H. Energy

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Some of the potential renewable energy resources for Ecovillages.

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Providing Necessities: Energy:

Providing Necessities: Energy For Ecovillages

Renewable Energy Sources:

Renewable Energy Sources Solar photovoltaic Passive solar Wind turbines Geothermal (& ground source heat pumps) Water turbines Waste recycling, crop oils or residues Animal and human power

Availability in Our Area:

Availability in Our Area Photovoltaic – excellent Passive solar – excellent Wind turbines – poor Geothermal – very select areas only Water turbines – no flowing rivers Waste recycling, crop oils or residues - excellent Animal and human power - excellent

Photovoltaic Systems:

Photovoltaic Systems Solar panels – are mounted on rooftops or flat areas of land Battery backup – deep-cycle batteries to store power, & charge controller for them Inverters – to change the direct current produced into alternating current Grid tie – connecting the system to an electric utility system, often includes net metering

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Passive Solar:

Passive Solar Direct use of the sun’s energy for heating: Heating water – via solar collectors, water flows through a unit that is heated in the sun Can be active (using a pump) or passive Heating air – via solar collectors, a large flat box placed on the inside of a window Heating solid materials – earth or stone inside the building placed into sunlight

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Wind Turbines:

Wind Turbines Models available for home use 50 feet high minimum, 150 feet best Require steady wind at 150 foot above ground Wind speeds are called Wind Classes, from Wind Class I to Wind Class VII Viable commercial generation requires Wind Class III or higher Our area – Wind Class I

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Geothermal Resources:

Geothermal Resources Underground heat, of two types: Hydrothermal – underground hot water, typically > 3000 ft deep, at least 90° F Can be used as is, via pipes to surface, and circulated in building radiators Hot Dry Rock – for commercial electricty generation Hydrothermal examples – city of Marlin, Austin swimming pool

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Ground Source Heat Pumps:

Ground Source Heat Pumps Take advantage of stable ground temperature Ground temperature in our area is 72 degrees all year round (3 feet under surface) Far less energy needed to heat from 72 upwards, or cool from 72 downward Use as part of mechanical heating and cooling systems Energy transported via of pipes into the home

Waste Recycling:

Waste Recycling Methane digesters – use animal manure and vegetation waste to produce biogas Cow dung gas – 55-65% methane Natural gas – 80% methane One lb manure produces cooking fuel for 4-6 people for a day Pros – functional, DIY units can be made Cons – manure is excellent fertilizer

Crop Oils:

Crop Oils Srila Prabhupada mentions castor bean oil for lamps Production in gallons per acre: Castor bean = 151 Chinese Tallow tree = 500 Oil Palm tree = 635 Algae ponds = 10,000

Wood-Burning Stoves:

Wood-Burning Stoves Home heating is needed in winter Excellent for cooking Requires land and time for trees, minimum 7 years Free wood collected from nearby areas, but requires transportation Very valuable backup for heating and cooking (Use solar cookers also)

Animal and Human Power:

Animal and Human Power The best source of power Create machinery to utilize these sources Human power can do a LOT with the right equipment Use animal power for large, heavy, or lengthy tasks

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(Graphic)

Best Sources:

Best Sources Solar photovoltaic, supported by: Passive solar Ground source heat pumps All supported by reducing need through: Good construction methods & design Conscientious use Human power and animal power Using some crop oils and waste recycling

Photovoltaics (PV):

Photovoltaics (PV) Each home should have sufficient solar panels for all heating, cooling, and electric needs Inverter is needed to convert electricity from DC to 120 volts AC Properly built homes, in conjunction with energy conservation, use far less energy Some people may build homes with no electricity

Inverter for PV System:

Inverter for PV System Only necessary if 120 volts AC is needed Alternative is appliances that use DC (direct current) 12 volt DC appliances are commonly used in motor homes and are widely available Some homes use 12 volt DC, and have one or two outlets for 120 volts AC Many devices can be hand-powered

Battery Backup:

Battery Backup Necessary for electricity if No grid connection (to electric grid) and No sun (cloudy days, nighttime) Batteries and charge controller Batteries will need replacing, nickel-iron is best (can last 20-50 years) Battery backup adds considerably to setup costs

Solar PV Costs:

Solar PV Costs (For 500 kwh per month, or 3700 watts) System with solar panels & inverter: Panels = $6000 Other parts = $1000 5000 watt inverter = $2000 Cost of professionally installed system with panels & inverter: $18,000-$25,000

Battery Backup Costs:

Battery Backup Costs (For 500 kwh per month) Nickel iron batteries (last 20-50 years) Cost = $4000 Can spend less initially for NiMh or NiCad batteries Charge controller = $1000

Wind Turbine Cost Comparison:

Wind Turbine Cost Comparison (For 500 kwh per month) Single unit cost = $6000, plus installation 1500 kwh/year average, or 125 kwh/month Four would be needed for 500 kwh/month Good for secondary source when no sun Are best installed 50 meters above ground

Other Resources:

Other Resources Passive solar Hot water heating system (DIY) = $1200 Practically no cost for space heating Animal power Tilling, hauling, cutting, grinding, transportation Potential generation of emergency electricity Human power Grinding, husking, washing, household use

Setup Costs Per Home:

Setup Costs Per Home Total = $6000 - $10,000 Solar PV without battery backup = $8000 For 500 kwh/month Could be half this with proper construction & lifestyle GSHP setup (DIY) = $1000 Passive solar hot water = $1200 Battery backup if desired Range from $4000 to $7000

Future Utility Costs:

Future Utility Costs None for at least 30 years 30+ years some replacement costs Some components may last 50+ years New processes/technologies may be available Price may be more affordable Most importantly, we will learn, improve, and adapt over time

Bicycle Power:

Bicycle Power http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nrqbtUKpSjo

Providing Necessities: Energy Resources:

Providing Necessities: Energy Resources Questions and Discussion

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