ERA 2: 1585-1763: ERA 2: 1585-1763 Colonization and Settlement Slide2: Native American tribes lived throughout North America long before Europeans came to explore and settle
These tribes had fully developed societies with political, economic, and cultural practices of their own
Native Americans Native Americans in Tennessee: Native Americans in Tennessee Map of Cherokee Country drawn by a British Army officer during the French and Indian War, 1762
Native American villages, including the village of Tanasi, which gave the state its name, are listed
Characteristics of Native American/Colonial relations: Characteristics of Native American/Colonial relations Europeans took advantage of divisions within Native American groups, playing one tribe against another
The Spanish set up numerous Catholic missions in the New World. In general Catholics were more successful than Protestants converting Native Americans to their religion
Rum and guns had a very damaging effect on natives, who came to depend on manufactured goods rather than things they used to produce for themselves
If Native Americans initially believed that Europeans were gods, that concept changed quickly, and the Europeans were incorporated into their political and economic systems. (See below for an example) Encounters: Encounters Many of the changes that took place in the New World were the result of encounters between Europeans and Native Americans
Beginning in the fifteenth century, Europeans were able to cross the ocean more effectively because of better ships, such as the Spanish caravel, the compass, and the astrolabe. The astrolabe helped them find their bearings on the open sea. Native Americans clash with Europeans: Native Americans clash with Europeans Warfare frequently took place between Europeans and Native Americans
These two completely alien cultures often clashed; the Native Americans were usually (but not always) on the losing side Native American customs: Native American customs Europeans were fascinated by Native American customs, and hired artists to create and distribute drawings documenting their lifestyle
These prints are not always a reliable source for learning about their traditions
Native American cultural differences: Native American cultural differences The diets of Native Americans were sometimes different from what Westerners were accustomed to at home
Smoking meat was a common way for Native Americans to prepare game and prevent its spoilage De Soto & the Conquistadors: De Soto & the Conquistadors The Spanish conquistadors were the first to invade the Continental U.S, beginning in the early 16th century.
Hernando De Soto came to America from 1539-1542 seeking gold & riches
He left a wake of destruction and brought European diseases that devastated Native American tribes Early Settlements and Expansion: Early Settlements and Expansion De Soto was the first European to claim (for Spain) the region around the Mississippi River; the area was a part of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana extended from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains; this map is one of the first to show the Mississippi River in an accurate fashion Slide11: New Spain (Mexico, Central America, Southwestern United States)
New France (Quebec, Montreal, Nova Scotia)
New England (Massachusetts)
New Netherlands (New York) European Settlements The Colonies in America: The Colonies in America
Each region was a unique blend of European traditions, the local environment, Native American culture, and African culture
In part, new colonies were established because European countries were trying to build their empires
Colonization encouraged the rapid exchange of plants, animals, and diseases
Relations between Native Americans and Europeans frequently began with peace but often disintegrated into violence.
Many colonists sought religious freedom and new land Virginia: Virginia
Virginia was home of some of the first settlements in America, including Jamestown and Williamsburg
After hopes that Virginia could provide England with gold were dashed, it was discovered that tobacco could serve as a valuable cash crop; the image on the right was produced by European merchants advertising the new commodity by showing exotic natives with a hogshead of tobacco.
1590 Map of Virginia, showing the region around the Roanoke Colony: 1590 Map of Virginia, showing the region around the Roanoke Colony Jamestown: Jamestown Founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company of London
Captain John Smith asserted himself as leader
Most of the settlers were “gentlemen” without skills who simply sought gold and riches; most eventually died of disease and starvation
Upon his departure in 1609 the colony fell into disarray
An influx of new residents, the discovery of tobacco as an ideal crop for the region, and cessation of warfare against the Native Americans helped save Jamestown. Jamestown: Jamestown Pocahontas (or Matoaka) was captured in 1613 by Virginians
She is famous for her intervention to save Captain John Smith’s life after local Native Americans captured him and appeared to prepare to execute him.
She converted to Christianity, acquired the name Rebecca (her baptized name), and married John Rolfe in 1614. She later died in England of smallpox at age 22.
Virginia Map: Virginia Map Captain John Smith’s map of Virginia, published in 1612
He provides the first reasonably accurate rendering of the Chesapeake Bay
He includes the location of nearly two hundred Indian settlements
Powhatan is pictured on the top left, and the large figure on the right is a Susquehanna chief
Importance of such accounts and maps as publicity for prospective settlers in Europe Jamestown Massacre of 1622: Jamestown Massacre of 1622 Early print of Powhaten confederacy’s attempt to wipe out the English on March 22, 1622.
The Native Americans were ultimately subdued, but only after much bloodshed Virginia Money: Virginia Money The punishment for conterfeiting colonial money was death, although the problem still occurred
Colonies began to shift from barter economy to a more complex system that used money
Virginia Passport/Letter of Introduction: Virginia Passport/Letter of Introduction Passport/Letter of introduction dates from October 18, 1765
Document granted Robert Cartwright permission to travel to North Carolina, and vouched for his good character New England: New England Includes New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut
The Mayflower Compact was established in 1620 by the Pilgrim leaders; about 102 people, or twenty-four families, were on the ship. All men were required to sign and establish themselves as the official civic government of the Plymouth plantation under King James I.
The Puritans dominated Massachusetts and sought to build a godly community
The Puritans rejected the Church of England (the Anglican Church) in favor of their stricter religious beliefs
Plymouth Land Record (1730): Plymouth Land Record (1730) This is a land deed from Plymouth, Massachusetts, signed on October 8, 1730
Although the record dates much later than the 1620 founding of Plymouth by the Pilgrims, it pertains to the same area
Separatist Puritans, known as Pilgrims, left England in search of religious freedom Chesapeake Colonies: Chesapeake Colonies The region included the modern-day states of Maryland and Virginia
Tobacco was the primary crop of the region; prices plunged in the 1620s but remained profitable until about 1660
This image on the right pictures the slave’s role in growing tobacco and his obligation to serve his white master
The Carolinas: The Carolinas The Colony of Carolina was established by West Indian planters in the 1670s (notably, Charles Town); only in 1729 were two royal colonies created, North and South Carolina.
For fear that they might collaborate, the leaders pitted Indians and slaves against each other.
Settlers were offered religious toleration, political representation, and large grants of land
Slaves were used to cultivate rice beginning in the early eighteenth century
One Carolinian: his mathbook: One Carolinian: his mathbook Math book used in 1742 by John Walker, a 16-year old North Carolinian
The math problem asks how many days, hours, and minutes have passed since Christ’s birth
Religion was integrated into all facets of everyday life, including learning Slide26: Map was published in Germany to promote emigration to Virginia
Illustration in lower right corner promoted the idea of endless New World bounty and wealth Map for Immigrants Middle Colonies: Middle Colonies Includes modern-day New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey
The Dutch established New Amsterdam (New York), which was conquered and formally turned over the British in 1667
Pennsylvania attracted William Penn and the Society of Friends, known as Quakers, as well as others. The importance placed on religious tolerance attracted these settlers.
Quakers were non-violent, anti-slavery, and believed that the Holy Spirit (or “Inner Light”) inspired each soul, without the assistance of a preacher or formal service
West Indies: West Indies A small but rich planter elite was sustained by a slave economy
Rice and sugar were the primary crops in the West Indies, in addition to tobacco
The image on the right pictures slaves feeding sugar cane into rollers (L), which crushed out the juice that flowed in a tank (E) for ladling into coppers (K). The juice was then boiled. The process was extremely labor-intensive and technically complicated.
Slavery in the New World: Slavery in the New World Slaves endured terrible conditions on slave ships during the so-called Middle Passage from Africa.
Some of the worst conditions for slaves were in the West Indies, although slaves perished from disease, abuse, and neglect throughout the colonies.
The journey from Africa: The journey from Africa In the early 17th century, as many as 20% of slaves perished on their journey across the Atlantic; this image shows captured Africans in the hold of a slave ship
The Atlantic Trade “Triangle”: The Atlantic Trade “Triangle” The Slave Economy: The Slave Economy Slaves worked on tobacco fields in Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and parts of North Carolina, and rice and indigo in Georgia, South Carolina, and parts of North Carolina
Slaves in the West Indies farmed sugar Slave Bill of Sale: Slave Bill of Sale This bill of sale records the sale of a slave, Pomp (short for Pompey) from a tailor to a shipwright
The document was signed in 1763 Slaves as chattel: Slaves as chattel Slaves were treated as a form of property, kept in place by a system of legal coercion
This notice for a runaway slave was published in the Knoxville Gazette Indentured Servitude: Indentured Servitude Many of those working in Virginia and Maryland under conditions similar to slavery were white indentured servants from Europe
The only way they could secure their passage to the New World was through indentured servitude or temporary bondage
Many were required to work for a period of five or more years before they were granted their freedom Looking ahead: Looking ahead King George III’s royal proclamation of 1763 forbade colonial settlers from moving West of the Appalachian Mountains
This order was widely ignored. Colonists were constantly seeking new land to the West despite the threat of Native American resistance
Tennessee and the expansion west: Tennessee and the expansion west Settlers went west, seeking land, as much of the land in the thirteen colonies were unavailable to them
Many went by way of the Wilderness Road, which cut though the Cumberland Gap
Natural resources in the area, such as abundant game and cheap land, were an attraction for settlers