Pesticide Technoogy to Reduce Risk

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Pesticide Technology to Reduce Risk: 

Pesticide Technology to Reduce Risk


Risk and Liability

What is Risk?: 

What is Risk? ACTUARIAL: A measure of the probability and severity of an adverse effect. LEGAL: The probability or chance that a particular hazard will lead to injury. BUSINESS: The probability of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes. MILITARY: The probability or chance that a particular threat will exploit a particular vulnerability.

Defining Risk: 

Defining Risk Risk = Hazard x Exposure Hazard: Any circumstance or event with the potential to cause harm. A hazard in and of itself presents no risk until something is exposed to it. Exposure: A particular amount of time something comes in contact with a hazard or the number of times something comes in contact with a hazard.

Risk Expressed as Cost: 

Risk Expressed as Cost Risk = Threat x Vulnerability x Assets (cost) Threat is the frequency of potentially adverse events resulting from hazards (hazard x events). Vulnerability is the likelihood of success of a particular threat. Costs are measured in terms of "real" damage to assets.

Categories of Risk: 

Categories of Risk Legal risk Compliance enforcement (prosecution) Liability (litigation) Financial risk Assets (loss of money) Liability (debits) Market risk Loss of sales Loss of profit (reduced margin, bottom line) Technology risk Breakdown (down time) Disruption (interruption of activity)

Factors That Increase Risk: 

Factors That Increase Risk Toxicity chemicals physical conditions human health factors Exposure (handler) mixing/loading application cleanup storage/transport disposal Exposure (workers/public) entering treated areas movement off site transport mix/load/storage sites disposal spills exposure to treated crops

Laws to Reduce Risk: 

Laws to Reduce Risk U. S. Laws FFDCA 1908 FIFRA 1947 OSHA 1973 ESA 1973 RCRA 1973 SARA Title III CWA 1974 SDWA 1975 40 CFR 170-171 FQPA 1996 Patriot Act 2001 Texas Laws Pesticide Law 1899 Herbicide Law Clean Air Act Clean Water Act Solid Waste Disposal OSHA Tx Health Code Tx Occupational Code Tx Admin. Code AHC Act 1987

Areas Where Applicators Can Reduce Risk: 

Areas Where Applicators Can Reduce Risk Pesticide Toxicity less toxic pesticides non-chemical alternatives rate, dilution, formulation Exposure (handler) use PPE use of advanced packaging systems implement advanced handling systems Exposure (workers/public) control access control runoff/leaching/drift change transportation factors mix/load/storage sites BMP’s minimize waste be prepared to handle spills avoid harvesting

Today’s Topics: 

Today’s Topics EXPOSURE Advanced handling technology Systems to reduce exposure, drift, waste Personal protection (PPE) Toxicity Reduced risk formulations and packaging Alternatives DISPOSAL: Waste minimization Clean up Container disposal


EXPOSURE I. Environment II. Personal Protection III. Closed Systems


HAZARDS TO CONSIDER Water Contamination Drains Backflow Protection Mix on site I. MIXING AND LOADING SITES


Wells Creeks Ponds Water Sources DO NOT Mix or Load Next To or Above:


KNOW WHERE THE DRAIN EMPTIES! When Mixing, Loading, or Cleaning Pesticide Equipment Over or Near Drains:


Proper Mixing and Loading Area


Air Gap Backflow Preventer Use Backflow Protection


Need for PPE Knowing How to Use PPE II. PPE - Personal Protective Equipment


TYPES OF EXPOSURE Oral Inhalation Dermal Ocular PPE Protects You From Exposure When Working With Pesticides

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): 

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Label specific May include: gloves boots or shoe covers coveralls hood or wide-brimmed hat apron protective eyewear respirator


Long Sleeve Shirt Long Pants Shoes and Socks Chemical Resistant Gloves Review The Label For PPE Information If Label Does Not Refer To PPE Use a Minimum of Protection Such As:


NEVER Store With Pesticides Respirator and Respirator Cartridges should be Stored Separately Clean Respirator after Each Use Clothes Used While Applying Pesticides Should be Washed Separately From Other Laundry PROPER STORAGE AND MAINTENANCE OF PPE SHOULD INCLUDE



Closed Systems: 

Closed Systems Eliminate manual mixing/loading process Reduce exposure to concentrates Reduce waste of concentrates Reduce spill potential

Closed Systems - Small Systems and Backpack Sprayers: 

Closed Systems - Small Systems and Backpack Sprayers Nomix/Monsanto Expedite System pre-packaged product (no mixing or handling) self-sealing, no waste, refillable containers five different herbicides

Closed Systems - Small Systems and Backpack Sprayers: 

Closed Systems - Small Systems and Backpack Sprayers Nomix/Monsanto Expedite System backpack sprayer reduced drift nozzles chemistry

Injection Systems: 

Injection Systems Closed system Computer-controlled mixing and calibration No large tank of diluted chemical in-line mixing Tank mixes Eliminates waste and saves time

Soluble Containers: 

Soluble Containers Vinyl-alcohol water soluble films Water soluble “paks” Gel paks Effervescent tablets Biodegradable containers Bag-in-bag Impregnated fabrics and plastics

Water Soluble Packs: 

Water Soluble Packs Reduced packaging paper outer shell non-hazardous waste Water soluble pouch polyvinyl alcohol Water dispersalbe dry formulations Granules (WDG/DF) Wettable powders (WP) Soluble powders (SP)

Gel Paks: 

Gel Paks Reduced packaging water soluble pouch supports mixtures non-hazardous waste Liquid formulation gel sensitive to impact water soluble self-sealing

Lock ‘n’ Load: 

Lock ‘n’ Load Equipment manufacturers and agricultural chemical companies are joining forces to reduce pesticide waste and improve applicator safety. Returnable chemical containers are being designed to fit directly into a valve on the lid of a planter's pesticide hopper. This reduces the risk of the applicator inhaling pesticide dust and disposal of dry granular pesticide packaging.

Effervescent Tablets: 

Effervescent Tablets Scored tablets cut dosages Dissolve in mix water Prescribed amounts no mixing and loading of concentrates

Impregnated Fabrics/Plastics: 

Impregnated Fabrics/Plastics Contained in pockets on plastic or synthetic landscape fabric Used as mulches to inhibit weed growth Slow release from pockets

Reduce Drift: 

Reduce Drift Low drift nozzles Spray shields Low boom height Proper application low wind speeds low pressures selection of formulations with low drift potential


DISPOSAL A. Clean Up B. Container Disposal

A. Clean Up: 

A. Clean Up

Handling Rinsates and Reducing Wastes: 

Handling Rinsates and Reducing Wastes Triple rinsing (10-30-3) Probes and Jets jet rinsers siphon/rinse probes tank rinsers container rinsers Closed systems Injection systems Portable sumps

Jet Rinsers: 

Jet Rinsers Accepted alternative to triple rinsing Inexpensive Very efficient speeds up rinsing saves chemical saves time saves money


Probes Siphon/rinse probes closed system (part) measure concentrates eliminate mix/load process reduce chance of waste and spills

Tank and Container Rinsers: 

Tank and Container Rinsers Tank rinsers internal to tank more efficient saves time and cleans more efficiently Container rinsers designed to rinse larger containers does not puncture container

Portable Sumps: 

Portable Sumps Decontamination sites Up to 33 linear feet of work area and 1,465 gallon sumps Eliminate spills and runoff from load/fill sites Comply with existing and future disposal regulations


Let Container Drain or Drip Into Spray Tank For At Least 30 Seconds Fill Container 1/3 Full of Water Replace Cap On Container and Rotate or Shake to Rinse ALL Sides Drain Rinse Mixture From Container Into Spray Tank Repeat Steps 2-4 Twice More Before Disposal of Pesticide Container Steps for Proper Triple Rinsing


Let Container Drain or Drip Into Spray Tank For At Least 30 Seconds Insert Tip of P/N Through Side of Pesticide Container Near Base Spray Inside Container for 30 Seconds While Holding Over Tank Drain all Rinse Water from Container into Spray Tank Steps for Correct Pressure Rinsing


Offer For Recycling


Dispose of Pesticide Containers In a Manner Which Will Not Contaminate Any Aspect of the Environment Pesticide Labels Have Specific Instructions on Proper Disposal Procedures B. Container Disposal


Triple Rinsing or Pressure Rinsing Offer for Recycling Where Available If Not…. Puncture and Place In Landfill Proper Disposal of Pesticide Containers Includes:

Disposal Basics: 

Disposal Basics Avoid excess stored inventories Minimize excess pesticides and rinsates Avoid the need to dispose of pesticide containers as wastes

Disposal Methods: 

Disposal Methods Storage Reuse Remediation Recycling Burial (Solid Waste) Incineration (Clean Air)

Excess Pesticides: 

Excess Pesticides Buy only what you need for one season Calculate dilutions carefully Use all mixed pesticide as labeled Apply excess mix as labeled on site can’t exceed rate and frequency comply with application directions Return or give away excess products Add rinsates to tank

Pesticide Wastes: 

Pesticide Wastes Excess pesticides and rinsates must be disposed of as wastes Sanitary landfills will take rinsed containers only Store wastes under RCRA guidelines small hazardous waste generator 2.2lbs. (acute) / 2,300 lbs/month farmer exemptions Have wastes hauled commercial haulers


Containers Use refillable or returnable containers Recycle or recondition containers Use soluble packaging

Container Design: 

Container Design Redesigned to reduce spills and enhance handling ”Glug-proof” / “no glug” spout Reduced weight (10 L vs 5 gal) Impact resistant Measure and pour spouts Closed systems Elimination of traditional containers Returnable containers

Container Contents: 

Container Contents Low rate technology ounces/acre smaller containers Reduced risk pesticides lower toxicity more flexible handling reduce number of containers may eliminate some products as hazardous waste

Returnable/Refillable Paks: 

Returnable/Refillable Paks Mini-bulks and small volume returnables Ag. and specialty 15 - 110 gallon Novartis FarmPak/TurfPak Aqumix 15 gallon dilute or concentrate closed systems rights-of-way industry Lock and Load

Recyclable and Reconditionable Containers: 

Recyclable and Reconditionable Containers Must be properly rinsed metal plastic chipped and recycled Drums 30 and 55 gallon return to dealer reconditioning reuse

Summary – Risk Mitigation: 

Summary – Risk Mitigation Reduced risk handling systems formulations and packaging eliminate handling concentrates and mixing containers reduce spills and accidents closed systems and computer controlled systems reduce fatigue and mistakes Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) still the best way to reduce exposure

Summary - Affecting Toxicity: 

Summary - Affecting Toxicity Reduced risk pesticide products low toxicity compounds new registrations (many post 1993) most biologicals and low rate products formulations and packaging

Texas Registered Products: 

Texas Registered Products Products registered specifically in Texas not all inclusive does not imply other products are illegal notice low risk products in list WSP, WSB, Dry-Pak, ChemPaks, G, RTU, WDG IGR, phermones, milky spore, Bt.

Thank you Are there any questions?: 

Thank you Are there any questions? Contact me: Mary L. Ketchersid Agricultural & Environmental Safety 115 Agronomy Field Lab 2488 - TAMU College Station, Texas 77843-2488 Phone: 979-845-6531 FAX: 979-458-2777 E-mail:

Sometimes a presentation is a lot like a longhorn steer - - - : 

Sometimes a presentation is a lot like a longhorn steer - - - A point here and a point there, with a whole lot of bull in between.

Pesticide Technology to Reduce Risk: 

Pesticide Technology to Reduce Risk Douglass E. Stevenson, Ph.D. Agricultural & Environmental Safety Texas Cooperative Extension Texas A&M University College Station, Texas

Pesticide Technology to Reduce Risk: 

Pesticide Technology to Reduce Risk Presented by: Mary L. Ketchersid Agricultural & Environmental Safety Texas Cooperative Extension Texas A&M University College Station, Texas

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