Foundations of Individual Behaviour

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Foundations of Individual Behavior

Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence:

Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities. Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.

Dimensions of Intellectual Ability:

Number aptitude – Ability to speedy and accurate arithmetic Verbal comprehension – Ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other Perceptual speed – Ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately Inductive reasoning – Ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem Dimensions of Intellectual Ability

Dimensions of Intellectual Ability:

Deductive reasoning – Ability to use logic and assess the implications of an argument Spatial visualization – Ability to imagine how an object would look, if its position in space were changed Memory – Ability to retain and recall past experience Dimensions of Intellectual Ability

Physical Abilities:

Physical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.

Nine Physical Abilities:

Other Factors Body coordination Balance Stamina Nine Physical Abilities Strength Factors Dynamic strength Trunk strength Static strength Explosive strength Flexibility Factors Extent flexibility Dynamic flexibility

Nine Physical Abilities:

Nine Physical Abilities Strength Factors Dynamic strength – Ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time Trunk strength – Ability to exert muscular strength using the trunk muscles Static strength – Ability to exert force against external objects Explosive strength – Ability to expand a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts

Nine Physical Abilities:

Nine Physical Abilities Flexibility Factors Extent flexibility – Ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible Dynamic flexibility – Ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements

Nine Physical Abilities:

Other Factors Body coordination – Ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body Balance – Ability to maintain equilibrium despite unbalancing forces Stamina – Ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort overtime Nine Physical Abilities

The Ability-Job Fit:

Ability-Job Fit The Ability- Job Fit Employee’s Abilities Job’s Ability Requirements

Biographical Characteristics:

Biographical Characteristics Biographical Characteristics Personal characteristics —such as age, gender, and tenure—that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.

Learning:

Learning Learning Involves change Is relatively permanent Is acquired through experience Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.

Theories of Learning:

Theories of Learning Key Concepts Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus Conditioned response Classical Conditioning A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response.

Theories of Learning (cont’d):

Theories of Learning (cont’d) Key Concepts Reflexive (unlearned) behavior Conditioned (learned) behavior Reinforcement Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.

Theories of Learning (cont’d):

Theories of Learning (cont’d) Key Concepts Attentional processes Retention processes Motor reproduction processes Reinforcement processes Social-Learning Theory People can learn through observation and direct experience.

Theories of Learning (cont’d):

Theories of Learning (cont’d) Key Concepts Reinforcement is required to change behavior. Some rewards are more effective than others. The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and performance. Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.

Types of Reinforcement:

Types of Reinforcement Positive reinforcement Providing a reward for a desired behavior. Negative reinforcement Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs. Punishment Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior. Extinction Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation.

Schedules of Reinforcement:

Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated. Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.

Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d):

Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.

Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d):

Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Fixed-ratio