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Premium member Presentation Transcript Bacteriology: PATHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE: Bacteriology: PATHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE Prepared & Presented by Dr. Siva Reddy Challa, Professor & HOD, Dept. of Pharmacology KVSR Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siddhartha Nagar, Vijayawada-520010 Andhra Pradesh, INDIA Email: email@example.comPowerPoint Presentation: Eukaryote Prokaryote Major groups Fungi, plants, animals bacteria Size > 5 m m 0.5-3.0 m m Nuclear structures Nucleus Chromosomes Classic membrane Strands of DNA (Diploid) No nuclear membrane Circular DNA (Haploid) Cytoplasmic structures Mito, Golgi, ER Respiration + Via mitochondria - Via cytoplasmic membrane Eukaryote vs. ProkaryotePowerPoint Presentation: 5PowerPoint Presentation: Arrangement of Spherical Bacterial Cells diplococci streptococci tetracocci sarcinae staphylococci SphericalcoccusThe Micrococcaceae: The Micrococcaceae The family Micrococcaceae contains gram-positive cocci, 0.5-2.5 μm in diameter, that divide in more than one plane to form regular or irregular clusters of cells. All are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic. The peptidoglycan di-amino acid is L-lysine. The three most important genera are: Micrococcus Staphylococcus StreptococcusPowerPoint Presentation: Micrococcus – aerobic, gram-positive, catalase positive, cell arranges mainly in pairs, tetrads, or irregular clusters, nonmotile. They are often yellow, orange or red in colourPowerPoint Presentation: Staphylococcus - facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive, usually form irregular clusters, nonmotile, catalase positive but oxidase negative, ferment glucose anaerobically. staphylococci staphylococciPowerPoint Presentation: Streptococcus - facultatively anaerobic or microaerophilic, catalase negative, gram-positive, Cell arranges in pairs or chains, usually nonmotile , A few species are anaerobic rather than facultative.PowerPoint Presentation: Bacilli divide only across their short axis, so there are fewer groupings of bacilli than of cocci. Rod-shaped bacteria Diplobacilli streptobacilli Single bacillus CoccobacillusPowerPoint Presentation: Clostridium botulinus C. butyricum C. aceticum C. tetani C. putrificum Bacillus subtilis, B. Mycoides B. Pastturii B. megaterium B. Thuringiensis B. Anthracis B. Botulinus B. cereus Spore-forming rod shaped bacteria Almost all Spore-forming bacteria are Gram + Clostridium – Anaerobic Bacillus – AerobicPowerPoint Presentation: Nonspore - forming rod shaped bacteria Most nonspore – forming rod shaped bacteria are Gram - Representatives: Escherchia coli Alcaligenes Proteus Flavobacteria Pseudomonas Rhizobium AzotobacterPowerPoint Presentation: Vibrio, Spirillum and Spirochete Some bacteria are shaped like long rods twisted into spirals or helices; they are called vibrios (like commas or incomplete spirals), spirilla if rigid and spirochetes when flexable. vibrio spirillum spirochetePowerPoint Presentation: Actinomycetes Actinomycetes are filamentous bacteria. Their morphology resembles that of the filamentous fungi; however, the filaments of actinomycetes consist of procaryotic cells. Some actinomycetes resemble molds by forming externally carried asexual spores for reproduction . Filamentous, High G + C content, Gram-positive (63 – 78% GC)PowerPoint Presentation: Representive genera: Streptomyces Nocardia Actinomyces Micromonospora Streptosporangium Actinoplanes Frankia Over 500 distinct antibiotic substances have been shown to be produced by streptomycete. Most antibiotics are efficient against different bacteria. More than 50 antibiotics have been used in human and veterinary medicine, agriculture and industry Antibiotics ActinomycetesPowerPoint Presentation: Gram-positive vs. Gram-negative bacteriaPowerPoint Presentation: Gram + Gram - Outer membrane - + Cell wall Thicker Thinner LPS - + Endotoxin - + Teichoic acid Often present - Sporulation + - Lysozyme Sensitive Resistant Penicillin Sensitive Resistant Capsule Sometimes Sometimes Exotoxin Some SomePowerPoint Presentation: (A). Gram positive bacteria: (1) No outer membrane (2) Peptidoglycan layer (thick but highly porous) (3) No periplasmic space (4) Cytoplasmic membrane (B). Gram negative bacteria: (1) Outer membrane is present (2) Peptidoglycan layer (thin but highly packed) (3) Periplasmic space (4) Cytoplasmic membrane Cell WallPowerPoint Presentation: Unique to Gram-negative bacteria. - An “asymmetric bilayer ” structure - different from any other biologic membrane in the structure of the outer leaflet of the membrane. Maintains the bacterial structure a permeability barrier to large molecules (e.g., lysozyme ) and hydrophobic molecules. 3. Provides protection from adverse environmental conditions such as the digestive system of the host (important for Enterobacteriaceae organisms). Gram (-) bacteria: Outer membranePowerPoint Presentation: Gram stainPowerPoint Presentation: STRUTCUTE OF PEPTIDOGLYCANPowerPoint Presentation: STRUTCUTE OF PEPTIDOGLYCANPowerPoint Presentation: Backbone: - N- acetylglucosamine & N- acetylmuramic acid - The backbone is the same in all bacterial species. Tetrapeptide side chain attach to N- Acetylmuramic acid. Peptidoglycan SynthesisPowerPoint Presentation: Peptidoglycan A major component of cell wall Forms a “Meshlike layer” consisting: a polysaccharide polymer cross-linked by Peptide bonds Cross-linking reaction is mediated by: - Transpeptidases - DD- carboxypeptidases - Targets of PenicillinPowerPoint Presentation: Gram (+) bacteria: ExamplesPowerPoint Presentation: Gram (+) bacteria: ExamplesPowerPoint Presentation: Gram (+) bacteria: ExamplesPowerPoint Presentation: Gram (+) bacteria: ExamplesPowerPoint Presentation: Gram (-) bacteria: ExamplesPowerPoint Presentation: Gram (-) bacteria: ExamplesPowerPoint Presentation: Gram (-) bacteria: ExamplesPowerPoint Presentation: Gram (-) bacteria: ExamplesPowerPoint Presentation: Gram (-) bacteria: ExamplesPowerPoint Presentation: Gram (-) bacteria: ExamplesPowerPoint Presentation: Gram (-) bacteria: ExamplesPowerPoint Presentation: Pseudomonas aeruginosaPowerPoint Presentation: Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia gives rise to a polymorphous pustular eruption.PowerPoint Presentation: Ecthyma gangrenosum is a bacterial skin infection (caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) that usually occurs in people with a compromised immune systemPowerPoint Presentation: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important common cause of ocular bacterial infectionPowerPoint Presentation: Escherichia coliStaphylococcus Bacterial: 51 Staphylococcus BacterialPowerPoint Presentation: Infection of the hand caused by methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus .PowerPoint Presentation: Salmonella typhiPowerPoint Presentation: Typhoid feverPowerPoint Presentation: ActinomycesPowerPoint Presentation: Actinomycosis is an infection primarily caused by the bacterium ActinomycesPowerPoint Presentation: Bacillus anthracesPowerPoint Presentation: Staphylococcus EpidermisdisPowerPoint Presentation: Clostridium perfringensPowerPoint Presentation: Necrotizing Fasciitis caused by Clostridium perfringensPowerPoint Presentation: Clostridium perfringens caused gas gangrenePowerPoint Presentation: Stomach cramps are one of the symptoms of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning .PowerPoint Presentation: Enterococcus faecalisPowerPoint Presentation: Bordetella PertussisPowerPoint Presentation: Whooping cough caused by Bordetella PertussisPowerPoint Presentation: ChlamydiaPowerPoint Presentation: Haemophilus influenzae type bPowerPoint Presentation: Diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type bPowerPoint Presentation: Meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type bPowerPoint Presentation: Klebsiella pneumoniaePowerPoint Presentation: Treponema pallidumPowerPoint Presentation: Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidumPowerPoint Presentation: Yersinia pestisPowerPoint Presentation: Bubonic plague is an infectious disease of animals and humans which is caused by the bacterium called as yersinia pestis.PowerPoint Presentation: Thank You This presentation is Dedicated to Alexander Fleming, who is the person saved lives of many people dying from infections of microbes By discovering the Penicillin You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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