THE COPTIC CHURCH

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A historic comprehensive documentation about the COPTS (Egyptian Christians)

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An Overview of the Coptic Church 1 An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros A Manual Presentation Auto set at 20 seconds Kamal K. Botros, Ph.D. St. Mina Coptic Orthodox Church of Calgary History of the Coptic Church With Music by Chopin Issued June 2010 - revised March 2012

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Outline: The Term Copt History of the Coptic Church Characteristics of the Coptic Church Distinctions Between the Coptic Church and the Catholic or the Protestant Churches Contribution of the Coptic Church to Ecumenical Christianity Hierarchy of Coptic Church Socio-Economic Account of the Coptic Church Closing Remarks 2 An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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The Term Copt Hak-ka-Ptah Ai gypt os gibt or qibt Egypt Pharaonic Name: which means the house of the God Ptah Greek Name: gypt Copt An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Who Are the Copts? Theory #1 : Direct descendants of the Pharaohs. Noah Ham Shem (or Sam) Japheth Mizraim Caphtorim Who dwelled in Quft (near Memphis in Nile Valley [Gen 10]) Theory #2 : An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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History of the Coptic Church The Coptic Church is a direct establishment as an Apostolic church, whose founder is St. Mark, one of the 70 Apostles of Christ. St. Mark came to Alexandria in 48 AD, and was martyred in 68 AD. During this time he established the church of Alexandria, ordained the first Bishop (Anianus), who later became the second Patriarch of the Coptic church. Pope Shenouda III, the 117 th Patriarch succeeding St. Mark, is the present Pope of the Coptic Church. An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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History of the Coptic Church Egyptians before St. Mark were religious-minded people, who helped in spreading out Christianity quickly across the land of Egypt. Isis, Osiris and Horus (symbol of trinity) Ankh: Symbol of life Isis (example of St. Mary) Osiris (represents god of Justice, combined divinity and humanity nature, believed to have been resurrected) Horus battle with Seth (Angels vs. Satin) Embalming and Building Pyramids in belief of eternal life An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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History of the Coptic Church Ephesus Alexandria Rome Antioch Jerusalem Nicasea year 325 Constantinople year 381 Ephesus year 431 One church (325 – 451) An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Council of Nicaea , (325 AD); repudiated Arianism, which taught that Jesus was not one with the Father. Council of Constantinople , (381 AD); repudiated the heresy of Macedonius which denied the divinity of the Holy Spirit. Council of Ephesus , (431 AD); repudiated Nestorianism, which rejected that Virgin Mary is the Theotokos (mother of god). History of the Coptic Church An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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History of the Coptic Church Courtesy of Mr. Ashraf Gabour of Boston, MA. Roman Catholic Nicaea year 325 Constantinople year 381 Ephesus year 431 Chalcedon year 451 Year 1054 The Catholic Added “the Holy Spirit proceeds from the son“ Primacy of the Pope Year 1521 Protestant (Martin Luther) Adventist Many Others Year 1538 Anglican (Episcopal) King Henry the eight Divorce Story to Catherine of Aragon ONE CHURCH Catholic Non Chalcedonian Opposed Orders & Ceremonials Particularly confession Coptic Orthodox Eritrean Orthodox Ethiopian Orthodox Antioch Orthodox Indian Orthodox Syrian Orthodox Armenian Orthodox 7 Oriental Orthodox Chalcedonian 14 Eastern Orthodox (Byzantine) Greek Orthodox Russian Orthodox Jerusalem Orthodox Antioch Orthodox Yugoslavia Orthodox Romanian Orthodox Bulgarian Orthodox Checkuzluvakian Orthodox Georgia Orthodox Poland Orthodox Cyprus Orthodox Serbian Orthodox Finland Orthodox Albania Orthodox An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros CHURCH SPILT

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History of the Coptic Church Ref: Philip Jenkins, Professor of History and Religious Studies at Penn State University.. Council of Chalcedon 451 AD: One nature without mingling, without confusion & without alteration An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Note on Monophysite: The Oriental Orthodox churches were falsely referred to as "Monophysite" churches, although they reject this label, which is associated with Eutychian Monophysitism (that teaches that Christ has only one nature (divine). The Oriental Orthodox prefer the term non-Chalcedonian or Miaphysite churches. In the 20th century, a number of dialogues have occurred between the Oriental Orthodox and the Chalcedonian Orthodox which suggest that both communions now share a common Christology with differing terminology. As yet, full communion has not been restored. History of the Coptic Church An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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History of the Coptic Church Pharaonic Era dates back to 3000 years B.C. The Greek (Alexander the Great) conquered Egypt in 323 B.C., and a new capital of Egypt was named after him as “Alexandria”. After Alexander's death, Egypt was ruled by his general, Ptolemy who founded the Ptolemic Dynasty that reigned from 323 B.C. to 30 B.C. Rome then ended the Ptolemic rule and the reign of Cleopatra in 30 B.C. The Ptolemies established a large library in Alexandria, which was considered the greatest in the world at that time. In 640 A.D., the Arabs (Amr Ibn Al-As) conquered Egypt and besieged the Fortress of Babylon until the surrender of the Byzantine forces in 641 A.D. Quick Rundown of Historic Periods in Egypt: An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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History of the Coptic Church Islamic Ruling: Rule of the Ummayads about 655 A.D. Rule of the Abbassys about 750 A.D. Rule of the Tullunids 870 A.D. to 910 A.D. Rule of the Ikhshids 935 A.D. to 970 A.D. Rule of the Fatimids 970 A.D. to 1170 A.D. Rule of the Ayubids 1170 A.D. to 1250 A.D. Rule of the Mamluks 1250 A.D. to 1510 A.D. Rule of the Ottomans 1510 A.D. to 1806 A.D. Quick Rundown of Historic Periods in Egypt: An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Modern Egypt (1806): Muhammad Ali (Albanian) is truly considered the founder of Modern Egypt, and his family ruled Egypt from 1806 A.D. In 1882 Egypt was under the protection of the British Empire (a protectorate), and in March 1922 Sultan Fouad 1 st declared Egypt a Kingdom, a sovereign state and became the first king of Egypt. Egypt became a Republic in 1952 - Muhammad Naguib (1953-1954), Gamal Abdel Nasser (1954-1970), Anwar Sadat (1970-1981), and Hosny Mubarak ( 1981-2011). History of the Coptic Church Quick Rundown of Historic Periods in Egypt: An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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History of the Coptic Church Arabs Chalcedon Mamluks An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Coptic Language/Alphabets Church Orders and Sacraments Liturgies Rituals and Ceremonials Coptic Calendar Coptic Music Coptic Art Coptic Museum An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Coptic Language/Alphabets Pictographic : 1. Hieroglyphic (sacred) 2. Hieratic (strictly for liturgies – priests & scribes) 3. Demotic (spoken) Alphabetic : Greek (in 150 BC) transliterated the demotic using their 24 Greek alphabets plus 8 other letters derived from demotic sound An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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24 Greek Alphabets An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros Note: Circled letters are addition to the Greek alphabet

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An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros Note: Circled letters are addition to the Greek alphabet

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Coptic Language/Alphabets 2 nd Century: All religious documents written in Coptic. 706 AD: Arabic language became the official language. 17 Th Century: Pure Coptic language was pushed southward. Now: Coptic language is mostly practiced in Church Liturgies. Dialects Boharic Sahidic Bashmuric Faiyumic Akmimic An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Church Orders and Sacraments Seven Sacraments : 1. Baptism (infants & grownups) 2. Confirmation (Myroon) 3. Penance and Confession 4. Holy Communion 5. Unction of the sick 6. Holy Matrimony 7. Priesthood Each sacrament has a special and organized prayer in a book called the “Services Prayers” An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Liturgies Three Liturgies : 1. St. Basil Liturgy (Bishop of Caesarea); most commonly used 2. St. Gregory Liturgy (Bishop of Constantinople) 3. St. Cyril I (24 th Patriarch of the Coptic Church) Characteristics: a) The same prayer and same readings across all dioceses b) Biblical readings follow a yearly calendar – written in a reading book called the “Katamaros”. Prayers of the Hours : Seven Organized prayers during the day. An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Rituals and Ceremonials Major Feasts : 1. The Annunciation 2. The Nativity of Christ 3. The Epiphany or the Baptism of Christ 4. Palm Sunday 5. Easter 6. The Ascension 7. Pentecost Two Major fasting precede: the Nativity (Advent: 43 days), and Easter (Lent: 55 days) An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Why the Coptic Church celebrates Christmas on January 7 th : Until the 16 th century, the civil calendar in use the world was the Julian calendar , introduced by Julius Caesar in the year 46 B.C. This calendar considered the year to be 365.25 days and thus had a leap year every four years, just like the Coptic calendar. In 1582 A.D., Pope Gregory XIII of Rome found that it is slightly shorter than the Julian year. It was 365.2422 solar days (approximately 11 minutes and 14 seconds shorter). The Gregorian calendar established that the Julian calendar should be shortened by 3 days every 400 years: this can be done by making the centenary year a normal 365-day year, not a leap year, except if its number is divisible by 400. Thus the year 1600 remained a leap year as usual, while 1700, 1800 and 1900 had only 365 days each and the year 2000 was a leap year of 366 days. This resulted in 13 days difference to-date. An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Rituals and Ceremonials Minor Feasts : 1. The Circumcision of our Lord 2. The Entrance of our Lord into the Temple 3. The Escape of the Holy family to Egypt 4. The First Miracle of our Lord Jesus at Cana 5. The Transfiguration of Christ 6. Maundy Thursday 7. Thomas's Sunday An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Rituals and Ceremonials Feasts of the Saints : 1. The Feasts of St. Mary 2. The Apostles' Feast 3. The Nayrouz Feast 4. The Two Feasts of the Cross An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Coptic Calendar: The Coptic calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian bright star named ‘Sirius’. The heliacal rising of this star every year came at the time of flooding and marked the Egyptian New Year. This was the start of the world's first calendar, invented over 5000 years ago. An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Coptic Calendar: Based still on the Sirius calendar, but re-initialized as year 1 to coincide with year 284 AD, the year Diocletian became Roman Emperor, whose reign was marked by tortures and mass executions of Christians, especially in Egypt. This calendar is still in use all over Egypt by farmers to keep track of the various agricultural seasons and climatic changes. The Coptic calendar has 13 months, (12 x 30 days each) and an intercalary month at the end with 5 or 6 days, depending on whether the year is a leap or not. Day 1 of the Coptic year coincides with September 11 every year. An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Coptic Calendar: An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Coptic Music: Mainly chanting, i.e. no musical instrument is permitted, except one cymbal, and one triangle. Either vocal (the priest or deacon) or choral (the whole church in reply). Mainly derived from ancient Egyptian (like the hymn of Eboroo), or Byzantine (like Ekhrestos Anistee). An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Coptic Arts: Icons Wood Stone Manuscripts Metals Textiles Ivory & Bone Ostraca Fresco Pottery & Glaze Glass Leather & Reeds Derived from: Ancient Egyptians, Hellenistic, Byzantine and Nubian. An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Coptic Museum:

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Coptic Icons: The art of making Coptic Icons is not just painting. There are several points that must be followed: Eyes: Must be large and wide, to symbolize the spiritual eyes that look beyond the material world. Ears: Must be large, to hear God’s word. Mouth: Usually small, because it is a source of harmful words. Nose: Usually small, because it is seen as a sensual facial feature. Head: Is large to mean that you are devoted to prayer. They reflect and reinforce religious beliefs. An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Coptic Icons: An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Characteristics of the Coptic Church Coptic Icons: Coptic (non-Chalcedonian): Monophysite sign (see note earlier)* (Chalcedonian): Diophysite sign An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Distinction Between the Coptic and the Catholic Churches Salvation of nonbelievers The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son Purgatory Pardons (Indulgence) Certificates Saint Mary Immaculate Conception Infallibility of the Pope The Pope is the Head of all churches St. Peter is the founder of the Church and has a higher authority Priests are celibates No fasting before communion An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Distinction Between the Coptic and the Protestant Churches No structured church rituals No seven sacraments Absolute Grace Concerning Salvation No confession No Monasticism No approval of praying on the dead No Intercession Perpetual virginity of Saint Mary Variety and Freedom of Dogma The Gift of the Holy Spirit An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Contribution of the Coptic Church To Ecumenical Christianity Monasticism Three Ecumenical Councils The Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt. An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Contribution of the Coptic Church To Ecumenical Christianity Monasticism The Coptic Church takes pride in the introduction and establishment of monasticism, which is considered the most profound spiritual revival ever happened in all the history of Christianity. St. Antony (251-356 AD ) is the founder of Monasticism in early Christianity, while St. Paula (229-342 AD) is considered to be the first hermit & anchorite. An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Coptic Monasticism has undergone three phases: Hermitic : The anchorites or hermits lived in complete isolation. Each hermit organized his own prayer, clothing, food and work. Some hermits entered into the inner deserts and settled there for tens of years, not seeing any human beings. Communal or Semi-Hermitic : It is the half-way between Hermitic and Cenobitic systems. Established by St. Antony himself. The monks lived in separate caves or cells and assembled occasionally for divine service or spiritual conferences. Cenobitic (Sharing): Founded by St. Pachomius in Upper Egypt. The monks lived in a community inside the walls of the monastery, in association with each other, and governed by an abbot and by set of rules. An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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St. Anthony Monastery An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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St. Bishoy Monastery An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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The Syrian Monastery An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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El Baramos Monastery An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Abu Makar Monastery An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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St. Mina Monastery at Mariout An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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El Azab Monastery - Fayoom An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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White Monastery-Sohag An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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St. Samuel Monastery - Maghagha An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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El Ganadla Monastery – Abi Teeg An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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El Moharaq Monastery - Assiut

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Contribution of the Coptic Church To Ecumenical Christianity Three Ecumenical Councils Council of Nicaea , (325 AD); repudiated Arianism, adopted the Nicene Creed. Chaired by St. Athanasius, the 20 th Patriarch of Alexandria. Council of Constantinople , (381 AD); repudiated the heresy of Macedonius and revised the Nicene Creed into present form used in the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches. Chaired by Pope Timothy, the 22 nd Patriarch of Alexandria. Council of Ephesus , (431 AD); repudiated Nestorianism, and proclaimed the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos ("Mother of God"). Chaired by St. Cyril the Great, the 24 th Patriarch of Alexandria. An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Emperor Constantine and the Fathers at Nicaea An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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St. Athanasius and Emperor Constantine at Nicaea An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Contribution of the Coptic Church To Ecumenical Christianity The Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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The Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Mostorod Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt:

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Belbais Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt: An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Sakha Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt: An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Well and Tree at Matareya Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt: An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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St. Mary Church at Zuweila Alley Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt: An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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St. Mary Church (Qasriet Al Rihan) Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt: An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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St. Mary Church - Ezbaweya Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt:

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St. Mary’s Cave (Abu Serga Church) Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt: An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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St. Mary Church Moalaka Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt: An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Babylon Fortress and Coptic Museum Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt: An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros

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Gabal El Tair - Bahnasa/Samaloat Bowing Tree Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt:

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April 6, 2009 An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros Ashmouneen – Malawy Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt:

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April 6, 2009 An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros Doronka-Assiut Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt:

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April 6, 2009 An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros El Moharaq Monastery Isaiah 19:19 - “In that day there will be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt , and a pillar to the LORD at its border. And it will be for a sing and for a witness to the Lord of hosts in the land of Egypt”. Refuge of the Holy Family in Egypt:

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April 6, 2009 An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros Hierarchy of the Coptic Church

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April 6, 2009 An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros 73 Hierarchy of the Coptic Church

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April 6, 2009 An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros Socio-Economic Account of the Copts Total number of Copts around the world ~ 18 millions

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April 6, 2009 An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros Socio-Economic Account of the Copts Since Arab’s invasion in 640 AD, the Copts have migrated mostly to upper Egypt. They were entrusted mainly in the following areas: Tax collections Ministry of Finance Transportation system Medical profession Due to Nasser's nationalization movement, many Copts suffered loss of lands and properties. At present, Copts are integrated in the Egyptian society, however, they are restricted from critical ranks and positions within the Egyptian government.

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April 6, 2009 An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros Socio-Economic Account of the Copts

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April 6, 2009 An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros Socio-Economic Account of the Copts

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April 6, 2009 An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros Concluding Remarks The Coptic Church prides itself of being one of the oldest churches to preserve its unblemished culture, traditions, rituals and theological beliefs since its inception at the birth of Christianity. The Coptic Church is recognized for its significant contribution to the ecumenical Christianity in the areas of: Monasticism The first three Ecumenical Councils Preserving sacred sites and commemorating the refuge of the Holy Family across the land of Egypt

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April 6, 2009 An Overview of the Coptic Church – K.K. Botros Concluding Remarks The Coptic Church has passed the test of time, persevering through political and theological turmoil, as well as martyrdom, persecution, and discrimination. Today, the Copts are very proud of being the indigenous Egyptians with genealogical traces to the Pharaohs, and of their long and rich heritage throughout the centuries. They remain faithful to their beliefs in a genuine and loving manner, and not with a fanatical disposition.

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The Author Kamal K. Botros , Ph.D ., P.Eng . 71 Hampstead Rise, N.W. Calgary, Alberta, Canada T3A 6B5 1-403-547-3432 1-403-250-4790 Email: botrosk@novachem.com Click above on Email to contact K.Botros

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Dr . Kamal Boutros Was kind enough to let me slightly modify, add and replace the graphics to his original presentation and research work to produce this modest PowerPoint Show Hoping to spread the knowledge and history of the Egyptian Christians. “the Copts” Mike Y. Sharobim: www.charobim.com Click above for link to Charobim site to comments Music: Chopin Mazurka OP 63 PRESENTATION Mike Sharobim - July 2010

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