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Chapter 4: Threads:

Chapter 4: Threads

Chapter 4: Threads:

Chapter 4: Threads Overview Multithreading Models Threading Issues Pthreads Windows XP Threads Linux Threads Java Threads

Single and Multithreaded Processes:

Single and Multithreaded Processes


Benefits Responsiveness Resource Sharing Economy Utilization of MP Architectures

User Threads:

User Threads Thread management done by user-level threads library Three primary thread libraries: POSIX Pthreads Win32 threads Java threads

Kernel Threads:

Kernel Threads Supported by the Kernel Examples Windows XP/2000 Solaris Linux Tru64 UNIX Mac OS X

Multithreading Models:

Multithreading Models Many-to-One One-to-One Many-to-Many


Many-to-One Many user-level threads mapped to single kernel thread Examples: Solaris Green Threads GNU Portable Threads

Many-to-One Model:

Many-to-One Model


One-to-One Each user-level thread maps to kernel thread Examples Windows NT/XP/2000 Linux Solaris 9 and later

One-to-one Model:

One-to-one Model

Many-to-Many Model:

Many-to-Many Model Allows many user level threads to be mapped to many kernel threads Allows the operating system to create a sufficient number of kernel threads Solaris prior to version 9 Windows NT/2000 with the ThreadFiber package

Many-to-Many Model:

Many-to-Many Model

Two-level Model:

Two-level Model Similar to M:M, except that it allows a user thread to be bound to kernel thread Examples IRIX HP-UX Tru64 UNIX Solaris 8 and earlier

Two-level Model:

Two-level Model

Threading Issues:

Threading Issues Semantics of fork() and exec() system calls Thread cancellation Signal handling Thread pools Thread specific data Scheduler activations

Semantics of fork() and exec():

Semantics of fork() and exec() Does fork() duplicate only the calling thread or all threads?

Thread Cancellation:

Thread Cancellation Terminating a thread before it has finished Two general approaches: Asynchronous cancellation terminates the target thread immediately Deferred cancellation allows the target thread to periodically check if it should be cancelled

Signal Handling:

Signal Handling Signals are used in UNIX systems to notify a process that a particular event has occurred A signal handler is used to process signals Signal is generated by particular event Signal is delivered to a process Signal is handled Options: Deliver the signal to the thread to which the signal applies Deliver the signal to every thread in the process Deliver the signal to certain threads in the process Assign a specific threa to receive all signals for the process

Thread Pools:

Thread Pools Create a number of threads in a pool where they await work Advantages: Usually slightly faster to service a request with an existing thread than create a new thread Allows the number of threads in the application(s) to be bound to the size of the pool

Thread Specific Data:

Thread Specific Data Allows each thread to have its own copy of data Useful when you do not have control over the thread creation process (i.e., when using a thread pool)

Scheduler Activations:

Scheduler Activations Both M:M and Two-level models require communication to maintain the appropriate number of kernel threads allocated to the application Scheduler activations provide upcalls - a communication mechanism from the kernel to the thread library This communication allows an application to maintain the correct number kernel threads


Pthreads A POSIX standard (IEEE 1003.1c) API for thread creation and synchronization API specifies behavior of the thread library, implementation is up to development of the library Common in UNIX operating systems (Solaris, Linux, Mac OS X)

Windows XP Threads:

Windows XP Threads Implements the one-to-one mapping Each thread contains A thread id Register set Separate user and kernel stacks Private data storage area The register set, stacks, and private storage area are known as the context of the threads The primary data structures of a thread include: ETHREAD (executive thread block) KTHREAD (kernel thread block) TEB (thread environment block)

Linux Threads:

Linux Threads Linux refers to them as tasks rather than threads Thread creation is done through clone() system call clone() allows a child task to share the address space of the parent task (process)

Java Threads:

Java Threads Java threads are managed by the JVM Java threads may be created by: Extending Thread class Implementing the Runnable interface

Java Thread States :

Java Thread States

End of Chapter 4:

End of Chapter 4

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