# 2 deformation I

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### Rock Deformation I:

Rock Deformation I

### Rock Deformation:

Rock Deformation Collective displacements of points in a body relative to an external reference frame Deformation describes the transformations from some initial to some final geometry Deformation of a rock body occurs in response to a force

### Deformation …:

Deformation … Deformation involves any one or a combination of the following four components: Ways that rocks respond to stress: Rigid Body Translation Rigid Body Rotation Distortion or Strain Dilation

### Deformation Components:

Deformation Components The components of deformation are divided into rigid and non-rigid body deformation With rigid body deformation the position and orientation of points in a rock body relative to an internal reference frame are not changed With non-rigid body deformation, the position and orientation of points within a rock body are changed relative to both an internal and external reference frame

### Rigid Body Rotation:

Rigid Body Rotation Rotation is a rigid body deformation that changes the configuration of points relative to some external reference frame in a way best described by rotation about some axis Spin of the body around an axis Particles within the body do not change relative position No translation or strain is involved Particle lines rotate relative to an external coordinate system Examples Rotation of a car Rotation of a fault block

### Clockwise Rotation about the z-axis:

Clockwise Rotation about the z-axis .

### Rigid Body Translation:

Rigid Body Translation A rigid body deformation involving movement of the body from one place to another, i.e., change in position Particles within the body do not change relative position No rotation or strain are involved Particle lines do not rotate relative to an external coordinate system Displacement vectors are straight lines e.g., passengers in a car, movement of a fault block During pure translation, a body of rock is displaced in such a way that all points within a body move along parallel paths relative to some external reference frame

### Translation Parallel to the Y axis:

Translation Parallel to the Y axis

### Strain or Distortion:

Strain or Distortion Distortion is a non-rigid body operation that involves the change in the spacing of points within a body of rock in such a way that the overall shape of the body is altered with or without a change in volume Changes of points in body relative to each other Particle lines may rotate relative to an external coordinate system Translation and spin are both zero Example: squeezing a paste In rocks we deal with processes that lead to both movement and distortion

### Strain or Distortion:

Strain or Distortion

### Dilation:

Dilation Dilation is a non-rigid body operation involving a change in volume Pure dilation: The overall shape remains the same Internal points of reference spread apart (+ev) or pack closer (-ev) together Line lengths between points become uniformly longer or shorter

Dilation

### General Deformation:

General Deformation During deformation one or more of the four components of deformation may be zero If, for example, during deformation the rock body undergoes no distortion or no volume change, then deformation consists of either a rigid-body translation, a rigid-body rotation, or includes components of both translation and rotation In contrast, if volume change, translation, and rotation are all zero, then deformation consists of a non-rigid body distortion or strain

### Strain vs. Deformation:

Strain vs. Deformation Though commonly confused with each other, strain is only synonymous with deformation if there has been distortion without any volume change, translation, or rotation Strain represents only one of four possible components involved in the overall deformation of a rock body where it has been transformed from its original position, size, and shape to some new location and configuration Strain describes the changes of points in a body relative to each other, or, in other words, the distortions a body undergoes The reference frame for strain is thus internal

### Homogeneous vs. Inhomogeneous Strain:

Homogeneous vs. Inhomogeneous Strain Mathematical treatments of strain commonly assume homogeneous rather than heterogeneous distortions or strains However, any heterogeneously strained rock body can be subdivided into small areas that exhibit the characteristics of homogeneous strain (concept of domain)

### Homogeneous Strain:

Homogeneous Strain Positions of points with respect to some reference point in a strained domain are a linear function of their position with respect to the same reference point before strain The directions of the lines may change  In other words, in homogeneous deformation, originally straight lines remain straight after deformation (also called affine deformation)

### Homogeneous Strain:

Homogeneous Strain Homogeneous strain affects non-rigid rock bodies in a regular, uniform manner During homogeneous strain parallel lines before strain remain parallel after strain, as a result cubes or squares are distorted into prisms and parallelograms respectively, while spheres and circles are transformed into ellipsoids and ellipses respectively For these generalizations to hold true, the strain must be systematic and uniform across the body that has been deformed

### Homogeneous Deformation:

Homogeneous Deformation Originally straight lines remain straight Originally parallel lines remain parallel Circles (spheres) become ellipses (ellipsoids)

### Homogeneous Strain:

Homogeneous Strain

### Homogeneous Deformation - Pure Shear:

Homogeneous Deformation - Pure Shear .

### Homogeneous Deformation - Simple Shear:

Homogeneous Deformation - Simple Shear

### Inhomogeneous Strain:

Inhomogeneous Strain Heterogeneous strain affects non-rigid bodies in an irregular, non-uniform manner and is sometimes referred to as non-homogeneous or inhomogeneous strain During heterogeneous strain, parallel lines before strain are not parallel after strain Circles and squares or their three-dimensional counter parts, cubes and spheres, are distorted into complex forms

### Heterogeneous or Inhomogeneous strain:

Heterogeneous or Inhomogeneous strain Leads to distorted complex forms