logging in or signing up HIGH ALTITUDE ILLNESS for IMC Silvia Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 2490 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: February 07, 2008 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 1 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... By: parvezniya (28 month(s) ago) very nice !!! i m in love with it !hmmuuuaaaah Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: kevinanup (36 month(s) ago) dude i wanna download this so help Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: sreneker (64 month(s) ago) Wanted to see if you would be willing to share this Powerpoint with the National Ski Patrol for their Mountaineering Program? firstname.lastname@example.org Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide1: Following are the slides from my talk on high altitude illness (HAI). They summarize the main points in HAI development, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. For full tutorials on HAI and other mountaineering-related health issues, check MedCom UIAA and ISMM websites. For practical medical advices, check-up and drug prescription, contact your GP or a specialist in sport medicine. Ludmila BoublikovaHIGH ALTITUDE ILLNESS: HIGH ALTITUDE ILLNESS HIGH ALTITUDE ILLNESS: HIGH ALTITUDE ILLNESS (MedCom UIAA and ISMM guidelines) 1. High altitude 2. Acclimatization 3. High altitude illness: AMS HACE HAPE 4. Treatment of HAI 5. Prevention of HAI 6. Specific groups of people in high altitude 7. Other high altitude-related health problems HIGH ALTITUDE : HIGH ALTITUDE altitude > 2 500 m (8 000 ft) main problem: decreased availability of oxygen causing a disorder of normal breathing other factors: low temperature low air humidity high UV radiationREACTION TO HIGH ALTITUDE: adequate acclimatization insufficient high altitude illness REACTION TO HIGH ALTITUDE adaptationACCLIMATIZATION : a gradual process of the body adaptation to high altitude ACCLIMATIZATION Symptoms/changes: 1. breathing: hyperventilation (breathing deeper and faster) shortness of breath during exertion changed breathing pattern (periodic breathing) and frequent awakening at night 2. blood circulation: tachycardia (increased heart rate) decreased maximum heart rate higher number of red blood cells 3. body fluid balance: increased urination (altitude diuresis)HIGH ALTITUDE ILLNESS (HAI) : Forms of HAI: (Lake Louise definition) HIGH ALTITUDE ILLNESS (HAI) I. acute mountain sickness (AMS) II. high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) III. high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) a disease caused by hypoxia in high altitude that is beyond the ranges the body can tolerate ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS (AMS): ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS (AMS) symptoms caused by mild brain swelling due to hypoxia mild to severe incidence 25 – 85 % usually appears 6 – 12 hours after an ascent Slide9: DIAGNOSIS: headache + 1 or more of the following symptoms: loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting fatigue, weakness dizziness, light-headedness difficulty sleeping in the setting of a recent gain in altitude above 2 500 m ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS (AMS)ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS (AMS): Predisposing factors: 1. rate of ascent 2. altitude reached (sleeping altitude) 3. individual susceptibility (genetic) other: exertion permanent residence in 1000 m above sea certain diseases (cardiopulmonary, blood) no significant association with: age gender physical fitness ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS (AMS)HIGH ALTITUDE CEREBRAL EDEMA (HACE): severe swelling of the brain with deterioration of brain functions the most severe form of AMS, end-stage of AMS incidence 0.1 - 5 % often manifests at night can progress rapidly, lethal in few hours to 2 days HIGH ALTITUDE CEREBRAL EDEMA (HACE)HIGH ALTITUDE CEREBRAL EDEMA (HACE): HIGH ALTITUDE CEREBRAL EDEMA (HACE) DIAGNOSIS: at least 2 of the following symptoms: AMS ataxia (loss of coordination of movements) mental status changes (quantitative or qualitative) in the setting of a recent gain in altitude above 2 500 m HIGH ALTITUDE CEREBRAL EDEMA (HACE): HIGH ALTITUDE CEREBRAL EDEMA (HACE) Predisposing factors: like in AMS HACE usually develops from AMSHIGH ALTITUDE CEREBRAL EDEMA (HACE): HIGH ALTITUDE CEREBRAL EDEMA (HACE) PEOPLE WITH HACE ARE OFTEN CONFUSED AND MAY NOT RECOGNISE THEIR DISORDER ! HIGH ALTITUDE PULMONARY EDEMA (HAPE): HIGH ALTITUDE PULMONARY EDEMA (HAPE) leak and accumulation of fluid in the lungs leading to respiratory failure not related to AMS, may occur without signs of AMS incidence 0.1 - 5 % often manifests at night (typically the second night of ascent) progresses rapidly, lethal within hours may lead to development of HACE HIGH ALTITUDE PULMONARY EDEMA (HAPE): HIGH ALTITUDE PULMONARY EDEMA (HAPE) DIAGNOSIS: at least 2 of the following symptoms: breathlessness at rest cough weakness, fatigue, drowsiness chest tightness, fullness, congestion at least 2 of the following signs: gurgling or rattling breaths, crackles or wheezing central cyanosis (blue or dark purple lips) fast breathing increased heart rate in the setting of a recent gain in altitude above 2 500 m HIGH ALTITUDE PULMONARY EDEMA (HAPE): HIGH ALTITUDE PULMONARY EDEMA (HAPE) Predisposing factors: 1. young fit males 2. exertion 3. coldTREATMENT OF AMS: TREATMENT OF AMS Mild to moderate forms NEVER continue in ascent !!! consider - rest at the same altitude with hyperventilation - descent fluids mild analgesics (paracetamol, aspirin, ibuprofen) acetazolamide (Diamox®) Severe forms: treat like HACE TREATMENT OF HACE: TREATMENT OF HACE immediate descent to the altitude where the person last slept well (500 - 1000 m if in doubts) oxygen event. hyperbaric bag acetazolamide (Diamox®) dexamethason TREATMENT OF HAPE: TREATMENT OF HAPE no exertion immediate transport to the altitude where the person last slept well (500 - 1000 m if in doubts) oxygen event. hyperbaric bag event. PEEP, CPAP nifedipin Slide21: PORTABLE HYPERBARIC CHAMBER (hyperbaric bag) air-impermeable bags that can be inflated to high pressure, simulating descent main types: Gamow Certec PAC (Portable Altitude Chamber) Slide22: PORTABLE HYPERBARIC CHAMBER Slide23: PORTABLE HYPERBARIC CHAMBER indications: HACE or HAPE when descent is impossible contraindications: absolute - lack of spontaneous breathing relative - middle ear congestion, claustrophobia PREVENTION OF HAI: PREVENTION OF HAI 1. gradual ascent within the tolerance zone and good acclimatization individual; general rules usually apply one night at altitude slightly below 3 000 m (10 000 ft) at altitudes above 3 000 m, sleeping altitude increase 300 - 500 m (1 000 - 1 500 ft) per night a second night at the same altitude for every 1 000 m (3 000 ft) of gained altitudePREVENTION OF HAI: PREVENTION OF HAI 2. avoiding medications that cause depression of breathing alcohol sleeping pills, sedatives strong (narcotic) painkillersPREVENTION OF HAI: PREVENTION OF HAI 3. drugs acetazolamide (Diamox®) 2 x 125 - 250 mg indications: forced rapid ascents medical history of repeated AMS ginkgo biloba 2 x 80 - 120 mg (inhaled beta-agonists, oral nifedipine) (may prevent HAPE)Slide27: “THE GOLDEN RULES” If you feel unwell at altitude, it is high altitude illness until proven otherwise. Never ascend with symptoms of AMS. If you are getting worse or have HACE or HAPE, get down immediately.SPECIFIC GROUPS OF PEOPLE IN HIGH ALTITUDE: SPECIFIC GROUPS OF PEOPLE IN HIGH ALTITUDE older people children pregnant women medication (malaria prophylaxis) cold exposition (hypothermia, frost-bites) people with pre-existing diseasesSlide29: CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES responsible for 30 % of lethal accidents in the Alps (DAV, OEAV) the risk increases with the altitude may be the first manifestation of previously silent disease recommendation: medical examination + ETT for men 50 and people with other risks OTHER HIGH ALTITUDE-RELATED DISEASES: OTHER HIGH ALTITUDE-RELATED DISEASES high altitude deterioration high altitude retinopathy high altitude peripheral edemaSlide31: Medical Committee of UIAA www.uiaa.ch International Society for Mountain Medicine www.ismmed.org Links: You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.