t and a quarter-period later Form the “Analytic Signal” I.E., the Quadrature (complex) Amplitude Can also do this with multipliers and quadrature demodulation Synchronous undersampling for periodic signals

Nonlinear Signal Shaping: 

Nonlinear Signal Shaping Diode Shapers See your next assignment! Log Amps Companders Analog Multipliers Squaring and square-rooting Transdiode

Log Amplifiers: 

Log Amplifiers Smoothly limit (compress) the amplitude of a signal

Compander (compressor/expander): 

Compander (compressor/expander) and NE571 Compress or expand the envelope of an AC signal

Analog Multipliers (4-Quadrant): 

Analog Multipliers (4-Quadrant) This is a cheap one $5 or so apiece They get much more expensive with more bandwidth and accuracy 4-Quadrant flips phase w. sign 2-Quadrant multiplies |X|•Y only changes gain

Digitization: 

Digitization Can use an analog-digital converter (ADC) 8-12 bit converters commonly on µComputers Sometimes 16 or 24 bit (µConverter from Analog) For special applications, one can use an ADC chip Typically talk SPI, I2C, etc. Many kinds of ADC Pipeline, Successive Approximation, Flash, SD… Ari will tell you lots about how these work and their characteristics For just 1 or 2 bits, you can use comparators Comparitors often on µC chip too You can also convert an amplitude into a time signal Only need a logic pin and a timing routine (or internal µC timer) Voltage to pulse-width, voltage to frequency Can do current too!

Pulse Encoding: 

Pulse Encoding The astable multivibrator VCO (voltage controlled oscillator) PWM (pulse-width modulation) Voltage-to-Frequency Converters Using the 555 as a Voltage-to-PW converter How do I make this into a VCO? What kind of waveform(s) does this produce?

Digitally Controlled Potentiometer: 

Digitally Controlled Potentiometer MAX 5161 Low Power (100 nA) up to 200K ohms, 32 taps

Voltage-to-Frequency Converters: 

Voltage-to-Frequency Converters XR8038A VCO Function Generator LM566 is a triangle-pulse VCO

The 555 Timer (556 is dual version): 

The 555 Timer (556 is dual version) Extremely versatile and cheap (and old!) module Low power version (L555 or 555L) Normal version does hours - 1 microsec Can voltage-control the pulse period (nonlinear) Triggering a monostable from a clock provides a voltage-variable periodic pulse (that can be timed in a microprocessor) Voltage Control Pin Voltage Control Pin

Synchronous Detection: 

Synchronous Detection 4-Quadrant multiplication suppresses the carrier - Also called a “Lock-in” Amplifier - Also a “Matched Filter” of sorts - Can regenerate carrier with PLL if no connection Tight low-pass filter gives extremely high noise rejection! Quadrature demodulation eliminates need to chase phase

Demodulating with a switch (Walsh Waves): 

Demodulating with a switch (Walsh Waves) Cheaper, and sometimes more accurate than using a multiplier Some analog switches have the built-in inverter Can use instrumentation amplifier (w. passive filters on inputs) to subtract on from off If µP is fast enough, this can be done digitally (dynamic range in sum?)

Buy it as the AD630: 

Buy it as the AD630

Sources of Noise in Electronics: 

Sources of Noise in Electronics Johnson (or Nyquist) Noise Flat spectrum Vnoise = 4kTR[Df] Independent of current Comes from the fluxuation-dissipation theorem Flicker Noise 1/f spectrum (equal power per decade of frequency) Increases with current through element Due to nonidealities (or “granularity) in component Flicker noise in different kinds of resistors: Vnoise 10K resistor @ room temp develops 1.3 µV over decade in frequency

Shot Noise: 

Shot Noise Shot (or Quantization) noise “Rain on the Roof” - when each electron does something different Prevalent where electrons cross a barrier Diodes, transistors Not in wires, less in resistors Inoise = 2qIdcDf Proportionally worse with small current Flat spectrum Popcorn noise Periodic spikes in signal These days, typically a bad component... (charges acting independently)

Noise Parameters: 

Noise Parameters Sensor impedance will produce Johnson noise Current and voltage modes Signal-to-noise = 10 log10(Vs2/Vn2) Noise figure is ratio (in dB) of the output noise of the real amplifier to the output noise of a zero-noise amplifier (only gain) with a given resistor Rs at the input. Insensitive parameter for high Rs Useful for a fixed, given impedance RF device at 50 Ω or a particular sensor Equivalent to noise temperature (T of Rs to give noise in ideal amplifier) Noise adds in quadrature (if sources are uncorrelated!)

Series (current) and parallel (voltage) noise: 

Series (current) and parallel (voltage) noise OpAmp noise sources come from current and voltage noise in the amplifier (referred to the input) and connected resistors

Noise in Inverting and Noninverting Amplifiers: 

Noise in Inverting and Noninverting Amplifiers Noise gain, and the problem with capacitive loads at the inverting input Short answer for noise - for high impedance sources, use low in OpAmps - for low impedance sources, use low vn OpAmps Noise gain = noninverting gain via Thevenin

Picking a low-noise OpAmp: 

Picking a low-noise OpAmp

The Non-Ideal OpAmp: 

The Non-Ideal OpAmp Offset voltage and Current - Important for precision DC applications - Can drift with temperature and general mood - High impedance source - Use low offset current amp (also make + and - impedance identical) - Low impedance source - Use low offset voltage amp Finite input resistance (and CM resistance) -Use high-Z (FET or MOSFET) amplifier where this is critical (e.g., high-Z sensor)

The Non-Ideal OpAmp (cont.): 

The Non-Ideal OpAmp (cont.) Gain-Bandwidth limitations The more closed-loop gain your circuit needs, the more bandwidth you need in your OpAmp. Speed (slew rate) Maximum output current (typically 20 mA, less for µpwr) Maximum output voltage (+ and -) Rail-Rail... Maximum input voltage Rail-Rail... GOL GCL dB Max closed loop bandwidth at GCL frequency Higher-order rolloffs can make instability at high gains Output Slew in V/ms Op Amp Output Power Rail Maximum Output Can clip unless R-R Can range up to 3 Volts

Picking an OpAmp: 

Picking an OpAmp High-Level Tree (AD)

Picking a Particular OpAmp: 

Picking a Particular OpAmp

Some of Joe’s Old Favorites (needs updating!): 

Some of Joe’s Old Favorites (needs updating!) * Ancient: 741 * Garden variety, out to 200 Khz; not bad for audio either (LF351, TLO81/2/4, OP482/4 * A little better: AD711/712/713 * Generic, single supply (pulls to ground) LM324 (quad) * Low Power: TLO6x, CMOS: TLC271 series (programmable power), CA3130, CA3140 * Low Power, low V, R-R (often CMOS): LPC661IN (National), MAX494 series, OP491, TLC2274 series * Similar, but a bit faster: OP462 series * Low voltage, R-R, moderate power, good speed: MAX474/475 * Good DC performance (low drift): LM308, OP297/497, OP27 * Low noise, Stiff drivers (600 Ohm audio lines), standard in audio: NE5532/5534, TLE2082 series * Low voltage noise: AD743, AD745, AD797 (this one is touchy...)! * Fast OpAmps: LM318, AD817 (video; nice and stable), AD829 (low noise video) * Differential video amps/drivers (not really OpAmps): LM733, NE529 (stability woes... very fast and cheap) * Comparators (not really OpAmps either...): LM311, LM339 (quad; single supply), CA3290 (CMOS) * Instrumentation amplifiers (" "): Burr Brown INA series, AnalogD's AMP01 (low noise), AD623 (low V, R-R) OpAmp Variants: * Norton Amplifiers (CDA's): e.g., LM3900 * Current-Feedback Amplifiers: e.g., National Comlinear series * Programmable Gain Amplifiers (PGA's): e.g., AD8320, OPA675, OPA676 OPA340 3.3V supply, rail-to-rail input and output LT1792 very low current and voltage noise OPA129 lowest bias current (100fA), but low bandwidth LTC1150 chopper stablized opamp, no ext. clock, pin for pin replacement for 8pin single package opamps

Mark Feldmeier on OpAmps, Comparitors, & Regulators: 

Mark Feldmeier on OpAmps, Comparitors, & Regulators hey joe there really isnt a single opamp that is good for all applications but there are a few good ones for everything you will do with sensor networks you need a rail to rail as the voltages are too small the one from the sensors class is the tlv2374 it is very similar to the tl082 except its rail to rail and has lower quiescent current but its more expensive its a good choice for starting out as it operates like an ideal opamp for a wide range of inputs and frequencies and it has extremely low bias current the lowest quiescent current opamp out there is the tlv2402 which is less than 1uA per amplifier and there are a number of opamps in this realm but they tend to have a number of issues first off the gbw is usually less than 10khz which make them only useful for buffers or extremely slow moving signals they also have high output impedance which can sometimes be a problem if the input impedance to your a to d is too low and the bias current can be high although there are some with reasonable bias currents most are on the order of 100pA which is fine for most things except for piezos everything else is application specific a few rules of thumb though if you want higher bandwidth you will need more power or more money you can get better speed by trading off bias current and input common mode voltage which you can usually make up for with a voltage follower and using inverting opamp configurations you either get low current noise or low voltage noise but the current noise tends to get higher on lower power opamps same with offset voltage and offset current at low current the offset voltage is usually pretty good but the offset current goes to hell so if you want to build a low power circuit use voltage mode circuits the opa4379 is almost 1Mhz at 6uA per channel which is pretty good so you can get reasonable stuff but its four times the cost of a low cost opamp like the lpv358 which draws twice as much current for a quarter of the bandwidth at any rate you can keep going on like this forever the other thing to consider is comparators the lowest power is 550na the tlv3402 but again low slew rate voltage range on low power stuff tends to be limited as well usually 5v rails max switching regulators may not be the best choice for a power supply for example if you are using a lithium polymer battery which charges to 4v and discharges 90% of its power by the time it gets down to 3v you can get almost the exact same efficiency from a linear regulator as you can from a switching regulator the differences really dont make it worth the extra rf noise power supply noise or component cost and design time but the main thing to ask when picking a switching regulator is how much output current will you need which is why they suck especially for sensor nodes when you have long periods of low current draw and a few spikes of high current draw you still need a regulator which can handle the high spikes which necessarily has a high quiescent current so for the majority of the time you are throwing away power for the few times you need it they have a number of dual mode switchers which go into shutdown when they are not sourcing much current but nothing is perfect when you operate a switcher in its ideal condition which is usually near its max output current you can get 95% effeiciency but drop a few orders of magnitude below that max current and youre talking 50% efficiency and if you try to buffer with a large power supply capacitor you effect the switch oepration the frequency shifts and the output tends to come in packets i dont have any specific reccomendations here again its very application specific i know mat uses the bq series battery charger and voltage regulator in one chips from ti they are handy because they do a lot in a small form factor.

Ari Benbasat on OpAmps: 

Ari Benbasat on OpAmps Here is the low-power op amp I spec'ed out for my thesis and/or future Stack work: "...the Maxim MAX9911 is recommended. It is available in a single SC70 package (5mm2) with shutdown, and has a turn on time of 30 us. Typical current draw is 4 uA with a shutdown draw of 1 nA. The gain bandwidth product of 200 kHz is acceptable for most uses."

Other Sources of Noise: 

Other Sources of Noise Pickup!!! Capacitive coupling (high-Z sensors) Shield, use differential pair Inductive coupling (low-Z sensors) Use differential pair, shield w. high-permiability material (steel or µ-metal), reorient components (vector coupling) Shielded cable Shielded pair Ground shield at signal source Correct

Driven Shields: 

Driven Shields Servoes out capacitance on shield Use where loading of cable is problematic Capacitive Sensors

Guard Electrodes: 

Guard Electrodes On-Board Driven Shields to prevent crosstalk and coupling Guards should be driven by a low-impedance source close to the voltage on the electrodes to be guarded E.g., a driven shield, or a ground in an inverting op-amp configuration

Other Types of Pickup: 

Other Types of Pickup Lack of Bypass Capacitors Put them at the power terminals of every component Use a groundplane Microphonics Jiggling things… Lock it all down RF detection with nonlinear junctions Shield, shield, shield… Ionizing radiation Lead, etc.

Ground Loops: 

Ground Loops Ground loops are caused by running (or daisy-chaining) the power supply past too many loads Resistive and inductive components of the “wire” cause voltages to be dropped as current is pulled Wire everything directly to the power supply!

More Ground Loops: 

More Ground Loops The Right Way...

Successive Approaches: 

Successive Approaches Bad Good

Mixed Signal Systems: 

Mixed Signal Systems Worship the Star...

Mixed-Signal Cards: 

Mixed-Signal Cards The ADC lives between digital and analog

Many books on the subject…: 

Many books on the subject… … But it’s often a black art!

Isolation and Protection: 

Isolation and Protection Diode Protection for inputs e.g., from static electricity (ESD), actuator voltage, etc. Isolation Amplifiers Inductive Optical Capacitive

Inductive(?) Isolation Amplifier: 

Inductive(?) Isolation Amplifier

Other Isolation Amplifiers: 

Other Isolation Amplifiers Capacitive coupling Optical analog isolation amps… - Feedback linearization..