ADAS ESF PPT ManureManagementOver view

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MANURE MANAGEMENT Recycling organic residues and minimising environmental impacts: 

MANURE MANAGEMENT Recycling organic residues and minimising environmental impacts

Slide3: 

Estimated quantities of organic manures recycled to land in the UK Williams et al. (2000); Gendebien et al. (1999); Gendebien et al. (2001)

Manures: diffuse and point source pollution: 

Manures: diffuse and point source pollution Point source pollution associated with well-defined discharges often avoidable with good design & management Diffuse pollution arises from wider, often multiple sources difficult to define difficult to prevent or control

Major pollution incidents have reduced significantly - due to introduction of Regulations and Codes…...: 

Major pollution incidents have reduced significantly - due to introduction of Regulations and Codes…... Water pollution incidents due to agriculture, England and Wales (Anon, 2000)

Agriculture still accounts for significant direct water pollution: 

Agriculture still accounts for significant direct water pollution 11% of total incidents in 1998 55% of these caused by manures

But manures remain a poorly utilised resource: 

But manures remain a poorly utilised resource In terms of potential fertiliser replacement value: Worth up to c. £200 million p.a. £2000 p.a. for a 100 cow dairy herd £5000 p.a. for 1000 finishing pigs £15,000 p.a. for 50,000 laying hens

Leading to nutrient surplus, crop loss and diffuse pollution……..: 

Leading to nutrient surplus, crop loss and diffuse pollution…….. (e.g. lodging, yield loss, low sp weight, low HFN, slow harvest ?)

Reasons why manure nutrients have not been effectively utilised?: 

Reasons why manure nutrients have not been effectively utilised? Nutrient content not known typical nutrient content values analysis not carried out Uncertain prediction of nitrogen availability Spreading practices poor management cost of improved equipment High perceived costs? Still unpleasant “disposal” operation? Lack of confidence by farmers

Poor spreading practices?: 

Poor spreading practices? Uncertain application rate unknown capacity of spreader/tanker records of loads per field poor/lacking Excessive application rate Poor lateral spread pattern usually some overlap between bouts needed Poor longitudinal (length) spread pattern poor control discharge rate Spreading at wrong time? Spreading under poor conditions? Unpleasant job given low priority?

Possible consequences of diffuse pollution arising from manures?: 

Possible consequences of diffuse pollution arising from manures? From recent typical manure application practice: Estimated 32,000t p.a. NO3-N lost by leaching? Estimated 57,000t p.a. NH3-N lost by ammonia volatilisation? Under Pilot NSAs, greatest single contribution to reduction in NO3-N loss came from improved management of manure from intensive units

How to reduce N losses from a farming system? - scenario testing:: 

How to reduce N losses from a farming system? - scenario testing: (1) Transfer 50% of autumn manure applications to spring (2) Increase proportion manures incorporated rapidly or injected (from 10 to 20%) (3) Improve allowances by farmers for manure N to those in RB209 (4) Combination of all three strategies

Manure management strategies and estimated short and longer term N losses: 

Manure management strategies and estimated short and longer term N losses

Reducing N losses from a farming system: 

Reducing N losses from a farming system The most effective way to reduce potential for nitrate leaching loss is to increase allowance made for manure N supply

Strategies for sustainable manure recycling?: 

Strategies for sustainable manure recycling? What’s in it? - nutrient content & rate Where & how? - technique & precision What happens next? - nutrient loss & uptake Dealing with negative effects Delivering a clear message?

Strategies for encouraging better recycling of manures: 

Strategies for encouraging better recycling of manures User-friendly computer software -MANNER, PLANET, NVZ DSS Publications (RB209; booklets) Combined research and demonstration Don’t forget the negative messages ! Call in ADAS/TAG/TDG?

Integrating manure and fertiliser applications on farm crops without loss of yield or quality (N Yorks, 2000): 

Integrating manure and fertiliser applications on farm crops without loss of yield or quality (N Yorks, 2000) (Defra LINK funded, LK0904) practical advice for land managers

Incentives for better use: 

Financial? Potential savings for cereals could be > £80/ha* and for silage grass > £50 / ha * Need for cross compliance - loss of single payment? Avoiding the negative effects Legal? Requirements of the Nitrate Vulnerable Zone Action Programme and of GAEC (good practice) Public image? Especially where clear ‘win-win’ for both farmers and environment Incentives for better use * as part of a well designed fertiliser plan

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