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Premium member Presentation Transcript Shackleton’s Endurance Expedition: Understanding Leadership*: Shackleton’s Endurance Expedition: Understanding Leadership* *Modified and used with permission of author Martin Martens (2002)Leadership Traits: Leadership Traits Describing qualities of good leaders Personal Characteristics: Physical characteristics, ability, personality In the next few slides, look for characteristics, abilities, or personality traits that are used to describe Shackleton?Sir Ernest Shackleton: Sir Ernest Shackleton “Sir Ernest Shackleton’s greeting and warm handshake made me feel a welcome arrival and an important addition to the team. He fulfilled all the preconceived ideas and ideals that hero-worship had enshrined in him. He possessed the fearless, indomitable will of a born leader. He was a physically and mentally strong man, an able organizer, and accustomed to having his own way.” Frank Hurley - Expedition Photographer Slide4: “But Shackleton was not an ordinary individual. He was a man who believed completely in his own invincibility, and to whom defeat was a reflection of personal inadequacy. What might have been an act of reasonable caution to the average person was to Shackleton a detestable admission that failure was a possibility. The indomitable self-confidence of Shackleton’s took the form of optimism. And it worked in two ways: it set men’s souls on fire; as Macklin said, just to be in his presence was an experience. It was what made Shackleton so great a leader. But at the same time, the basic egotism that gave rise to his enormous self-reliance occasionally blinded him to realities. He tacitly expected those around him to reflect his own extreme optimism, and he could be almost petulant if they failed to so. Such an attitude, he felt, cast doubt on him and his ability to lead them to safety.” Worsley Sir Ernest ShackletonTRAITS ASSOCIATED WITHLEADERSHIP: TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH LEADERSHIP Intelligence Energy Self-confidence Dominance Motivation to Lead Emotional Stability Honesty and Integrity Need for Achievement and PowerLeadership Traits: Leadership Traits Describing qualities of good leaders Personal Characteristics: Physical characteristics, ability, personality Intelligence Energy Self-confidence Dominance Limitations of Trait Models If you do not have these traits, why bother trying to be a leader? What about the leader’s behavior? Sometimes circumstances make the leader Motivation to Lead Emotional Stability Honesty and Integrity Need for Achievement and Power LEADER ACTIONS: LEADER ACTIONS CHOOSE GOOD PEOPLE CLEAR EXPECTATIONS BUILD CONFIDENCE USE TEAM INFLUENCE SET GOALSTypes of Leader Behavior: Types of Leader Behavior Consideration: Being approachable and showing personal concern for followers Initiating Structure: Concentrating on goal attainment, raising expectancies & distributing rewards Look for examples of these behaviors in the next few slides… High Spirits: High Spirits “Shackleton had a genius – it was neither more nor less than that – for keeping those about him in high spirits. We loved him. To me, he was a brother. The men had felt the cost it is true; but he had inspirited the kind of loyalty which prevented them from allowing themselves to get depressed over anything, and they had stood up to the hardships inseparable from Antarctic exploration without a murmur. But they always had plenty to distract their minds, and keep them diverted. Every evening we fixed up some sort of entertainment.” WorsleyTo Serve Such a Leader: To Serve Such a Leader “To serve such a leader, is one of the greatest pleasures of the whole trip; he expects his orders to be literally and promptly obeyed but he knows one’s limitations better than one does himself and he invariably allows for them, he never expects one to do more than one is capable of, he trusts one implicitly and he always appears to be pleased with what one has done.” Orde-Lees - Endurance Crew MemberTypes of Leader Behavior: Types of Leader Behavior Consideration: Being approachable and showing personal concern for followers Initiating Structure: Concentrating on goal attainment, raising expectancies & distributing rewards Social-emotional Leader: Focus on reducing tension, resolving conflict, maintaining morale The Unity of the Group: The Unity of the Group “Though he was virtually fearless in the physical sense, he suffered an almost pathological dread of losing control of a situation. In part, this attitude grew out of a consuming sense of responsibility. He felt he had gotten them into their situation, and it was his responsibility to get them out. As a consequence, he was intensely watchful for potential troublemakers who might nibble away at the unity of the group. Shackleton felt that if dissension arose, the party as a whole might not put forth that added ounce of energy which could mean, at a time of crisis, the difference between survival and defeat. Thus he was prepared to go to almost any length to keep the party close-knit and under his control.” HurleySituational Leadership…: Situational Leadership… Models that identify certain situations or circumstances and prescribe which type of leader behavior should be the most effective in it Situational Leadership (cont.): Situational Leadership (cont.) “Thus, while Shackleton was undeniably out of place, even inept, in a great many everyday situations, he had a talent-a genius, even-that he shared with only a handful of men throughout history-genuine leadership. He was, as one of his men put it, ‘the greatest leader that ever came on God’s earth, bar none.’ For all his blind spots and inadequacies, Shackleton merited this tribute: ‘For scientific leadership give me Scott; for swift and efficient travel, Amundsen; but when you are in a hopeless situation, when there seems no way out, get down on your knees and pray for Shackleton.’” WorsleySlide15: Situational Models of Leadership Path-Goal Theory: To be effective, a leader adjusts behavioral style according to the characteristics of the: Subordinates Growth need strength (activation of higher order and achievement needs) Skill and Experience Desire for autonomy (desire to participate)Situational Models of Leadership: Situational Models of Leadership Path-Goal Theory: To be effective, a leader adjusts behavioral style according to the characteristics of the: Subordinates Environment The nature of the task: Routine & clear or non-routine & ambiguous Group Structure: Role clarity and group cohesivenessSituational Models of Leadership: Situational Models of Leadership Path-Goal Theory: To be effective, a leader adjusts behavioral style according to the characteristics of the: Subordinates Environment Leadership Styles Directive: Task Leader/ Initiating Structure Achievement-Oriented: Encourage high effort, strive for high goals Supportive: Social-emotional leader/Consideration Participative: Consultation with followers TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP: TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Sometimes, identifying the right leadership style isn’t enoughFollowers may lack aspiration to achieve a common goal A transformational leader: Provides a new and clear vision and instills commitment to achieve it Provides intellectual stimulation and demonstrates individualized consideration for followers Has charisma: The ability to command strong loyalty and devotion from followers Charismatic leaders emerge by displaying specific attributes and behaviors in the right circumstancesAttributes and Behaviors of Charismatic Leaders: Attributes and Behaviors of Charismatic Leaders High level of self-confidence Strong conviction in the righteousness of his or her beliefs Articulates ideological or moral goals High expectations for follower performance Acts as a role model for followers Have you seen these behaviors in Shackleton? Where?Transformational Leadership Process: Transformational Leadership Process Follower Outcomes Exceptional Task Performance Citizenship Behavior What about Followership?: What about Followership? All organizations have far more followers than leaders What qualities do effective followers have? They manage themselves well They are committed to a purpose outside themselves They build their competence and focus their efforts for maximum impact They are courageous, honest, and credibleSUMMING UP: SUMMING UP LEADERSHIP AS A MATCH LEADERSHIP AS PROCESS You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.