Exercises

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Menu of Exercises Vocabulary Structure Translation 《读写教程 II》: Ex. Ⅲ, p. 241 《读写教程 II》: Ex. IV, p. 242 《读写教程 II》: Ex. VII, p. 243 《读写教程 II》: Ex. IX, p. 244 《读写教程 II》: Ex. VIII, p. 244 Writing Diction A way to develop a paragraph: comparison and contrast

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1. There are certain pa______ between the situation in Europe today and that which existed 90 years ago. rallels III. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the help of the first letter(s). Use only ONE word in the proper form to fill in each blank. 《读写教程 II》: Ex. Ⅲ, p. 241 Exercises—Vocabulary

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2. He refused to accept the post because he felt it didn’t offer him much sc____ for promotion. 3. Largely due to educational reorganization, schools are a major dr___ on funds; the government is complaining of spending more on education. ope ain Exercises—Vocabulary

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4. It’s perfectly in order to return im________ to their own country if they do not have official papers, otherwise there would be internationally chaos(混乱). 5. There is also a growth in the number of co________ organizations offering information, services and activities. 6. The government is responsible for the pr_______ of education to children with special needs, even though the costs are sometimes high. mmercial migrants ovision Exercises—Vocabulary

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7. These objectives were wrapped up in a program that included pl______ on road safety, home helps for the elderly, bus shelters, a more comprehensive library system and the encouragement of tourism. 8. Over the last century, the number of taxes has mu_________ and the system is now so complex that few understand it fully. edges shroomed Exercises—Vocabulary

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IV.Rescue these sentences! An underachieving student wrote the sentences below, trying to use an expression from the text in each one—but he got all the prepositions mixed up. Correct all the sentences, using expressions from the text, then put a definition, synonym or translation of the corrected expression in the space provided. 《读写教程 II》: Ex. IV, p. 242 Exercises—Vocabulary

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1. The company planned to introduce new technology in the expense of the existing workers. Correct form: _____________________________ Synonym: ________________________________ at the expense of causing a loss to Exercises—Vocabulary

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2. Sales are so good that even with 24-hour shifts we could hardly keep pace to demand. Correct form: _____________________________ Synonym: ________________________________ keep pace with keep up with, meet Exercises—Vocabulary

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3. Money makes money. With other words, the more money you put into your business, the greater the profit. Correct form: _____________________________ Synonym: ________________________________ In other words To put it another way Exercises—Vocabulary

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4. The doctor should be here soon. At the mean- time, try to relax. Correct form: _____________________________ Synonym: ________________________________ In the mean time Meanwhile Exercises—Vocabulary

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5. I’m all for favor of people going out and enjoying themselves so long as they don’t disturb other people. Correct form: _____________________________ Synonym: ________________________________ in favor of; approving of in support of Exercises—Vocabulary

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6. I only bought these shoes last week, and they’re falling down already. Correct form: _____________________________ Synonym: ________________________________ falling apart; coming apart breaking into pieces Exercises—Vocabulary

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7. Bringing a new product onto the market is a long and difficult process, and careful planning is called on. Correct form: _____________________________ Synonym: ________________________________ called for; needed required Exercises—Vocabulary

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8.Congress has special meetings this weekend, aimed on putting together a detailed policy. Correct form: ___________________________ Synonym: ______________________________ aimed at with the purpose of Exercises—Vocabulary

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1. They didn’t want your pity. They want your help. VII. Combine the following sentences using the structure not…but… . 《读写教程 II》: Ex. VII, p. 243 Exercises—Structure

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2. You shouldn’t pay attention to what they say. You should pay attention to what they do. 3. The most important thing in Olympic Games is not to win. The most important thing is to take part. Exercises—Structure

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4. The President of Canada didn’t pay an official visit to America by plane. He went there by train. 5. It was not that I overslept. It was that the bus was late. Exercises—Structure

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VIII. Study the example as a model and rewrite each of the following sentences, using a non-finite or verbless clause in place of a finite clause. 《读写教程 II》: Ex. VIII, p. 244 Exercises—Structure

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Model:Our leaders saw parallels to the independence movement founded by people like Nehru and Gandhi who, after they absorbed Western political thought at institutions like Eton and Oxford, returned home to serve their native land. Our leaders saw parallels to the independence movement founded by people like Nehru and Gandhi who, after absorbing Western political thought at institutions like Eton and Oxford, returned home to serve their native land. Exercises—Structure

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1. When he studies, he listens to the radio. When studying, he listens to the radio. 2. If he is asked, he will tell you about it in detail. If asked, he will tell you about it in detail. 3. He wrote his greatest novel while he worked on a ship. He wrote his greatest novel while working on a ship. Exercises—Structure

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4. Once you’re in trouble, you’ll be given a lot of help. Once in trouble, you’ll be given a lot of help. 5. If it is not the finest, it is one of the finest poems produced in recent years. If not the finest, it is one of the finest poems produced in recent years. Exercises—Structure

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1. 成功需要不断的努力。因此小王常常工作到深夜,希望能赶上计算机技术的最新发展。 Success calls for non-stop efforts. So Xiao Wang often worked until very late at night in the hope of keeping pace with the latest developments in computer technology. IX.Translate the following sentences into English. in the hope of doing sth. keep pace with call for 《读写教程 II》: Ex. IX, p. 244 Exercises—Translation

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2.他们最终实现了要以自己的生命为祖国的自由而努力的诺言。 They eventually fulfilled their pledges to work for the freedom of their country at the expense of their lives. at the expense of one’s life fulfill one’s pledges Exercises—Translation

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3.考虑到彼得的计划缺乏严密性,总裁放弃了该计划,而主张采纳汤姆的意见,认为它比其他人的高明。 Considering that Peter’s plan didn’t hold water, the president abandoned it in favor of Tom’s idea over all the others’. not hold water abandon in favor of Exercises—Translation

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4.由于年轻人在这家公司没有多少机会,小李辞职了。同时,她开始向美国的一所大学申请,想出国留学。 As there wasn’t plenty of scope for young people at this company, Xiao Li quitted/quit her job. In the meantime, she began to apply to an American university, aiming to study abroad. scope quit one’s job in the meantime Exercises—Translation

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5.露西所讲的关于新领导班子的坏话可能会导致她在这儿的待遇发生变化。换句话说,由于她所说的话, 她在我们公司不会像以前那样受到特别的优待了。 Lucy’s terrible references to the new leadership will probably change her treatment here. In other words, her comments will probably end the preferential treatment she has been getting at our company. terrible references to the new leadership preferential treatment In other words Exercises—Translation

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Diction

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Introduction English is a complex and sophisticated language. An English word is capable of being used in five, ten or even more different senses, depending on the different “collocations” or “contexts”. Translation

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Be Mindful of “Collocation” in Chinese It is perfectly correct to use the same “word” or “phrase” in an English sentence, but when rendered into Chinese, the “word” or “phrase” may have many senses of meaning according to Chinese collocation. Translation

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e.g. In every Chinese city, we got into the streets, shops, parks, theatres, and restaurants. 在中国,我们每到一个城市,就遛大街、逛商店、游公园、上剧场、下饭馆。 Translation

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e.g. Only in that town can you find any person who is a good Christian, a good parent, a good child, a good wife or husband. 只有在这个城镇里,你才会发现虔诚的基督徒、慈爱的父母、乖巧的孩子、贤惠的妻子和忠实的丈夫。 Translation

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She can appreciate modern music. I don’t appreciate fully what he means. I appreciate the regard you have for me, but I’m not qualified to take the job. 她能欣赏现代音乐。 我不能完全理解他的话。 我感谢你的帮助,但我不能胜任这项工作。 Translation

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Be Mindful of “Parts of Speech” of Word An English word may have several parts of speech. Therefore, the meanings of the word depend on its different parts of speech in the sentence. Translation

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e.g. He likes mathematics more than physics. In the sunbeam through the window there are fine grains of dust shining like gold. Like knows like. 他喜欢数学甚于喜欢物理。 在射入窗内的阳光里,细微的尘埃像金子一般在闪闪发亮。 英雄识英雄。 Translation

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e.g. It is not right for children to sit up late. The plane was right above our heads. In the negative, right and left, and black and white are reversed. She tried her best to right her husband from the charge of robbery. 孩子们睡得晚不好。 飞机正好在我们头上面。 照片底片上,左右黑白与正片恰好相反。 她尽力为她丈夫被控抢劫申冤。 Translation

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Be Mindful of “Derogatory Terms” and “Commendatory Terms” in Chinese version. e.g. He has the reputation of being a blood-sucker. 他是个臭名昭著的吸血鬼。 Translation

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1. A bill now before Congress would give preferential treatment to foreign students with advanced degrees in science and engineering who want to work in the United States. 一份议案已递交到了国会,这一议案要求给予那些想在美国工作、具有理科和工程学科高级学位的外国留学生优厚待遇。 Practice

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该议案的一项条款规定:在非移民签证申请中,政府应优先考虑给那些具有数学、自然科学、工程或技术方面中级学位的外国公民。 2. One provision of the bill states that, among non-immigrant visa applicants, the state should give preference to foreign nationals with secondary degrees in math, science, engineering or technology. Practice

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During the 1960s and 1970s, politicians in my native country, India, used to wave the slogan “Stop Brain Drain”. 在20世纪60和70年代,我的祖国印度的政客们常常喊着“制止人才外流”的口号。 Practice

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4. Our leaders saw parallels to the independence movement founded by people like Nehru and Gandhi who, after absorbing Western political thought at institutions like Eton and Oxford, returned home to serve their native land. 我们的领导人看到了与诸如尼赫鲁和甘地这样的人所发起的独立运动类似的情况:他们在伊顿和牛津这样的学府里吸收了西方的政治思想后,就回来报效自己的祖国。 Practice

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我们的领导人没有看到,当印度技术学院在重视计算机编程的时候,几乎没有留下任何空间让学生们去关心社会,却给受资本驱使的企业的贪欲留下了极大的空间。 5. Our leaders had failed to see that the emphasis on symbol manipulation at IIT left little room for social thought and much scope for the greedy outcomes of capital-driven business. Practice

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INTRODUCTION Comparison and contrast are important methods of paragraph development. They distinguish similarity and difference between persons, things, or situations. When they are similar or alike in certain respects, comparison is used. When they are different, contrast is used. Let’s look at paragraphs 7&8 as an example: Writing

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I was one such student. But studying my textbooks late at night in the library of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), I would dream, not of India, but of America, the land of opportunity. Many students like me, indeed, left during those years, never to return. Our institutes of technology, built with European and American aid, offered students free room and board, even salary. Indian taxpayers footed the bill in the hope that one day the graduates would help reconstruct the nation. the purpose of IIT what really happened at IIT Writing

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Mid-sized cities like Bangalore are now the Silicon Valleys of India— their workers generate demand for the very products that they produce. Paragraph 17 serves as another example to contrast the prosperous electronic industry and the ever-worsening conditions in the country: But the nation is slowly disintegrating. India’s population recently hit 1 billion, but its interior framework in water, transportation and health care is fast falling apart; its citizens breathe air that is dangerously polluted. Writing

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Patterns of comparison and contrast There’re roughly two patterns of comparison and contrast: Writing

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Alternating pattern, or point-by-point pattern: In this pattern, the comparison or contrast is done point by point. The objects are compared or contrasted in one sentence or in a pair of sentences worked together. Its structure can be illustrated as: I. Comparison/Contrast 1 object 1 object 2 II. Comparison/Contrast 2 object 1 object 2 III. Comparison/Contrast 3 object 1 object 2 Writing

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Opposing pattern, or block pattern: In this pattern, all the characteristics of one subject are given first and those of the other given after. Its structure can be illustrated as: I. All about object 1 Comparison/Contrast 1 Comparison/Contrast 2 Comparison/Contrast 3 II. All about object 2 Comparison/Contrast 1 Comparison/Contrast 2 Comparison/Contrast 3 Writing

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To get a better insight into these two patterns, let’s read the following paragraphs of comparison and contrast. Pay attention to their Alternating pattern and opposing pattern. Writing

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A scientist and poet both strive for perfection: the poet to refine his sensibilities, the scientist to reduce everything to precise measurements. Both share the beauty of a rainbow; but while the poet imagines a pot of gold at the end of it, the scientist wants to spell it out in angstrom units measuring wavelength. Music influences both poet and scientist; but while the poet glories in its tones and lofty themes, the scientist reduces it to pitch, frequency and amplitude of sound waves. Writing

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On the other hand, public transportation in American cities leaves a lot to be desired. A poet may feel hot or cold, but these words may be inadequate for a scientist who works on his experiment. Love, the moving force of a poet, only frustrates a scientist who cannot measure it scientifically. All in all, however, no matter how diverse their outlooks are, they both have a common goal of making us understand and appreciate the mysteries of the world around us. Writing

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The public transportation system in Paris consists of subways and buses. Paris has one of the best subway systems in the world. The subway, or metro, spans the entire city of Paris, linking one end of the city with another. Thus it is fast, economical, and convenient to travel by metro. The bus system in Paris is also quite good. For Parisians, having a car is a luxury, not a necessity. Writing

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Subways can be expensive and inconvenient—inconvenient because only very small portion of a city are served. The bus remains the only true means of public transport in most cities, but one finds poor connections, indirect routes, and high prices. For sanity’s sake, a car in the United States is not luxury. Writing

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Useful expressions to show differences: In contrast to A, B is…. In spite of their similarities/differences…. A is not exactly/entirely/quite/the same as B in that…. A is totally different from B. A and B are different/dissimilar in every respect/in may ways. On the one hand, A…, while on the other, B…. A…, whereas B…. A…, but the same cannot be applied to B. Writing

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A and B are similar in…. A and B have striking similarities. A and B seem to have much in common/some common features. A comparison between A and B suggests/ shows/ proves that…. A…, and the same is true of B. A bears some resemblances to B. Useful expressions to show similarities: Writing

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Write a paragraph on the topic of “Computer and Human Brain”. Base your writing on the similarities or differences given:

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Similarities: Both can read and follow instructions; perform complex mathematical computations; translate languages. The brain can make value judgments; the computer can’t. The brain can respond to emotions; the computer can’t. The brain can function independently; the computer depends on human beings. Computer and Human Brain Practice Differences:

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Computer and human brain are both similar and different. First, both computer and human brain can read and follow instructions; both of them can perform complex mathematical computations; and even, both can translate languages. On the other hand, computer and human brain differ in several ways: The brain can make value judgments; but the computer can’t. While the brain can respond to emotions; the computer has no emotion at all. The brain can function independently; but the computer can not work without human beings’ program and instruction. Sample Practice

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This paragraph deals with the similarity and difference between computer and human brain respectively. The writer uses alternating pattern to list the items one by one to achieve a good organization. Comments Practice END

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