Plant Establishment

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By: 19Bemo55 (71 month(s) ago)

would you allow me to download to share with an Introduction to Horticulture class at my technical college? thanks, very well done.

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Improving the Establishment & Care of Woody Plants in the Landscape: 

Improving the Establishment & Care of Woody Plants in the Landscape Rick Bates Penn State University Department of Horticulture Nathan Milburn

What are the factors that determine the success or failure of a newly planted tree or shrub?: 

What are the factors that determine the success or failure of a newly planted tree or shrub? (Question: Why did this tree die?)

Slide3: 

(Answer: J-Rooting) Nathan Milburn

What are the factors that determine the success or failure of a newly planted tree?: 

What are the factors that determine the success or failure of a newly planted tree? Site Selection Soil, Topography, Climate, Pest Pressure, Exposure Species Selection Winter Hardiness, Pest Resistance, Heat Tolerance, Urban Tolerance Post-transplant Care Adequate Water, Balanced Nutrition, CHO Reserves, Mechanical Damage, Pest Control, Construction Protection

Slide5: 

Out of sight, out of mind. What are the 5 primary functions of tree’s root system?

Importance of the tree’s root system:: 

Importance of the tree’s root system: Tree roots provide: stability, energy storage, water & mineral uptake, hormone production “Over 80 % of all landscape tree problems start below ground.” - G. Watson, The Morton Arboretum

Exercise: sketch the root system of this tree.: 

Exercise: sketch the root system of this tree.

Slide8: 

Does your sketch resemble this root system…roughly a ‘mirror image’ of the tree’s crown?

Slide10: 

X No Taproot

Slide11: 

X No Taproot Horizontal root spread is 2-3 times greater than crown spread. Over 60% of the root system is outside the dripline.

Slide12: 

X No Taproot Horizontal root spread is 2-3 times greater than crown spread. Over 60% of the root system is outside the dripline. Over 95% of the roots are in the top 3 ft. of soil. Most of the fine roots are in the top 6”.

Slide13: 

This Not This

Nursery production systems place a tree’s roots at risk. Properly managing that risk results in better tree survival.: 

Nursery production systems place a tree’s roots at risk. Properly managing that risk results in better tree survival.

Understanding the advantages & disadvantages of each production system will allow us to make better decisions (ie. minimizing risk) regarding the plant establishment process. : 

Understanding the advantages & disadvantages of each production system will allow us to make better decisions (ie. minimizing risk) regarding the plant establishment process. Bare-root Balled & Burlapped Container

Container production:: 

Container production: Plants grown above ground in plastic containers Lightweight bark/peat media Grower supplies large quantities of water & nutrition

Container-grown trees:: 

Container-grown trees: Advantages Less restricted by season Relatively light weight All roots are planted/reduced transplant shock

Container-grown trees:: 

Container-grown trees: Disadvantages Deformed/girdling roots may be present Potting mix/soil interface problems May require more frequent irrigation Larger sized stock may be unavailable May be more expensive

Problems with container-grown trees: Girdling Roots: 

Problems with container-grown trees: Girdling Roots

Problems with container-grown trees: Soil Interface: 

Problems with container-grown trees: Soil Interface

Problems with container-grown trees: Irrigation Management: 

Problems with container-grown trees: Irrigation Management

B & B production:: 

B & B production: Plants grown in native soil Harvested by hand or tree spade Spring & fall harvest window

B & B trees:: 

B & B trees: Advantages Traditional method Larger sized stock available Can match soil types/reduced interface problems

B & B trees:: 

B & B trees: Disadvantages Up to 90% of roots removed when transplanted Expensive to ship and handle Specialized equipment often needed for digging

Problems with B & B trees: Root Loss: 

Problems with B & B trees: Root Loss

Problems with B & B trees: Root Loss = Transplant Shock: 

Problems with B & B trees: Root Loss = Transplant Shock Every tree attempts to maintain a balance between root mass and top growth. Proper root:shoot ratio must be re-establish after transplanting. This re-establishment is commonly referred to as transplant shock.

Bare-root production:: 

Bare-root production: Trees planted in native soil Harvested spring/fall Soil removed from roots Trees often placed in refrigerated storage over winter

Bare-root trees:: 

Bare-root trees: Advantages Less expensive Easier to ship and handle Possible to inspect root system before planting No soil interface problems

Bare-root trees:: 

Bare-root trees: Disadvantages Limited planting window/trees must be dormant Root desiccation can be a problem Restricted to smaller sized stock Some species do not respond well Trees may require staking

Problems with bare-root trees:: 

Problems with bare-root trees: Root pruning to fit conventional containers (vs. “low-profile” containers).

Problems with bare-root trees:: 

Problems with bare-root trees: Loss of dormancy = increased risk of desiccation during planting

Management Strategies to Minimize Problems Caused by Production Systems: 

Management Strategies to Minimize Problems Caused by Production Systems Maintain a vigorous root system with a high number of root tips Minimize desiccation during the transplant process GOALS:

Management Strategies: Container: 

Management Strategies: Container Pot-in-Pot Modifying root systems with copper

Slide34: 

Spin Out Treated No Spin Out

Management Strategies: B & B: 

Management Strategies: B & B Late Spring/early fall digging Root pruning

Management Strategies: Bare-root: 

Management Strategies: Bare-root Gravel beds to extend planting season

Planting Scenario:: 

Planting Scenario: High # of plants needed for windbreak/shelterbelt Spring planting project Limited budget Well-drained clay loam Desired species: Thuja, Lilac, Spruce, Ash, Willow or Caragana Production Type? _________

Planting Scenario:: 

Planting Scenario: Challenging soil conditions/construction Fall planting project Large plants needed Desired species: Oak, Spruce, or Maple Post-plant irrigation practices: watered once after planting Production Type? __________

Planting Scenario:: 

Planting Scenario: Commercial site Trickle irrigation available Soil: average fertility, well-drained Installation in late June Production Type? ________

Factors to consider:: 

Factors to consider: Time of year Budget Species Soil type Availability of water

Ease of Transplanting & Establishment: 

Ease of Transplanting & Establishment Himelick 1991: Transplanting Manual for Trees & Shrubs, ISA

Time of Transplanting: 

Time of Transplanting Late summer and fall planting takes advantage of warm soils, shorter and cooler days, reduced transpiration Spring planting, prior to bud break, takes advantage of reduced stress, avoids cold damaging period, adequate soil moisture

Does Size Matter?: 

Does Size Matter?

Yes!: 

Yes! Anything is do-able if you have the money, time, and will General rule, small plants transplant more successfully than do large ones of the same species A 4” caliper tree regains its original root volume within 5 years of transplanting. 1985 Watson: Tree size affects root regeneration and top growth after transplanting. JOA 11:37-40 A 10” caliper tree can take 13 years. 3” caliper red oaks re-establish as rapidly as 1.5” caliper red oaks. The difference: 42% survival vs 100% survival. 2000 Struve et al. Survival and growth of transplanted small and large caliper red oaks. JOA 26(3): 162-204. Finally, the bigger the tree the more planning and the greater energy and focus necessary on post planting care

Common situations which impact tree health: 

Common situations which impact tree health Urban stress

Common situations which impact tree health: 

Common situations which impact tree health Tree pits What is the average lifespan of an urban street tree?

Common situations which impact tree health: 

Common situations which impact tree health Construction sites

Common situations which impact tree health: 

Common situations which impact tree health Heavy & compacted soil

Common situations which impact tree health: 

Common situations which impact tree health Heavy & compacted soil

Common situations which impact tree health: 

Common situations which impact tree health Deep planting

Shallow is better than deep: 

Shallow is better than deep Dig the planting hole as wide as possible The depth of the hole should be less than the height of the root ball

Digging holes: 

Digging holes For B&B material dig the hole absolutely no deeper than the ball’s height but 3-5 times the ball’s diameter.

Common situations which impact tree health: 

These roots grew through this artificial burlap with little difficulty but, as the roots attempted to expand in diameter, they became girdled or strangled 10 years after planting Common situations which impact tree health Synthetic burlap/twine/wire baskets

How can you tell synthetic from natural?: 

How can you tell synthetic from natural?

Slide57: 

Twine

Wire baskets, what should you do?: 

Wire baskets, what should you do? Take them off? Leave them alone? Cut them back? What is best? Compromise: I cut them back removing the first rung or two

Common situations which impact tree health: 

Common situations which impact tree health Improper mulching

Mulching: 

Mulching Apply a 3” thick layer of mulch to at least an eight-foot diameter circle Apply a thinner layer of mulch over the root ball, but keep it away from the trunk

Common situations which impact tree health: 

Common situations which impact tree health Improper mulching Fiberous roots from the trunk Desiccation Reduced effectiveness of the original root system Moisture against trunk Rot and disease problems Insect pests Poor water infiltration to the root system

Common situations which impact tree health: 

Common situations which impact tree health Staking

Staking is only necessary when:: 

Staking is only necessary when: Planting in sandy or shaley ground, Root ball is small, broken, or bare root Planting on a very windy site or a high traffic area.

Thigmomorphogenesis: 

Thigmomorphogenesis “change in form as a result of tactile stimulation” Time + movement

Not good: 

Not good Improper staking (too high and/or tight) causes trees to grow tall and spindly. When stakes are removed trees are unable to support their tops.

Proper Staking: 

Proper Staking Proper staking (when necessary) allows trees to sway in the breeze which increases trunk girth (diameter). Attach arbor tie to tree only up to 1/3 the tree height

Alternative staking methods: 

Alternative staking methods These inexpensive alternative staking systems do not need to be removed because they simply decay in a few years Figure 4 Figure 5

Common situations which impact tree health: 

Common situations which impact tree health Improper pruning

Prune to finish the job: 

Prune to finish the job Remove broken branches Perform structural pruning if needed Do not prune to compensate for root loss

Common situations which impact tree health: 

Common situations which impact tree health Planting hole additives/amendments Mycorrihizae Biostimulants/root stimulants Bioplex Organic Material

Recent research: 

Recent research Professor Dan Struve and co-author Jonathan D. Sammons at Ohio State have published two articles on the effect of BioPlex on transplant and recovery of trees. Journal of Environmental Horticulture: ‘Effect of Bioplex on Transplant Success and Recovery of Summer-dug Goldenraintree’ 23(2): 59-62 June 2005 ‘Effect of Bioplex on Transplant Success and Recovery of Non-Dormant Red Oak (Quercus rubra L.)’ 22(4):197-201 December 2004.

Bioplex Research Conclusions: 

Bioplex Research Conclusions Root pruning significantly reduced transpiration on root pruned trees compared to non- root pruned trees and had a greater effect on transpiration than any Bioplex treatment Bioplex had no beneficial effect on seedling dry weight or growth the following spring There does not seem to be any long-term beneficial effect when used to mediate summer digging transplant stress. Bioplex had no beneficial effect on recovery of summer dug goldenraintree Nursery stock handling at the nursery, during transportation, and on the job site may affect transplant survival and regrowth more than the root regeneration characteristics of the species.

Slide73: 

Questions

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