Iranzo Ariane5 LOFARworkshop

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Ariane 5 – A European Launcher for Space Exploration: 

Ariane 5 – A European Launcher for Space Exploration Towards a European Infrastructure for Lunar Observatories - Workshop David Iranzo-Greus Head of Advanced Studies Launchers, Propulsion and Defence EADS SPACE Transporation Bremen, March 23rd, 2005

Ariane 5: 

Ariane 5

Slide3: 

Ariane 5

Ariane 5 Flight: 

Ariane 5 Flight

Ariane 5 is already a launcher for exploration: 

Ariane 5 is already a launcher for exploration SMART-1 – Ariane 516 Sept. 27th, 2003 Rosetta – Ariane 518 March 2nd, 2004

Ariane 5 options: 

Ariane 5 options Reference Ariane 5 Robotic exploration missions Possible participation to assembly of infrastructure in conjunction with other heavy-lift launchers (international mission )

Ariane 5 and LEO launch (1) : 

Ariane 5 and LEO launch (1) L10 EPS H173 EPC Vulcain 2 P240 EAP Performance of Ariane 5 with EPS Performance : payload + adapter Ariane 5 ES : Performance : 20.9 t (200 km x 200 km / 51.6° ) 20.7 t (300 km x 200 km / 51.6° )  EPC falldown constraint taken into account (margin with respect to European coast) Ariane 5 ESv (versatile) : Performance : 21.3 t (200 km x 200 km) 21.1 t (300 km x 200 km)  “natural” EPC falldown in the Atlantic Ocean  ballistic phase (< 2 h) before EPS re-ignition

Ariane 5 and LEO launch (2) : 

Ariane 5 and LEO launch (2) Performance of Ariane 5 with ESC-A Ariane 5 ECA : Performance : 20.7 t (200 km x 200 km / 51.6° ) 20.6 t (300 km x 200 km / 51.6° )  “natural” EPC falldown in the Atlantic Ocean  no performance gain with respect to Ariane 5 ES and Ariane 5 ESv due to - non optimal staging for LEO - ESC-A non reignitable H14.4 ESC-A + HM7B P240 EAP) H173 EPC Vulcain 2

Ariane 5 and LEO launch (3) : 

Ariane 5 and LEO launch (3) Performance of Ariane 5 with ESC-B Ariane 5 ECB : Performance : 23 t (300 km x 300 km / 51.6° )  de-loading of ECB (17.5 t of propellant)  EPC falldown constraint taken into account  ballistic phase (3000 s) before ESC-B re-ignition P240 EAP H173 EPC Vulcain 2 H28 ESC-B + Vinci

Lunar Mission Example (1): 

Lunar Mission Example (1) LEO parking orbit LTO (Lunar Transfer Orbit) circularisation boost de-orbitation boost capture boost mid-course correction Mission profile : DV needs:

Lunar Mission Example (2): 

Lunar Mission Example (2) Hypotheses : - Storable propellant stage for LTO injection (13% structural coefficient used: idem EPS) - Storable propellant stage for mid-course correction, circularisation, descent and lunar landing (18% structural coefficient used) - Isp : 324 s (idem EPS) Performance (simplified DV approach) :

Ariane 5 and direct LTO injection: 

Ariane 5 and direct LTO injection Hypotheses : - LTO performance assumed equal to the performance into a parabolic scape trajectory (C3=0 / sizing hypothesis) - Storable propellant stage for mid-course correction, circularisation, descent and lunar landing (18% structural coefficient used) - Isp : 324 s (idem EPS) Performance (simplified DV approach) :

Synthesis about Ariane 5 and Exploration: 

Synthesis about Ariane 5 and Exploration Ariane 5: between 20 t and 23 t into LEO Ariane 5 in the same performance range as: Atlas 552 – 19 tons Delta IV Heavy – 23 tons Ariane 5 ECB provides a substantial gain for direct LTO injection

Adaptation of the Ariane 5 concept (1): 

Adaptation of the Ariane 5 concept (1) Objective : Maximize Ariane 5 performance without major architecture modifications Approach :  increase of Vinci thrust level (ESCB) : 200 kN instead of 180 kN.  Composite casing for the EAP : 248 t of propellant for 27 t of dry mass (versus 240 t / 38,6 t for the current configuration)  Vulcain Mark III : evolutions with respect to Vulcain II + 13.3 s on the Isp (446.8 s) + 350 kN on thrust (1700 kN vac.)

Adaptation of Ariane 5 concept (2): 

Adaptation of Ariane 5 concept (2) LEO performance: 27 tons Identified critical points high dynamic pressure level (> 48 000 Pa ) (+30% with respect to the Ariane 5 ECB reference version) considering a dynamic pressure constraint on the trajectory optimization process would cancel the performance gain important effect on the launcher aerodynamic loads launcher ascent controlability to be verified

Ariane 5 Heavy Lift Derivatives: 

Ariane 5 Heavy Lift Derivatives H70 H620 4 P230 Lift-off mass : 1874 t 5 Vulcain II Payload : 35 t (LTO injection ) 1 Vulcain II Height 74 m VEB Context : study initiated by CNES in 1991 reference mission : human flight to the Moon (Apollo-like) launcher performance > 32 t in LTO “Ariane Super Lourd” / ASL : - 4 EAP (P230) - cryogenic lower stage : H620 / 8.2 m diameter 5 Vulcain II - cryogenic upper stage : H70 / 5.4 m diameter Vulcain at 700 kN (re-ignitable?) 90 tons in LEO 100 km x 200 km/23° 35 tons in LTO/23°

Synthesis: 

Synthesis Ariane 5 performance is interesting mainly for robotic exploration missions (21 to 23 tons in LEO) Maximum performance increase to 27 tons in LEO while keeping the general Ariane 5 architecture Ariane 5 heavy-lift derivatives could be considered but high development costs to be expected even with proven technologies Ariane 5 elements could be used through an international cooperation aiming at developing an upper stage based on EPC and Vulcain technologies

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