PERCEPTION: PERCEPTION Defination: Defination Perception refers to the interpretation of sensory information in the light of knowledge and past experience. The process… : The process… Sensory Input Selective Attention Perceptual Organization Interpretation Behavioural Response : Attention is the term given to the perceptual processes that select certain inputs for inclusion in our conscious experience or awareness at any given time. Sensory inputs at the focus of our attention have form and meaning. Perception is selective in nature and we always perceive a figure against a background. Laws of perceptual organization : Laws of perceptual organization Proximity Similarity Closure Law of good figure Errors in perception: Errors in perception Illusion Hallucination FACTORS AFFECTING PERCEPTION : FACTORS AFFECTING PERCEPTION SITUATIONAL FACTORS PHYSICAL SETTING SOCIAL SETTING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INDIVIDUAL NEED AND MOTIVE EXPERIENCE VALUES PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERCEIVED OBJECT NATURE SIZE APPEARANCE NOVELTY & FAMILIARITY LOCATION THEORY OF ATTRIBUTION : THEORY OF ATTRIBUTION This theory suggests that we observe behaviour and then attribute causes to it;we attempt to explain why people behave as they do. The process of attribution is based on perceptions of reality and these perceptions vary widely among individuals. PowerPoint Presentation: Self serving bias-The theory of attribution says, we tend to attribute success to personal effort and failure to external causes. Stereotyping : Stereotyping The tendency to ascribe positive or negative characteristics to others on the basis of general categorization and perceived similarities. Common stereotypes may be based on nationality, occupation, physical attributes, education, social status, politics, gender, etc. . PowerPoint Presentation: The ‘halo’ effect: The process whereby a person’s perception is formed on the basis of a single favorable trait or impression. The horn’s effect: Judgements made about a person are formed from the perception of negative characteristics. PROCESS OF INTERPRETATION: PROCESS OF INTERPRETATION PERCEPTUAL SET ATTRIBUTION STEREOTYPING HALO EFFECT HORN’S EFFECT Implication for Managers: Implication for Managers Communication Judgement of other people Recruitment & selection Discrimination Impression Management Corporate image Possible sources of judgement errors : Possible sources of judgement errors False decoding of non verbal behaviour Inaccurate attribution Using stereotypes uncritically Using irrelevant information Seeing only what we expect to see PERCEPTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR: PERCEPTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Recognition of difference between the perceptual world and the real world is vital to the study of OB . Specific application in interviews, performance appraisals. MANAGING THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS: MANAGING THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS Have a high level of self awareness Seeks information from various sources to confirm or reject personal impressions of a decision situation Be empathetic toward others Influence the perception of others when they are drawing incorrect or incomplete impressions of events in the work setting Contd…: Contd… Avoid common perceptual distortions that bias our views of people and situations Avoid inappropriate attribution Know yourself SOCIAL PERCEPTION: SOCIAL PERCEPTION SOCIAL PERCEPTION IS THE PROCESS OF COMBINING, INTEGRATING AND INTERPRETING INFORMATION ABOUT OTHERS TO GAIN AN ACCURATE UNDERSTANDING OF THEM. PowerPoint Presentation: I want you to cut the salary of all by 10% but….. It should look like a reward !