Treatment of Degenerative Diseases with Rare Earth Metals

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Treatment of Degenerative Diseases with Rare Earth Metals:

Treatment of Degenerative Diseases with Rare Earth Metals By Shannon W, Shannon K, and Samantha

Cerium:

Cerium

About Cerium:

About Cerium Most abundant rare earth and makes up about 0.0046% of the earth's crust. Discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius and Wilhelm von Hisinger , Swedish chemists, and independently by Martin Heinrich Klaproth , a German chemist, in 1803. Pure cerium will ignite if it is scratched with a sharp object, but can be safely used if combined with other materials. Common uses: Carbon arc lights. Lighters and flint. Petroleum refining. Glass polishing.

Other Uses for Cerium:

Other Uses for Cerium

Vision and Photoreceptor Cells:

Vision and Photoreceptor Cells Vision is based on the absorption of light by photoreceptor cells in the eye. There are two types of receptor cells: Rods-- function in dim light and don’t perceive color . Cones-- function in bright light and are responsible for color vision .

Inside an Eye:

Inside an Eye

Toxic Oxygen Intermediates:

Toxic Oxygen Intermediates A radical (often, but unnecessarily called a free radical) is an atom or group of atoms that have one or more unpaired electrons. Formed as necessary intermediates in a variety of normal biochemical reactions, but, when generated in excess or not appropriately controlled, can be toxic and destructive to bodily cells. Extremely high chemical reactivity. Reduction of molecular oxygen leads to formation of a group of reactive oxygen species: superoxide anion peroxide (hydrogen peroxide) hydroxyl radical

Oxygen Reduction:

Oxygen Reduction

How Cerium Helps:

How Cerium Helps With types of blindness, the intracellular concentration of ROIs rises, activating a cell death pathway. Since cerium can be present in a +3 or +4 oxidation state, they are able to act as oxygen buffers. ~5 nm nanoceria (CeO 2 ) particles are able to act catalytically and scavenge ROIs within retinal neurons.

Research Results:

Research Results The researchers  hypothesized that the engineered nanoceria particles would be able to scavenge ROIs within retinal neurons and prevent damage to the eyes of the rats. The particles were effective in preventing light induced damage when injected before or after light exposure. They could both prevent damage to the eyes as well as rescue some cells already damaged by the UV rays. The study found that a concentration of 5nM prevented cell death due to ROIs. Additionally, the injection of the nanoparticles was not limited to the area of the injection and was shown to protect the entire retina.

Research Results Cont.:

Research Results Cont.

Research Results Cont.:

Research Results Cont. Thickness of the outer nuclear layer of the photo receptor showing the protective effects of the nanoceria particles. The floresecent intensity measures the cells that have been damaged by the light and started a death pathway.  After 96 hours, the nanoceria particles decreased the amount of damaged cells.

Treatment of Other Diseases:

Treatment of Other Diseases Parkinson’s. MPTP is a neurotoxin that causes symptoms of Parkinson’s. C erium O xide nanoparticles preserve the number of neurons and striatal dopamine, reduce oxidative stress in the brain, and serve as neuroprotective agents against MPTP. Alzheimer's. P olymerization of the amyloid beta peptide into amyloid fibrils is associated with the development of the disease. D evelopment of a controlled drug release system to Inhibit Aβ formation, decrease cellular ROIs and protect cells against Aβ toxicity.

References:

References http://www.researchgate.net/profile/James_Mcginnis/publication/51427539_Rare_earth_nanoparticles_prevent_retinal_degeneration_induced_by_intracellular_peroxides/links/00463513f797876d02000000.pdf http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele058.html http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22541/ http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/misc_topics/radicals.html https://www.michaeljfox.org/foundation/grant-detail.php?grant_id=756

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