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CHEMISTRY IN OUR HOMES : 

CHEMISTRY IN OUR HOMES THE HIGH SCHOOL OF UNIA LUBELSKA IN LUBLIN

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THIS PRESENTATION WILL SHOW YOU HOW WE USE CHEMISTRY IN OUR DAILY RUTINES. WE USE CHEMISTRY IN ALMOST EVERY PART OF OUR LIFE – FOOD, PERSONAL CARE, GROWING PLANTS, DRUGS AND SO ON. LET'S TAKE A CLOSER LOOK AT IT!

FoodFor adding to food during cooking and for preserving food : 

FoodFor adding to food during cooking and for preserving food

Oil : 

Oil Kinds of oil: canola oil flax seed oil peanut oil olive oil safflower oil sunflower oil corn oil vegetable oil palm oil coconut oil soybean oil sesame oil Cooking oil is purified fat of plant origin, which is liquid at room temperature.

Salt : 

Salt Table salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (99%). It usually contains: sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes, an important preservative and a popular food seasoning.

Pepper : 

Pepper Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. White pepper consists of the seed only, with the skin of the fruit removed. Green pepper, like black, is made from the unripe berries. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar.

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Vinegar is an acidic liquid processed from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient, acetic acid (also called ethanoic acid).

Sugar : 

Sugar Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances, mainly sucrose, lactose, and fructose. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet, but also appears in fruit, honey, sorghum, sugar maple (in maple syrup)

Oregano : 

Oregano The subspecies of oregano Origanum vulgare is an important culinary herb.It is the leaves that are used in cooking, and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh.

Cinnamon : 

Cinnamon Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. It's used in the preparation of chocolate. It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts, such as apple pie and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies, tea, hot cocoa, and liqueurs.

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Chemistry in Pharmacy Chemistry is very useful in pharmacy. We use chemistry to product drugs or dressing material. Next slides will present you some substances which we use in pharmacy.

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Chemical substances in pain-killer pills ASPIRIN contains acetylsalicylic acid IBUPROFEN contains iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid KETOPROFEN contains propionic acid PARACETAMOL contains acetamide CODEINE contains morphine

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Substances in antibiotics Oxacillin sodium Ampicillin Nalidixic acid Azithromycin Erythromycin Cefaclor Cefuroxime Ticarcillin Amoxicillin

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Chemical substances in herbs Glycoside Alkaloids Flavonoids essential oils Pectins Vitamins Mineral substances

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GLUCOSE Glucose is a very important carbohydrate in biology (including a human body). The living cell uses it as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate. Glucose is a monosaccharide.

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Addictive chemical substances Morphine Methadone Oxycodone Thebaine Dihydrocodeine Hydrocodone Meptazinol Tramadol

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Alcaloids are naturally occurring chemical compounds containing basic nitrogen atoms. ALCALOIDS Many alkaloids are toxic to other organisms. They often have pharmacological effects and are used as medications and recreational drugs. Examples are the local anesthetic and stimulant cocaine, the stimulant caffeine, nicotine, the analgesic morphine, or the antimalarial drug quinine. Some alkaloids have a bitter taste.

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Chemistry in cleaning

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SOAP

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TOOTHPASTE

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CREAM Ingredients of “Nivea” Cream: Hydroxycitronellal - C10H18O Benzyl Benzoaten - C14H12O2 Cinnamyl Alkohol - C9H10O Geraniol - C10H17OH Magnesium Stearate- C36H70MgO4 Parfum Citric Acid C6H8O7*H2O Aqua H20 Panthenol Paraffinum Liqiudum

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SHAMPOO Ingredients: Aqua,Sodium Laureth Sulfate - NaC12H25SO4;Cocamide MEA, Zinc Carbonate - ZnCO3;Glycol Distearate Dimethicone Sodium Chloride- NaClZinc Pyrithione- C10H8N2O2S2Zn; Sodium Xylenesulfonate -(CH3)2C6H3.SO3Na;  ParfumCetyl Alcohol Photo of shampoo

FUEL : 

FUEL

WHAT IS A FUEL? : 

WHAT IS A FUEL? Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy and to heat or to move an object Fuel releases its energy either through a chemical reaction means, such as combustion,

WE USE FUEL FOR: : 

WE USE FUEL FOR: COOKING – GAS DRIVING (TRANSPORTING) – PETROL, OIL, DIESEL HEATING – WOOD, GAS

WHAT GAS IS? : 

WHAT GAS IS? When we say 'gas' we mean – methane. Methane is a kind of natural gas that is mostly use for heating and cooking. Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. It is the simplest alkane, and the principal component of natural gas.

METHANE LOOKS LIKE THIS: : 

METHANE LOOKS LIKE THIS:

PETROL (GASOLINE) : 

PETROL (GASOLINE) Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture, primarily used as fuel in internal combustion engines. It also is used as a powerful solvent much like acetone. It consists mostly of aliphatic hydrocarbons, enhanced with iso-octane or the aromatic hydrocarbons toluene and benzene to increase its octane rating. Small quantities of various additives are common, for purposes such as tuning performance or reducing emissions. Some mixtures also contain significant quantities of ethanol as a partial alternative fuel.

PETROL MOLECULES: : 

PETROL MOLECULES:

FUEL OIL: : 

FUEL OIL: Fuel oil is any liquid petroleum product that is burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power. Fuel oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains, particularly alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics

OIL MOLECULE: : 

OIL MOLECULE:

WHAT DIESEL FUEL IS? : 

WHAT DIESEL FUEL IS? Diesel or diesel fuel (IPA: /'di?z?l/) in general is any fuel used in diesel engines. The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid Petroleum-derived diesel is composed of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins including n, iso, and cycloparaffins), and 25% aromatic hydrocarbons (including naphthalenes and alkylbenzenes).[15] The average chemical formula for common diesel fuel is C12H23, ranging from approx. C10H20 to C15H28.

DIESEL MOLECULE: : 

DIESEL MOLECULE:

Chemistry in our homes : 

Chemistry in our homes Plant growth and protection

Water : 

Water Water is a necessary solvent for all known life, andan abundant compound on the earth's surface. It is the chemical substance with chemical formula H2O: one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom. The most important use of water in agriculture is for an irrigation and irrigation is key component to produce enough food. Irrigation takes up to 90% of water withdrawn in some developing countries.

Manure : 

Manure Manure is organnic mater used as organic fertilizer in agriculture. Manures contribute to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients, such as nitrogen that is trapped by becteria in the soil. Green manures are crops grown for the express purpose of plowing them in, thus increasing fertility through the incorporation of nutrients and organic matter into the soil. Leguminious plants such as clover are often used for this, as they fix nitrogen using Rhizobia bacteria in specialized nodes in the root structure. Other types of plant matter used as manure include the contents of the rumens of slaughtered ruminants, spent hops (left over from brewing beer) and seaweed.

Soil : 

Soil Soil is the naturally occurring, unconsolidated or loose covering on the Earth's surface. Soil is composed of particles of broken rock that have been altered by chemical and environmental processes including weathering and erosion. Soil is different from its parent rock(s) source(s), altered by interactions between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and the biosphere. It is a mixture of mineral and organic constituents that are in solid, gaseous and aqueous states. Soil particles pack loosely, forming a soil structure filled with pore spaces. These pores contain sol solution (liquid) and air (gas). Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three state system. Most soils have a density between 1 and 2 g/cm³. Soil is also known as earth: it is the substance from which our planet takes its name. Little of the soil composition of the earth is older than Tertiary and most no older than Pleistocene.

Soil : 

Soil

Fertilizers : 

Fertilizers Fertilizers are chemical compounds applied to promote plant and fruit growth. Fertilizers are usually applied either through the soil (for uptake by plant roots), or by foliar feeding (for uptake through leaves). Fertilizers can be placed into the categories of organic fertilizers (composed of plant or animal matter), or inorganic fertilizers (made of simple, non-carbonaceous chemicals or minerals). Organic fertilizers are composed of 'naturally' occurring compounds such as peat manufactured through natural processes (such as composting) or naturally occurring mineral deposits; or in the case of 'inorganic' fertilizers, manufactured through chemical processes (such as the Haber process) or from naturally occurring deposits that have been chemically altered (e.g. concentrated triple superphosphate).

Pesticide : 

Pesticide A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. A pesticide may be a chemical substance, biological agent (such as a virus or bacteria), antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any pest. Pests include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, molluscs, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms) and microbes that compete with humans for food, destroy property, spread or are a vector for disease or cause a nuisance. Although there are benefits to the use of pesticides, there are also drawbacks, such as potential toxicity to humans and other animals.

Insecticide : 

Insecticide An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects in all developmental forms. They include ovicides and larvicides used against the eggs and larvae of insects respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and the household. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind the increase in agricultural productivity in the 20th century. Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans; and others are concentrated in the food chain. It is necessary to balance agricultural needs with environmental and health issues when using insecticides.

Chemistry in our homes : 

Chemistry in our homes Personal care

Mascara : 

Mascara Modern mascaras can be divided in two groups: water resistant mascaras (often labeled waterproof) and non-water resistant mascaras. Water resistant mascaras have a composition based on a volatile solvent (isododecane - an isomer of dodecane), animal-derived waxes (beeswax), vegetal based waxes (carnauba wax, rice bran wax, candelila wax), mineral origin wax (ozokerite, paraffin), pigments (iron oxide, ultramarine) and filmifying polymers. These mascaras do not contain water-sensitive moieties, offering an excellent resistance to tears, sweat or rain.

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Eye shadow is a cosmetic that is applied on the eyelids and under the eyebrows. It is commonly used to make the wearer's eyes stand out or look more attractive. Eye shadow adds depth and dimension to one's eyes, complements the eye color, or simply draws attention to the eyes. Eye shadow comes in many different colors and textures. It is usually made from a powder and mica, but can also be found in liquid, pencil, or mousse form. Civilizations across the world use eye shadow - predominantly on females, but also occasionally on males. In Western society, it is seen[weasel words] exclusively as a feminine cosmetic, even when used by men. On average, the distance between eyelashes and eyebrows is twice as big in women as in men. Thus pale eye shadow visually enlarges this area and has a feminizing effect.

Lipstick : 

Lipstick Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, coffe, oils, waxes, and emollients that applies color and texture to the lips. There are many varieties of lipstick.

Lip-gloss : 

Lip-gloss Lip gloss is a cosmetic product used primarily to give lips a mildly glossy lustre and sometimes subtle color. It is distributed as a liquid or a soft solid (not to be confused with lip balm, which generally has medicinal purposes). It can be completely clear, translucent, or various shades of opacity, including frosted, glittered, and metallic looks.

Foundation : 

Foundation Foundation is a flesh-toned cosmetic applied the face to create an even, uniform colour to the complexion, and, sometimes, to change the natural skintone. Foundation applied to the body is generally referred to asbody paint. Sheer is the most transparent and contains the least amount of pigment. It will not hide discolorations on the skin; however, it can minimize the contrast between the discoloration and the rest of the skin tone. Although pigment technology has evolved dramatically since 2004, the traditional protocol for sheer foundations called for pigment to compromise 8 - 13% of the finished formula. Light can cover unevenness and slight blotchiness, but is not opaque enough to cover freckles. It contains 13 - 18% pigment

Eyeliner : 

Eyeliner Eye liner is a cosmetic used to define the eyes. It is applied around the contours of the eye to create a variety of aesthetic illusions. Although primarily aimed at females, it has broadened its appeal to the male market, known commonly as "guyliner" (see also manbag). Liquid eyeliner is an opaque liquid that usually comes in a small bottle and is applied with a tiny brush or felt applicator. It creates a sharp, precise line.

Lip liner : 

Lip liner Lip liner is a cosmetic product. It is intended to fill uneven areas on the outer edges of the lips after applying lipstick, therefore giving a smooth shape. The product is usually sold in a retractable tube or pencil form. As an additional effect the lipliner prevents the lipstick applied thereafter from bleeding.

Hair dyed : 

Hair dyed Several factors influence the final color of the hair following the coloring process. For semi-permanent and demi-permanent color, the final color is always a blend of the natural color of the strand and the dye color. Bleached blond hair will not absorb certain colors (for instance, dying blond hair brunette can result in bright red or green hair).

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