G. Shelter - the Third Necessity


Presentation Description

Types of building construction and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The focus is on earthen construction methods.


Presentation Transcript

Providing Necessities: Shelter:

Providing Necessities: Shelter Exploring construction methods

The Need for Shelter:

The Need for Shelter Protection From elements – heat, cold, rain, sun, wind From people From animals From sound From contaminants Develop relationships Provide stability Aesthetics Eating, sleeping, mating, defending

Providing those Needs:

Providing those Needs Heat and cold – insulation, thermal mass, design Sun and wind – all the above People, sound, contaminants – building design and materials Relationships – design, size, location Stability and longevity – materials, quality of construction Aesthetics – appearance, design & architecture

Factors to Consider:

Factors to Consider Ability of material types and design to provide the purposes of shelter Ease of construction Cost Availability of materials Ease of repair Longevity

Building Types:

Building Types Types Wood frame Concrete, brick or stone Straw bale Metal Earth Other Each type has advantages and disadvantages

Wood Frame Construction:

Wood Frame Construction Advantages Build very quickly, saves on labor costs Disadvantages Buildings last 70 years on average Termites and carpenter ants Water damage causes rot, mold and mildew Poor insulation and thermal mass Materials manufactured and transported Wood is becoming less renewable Toxic materials used

Concrete, Brick, and Stone:

Concrete, Brick, and Stone Advantages Very strong, lasts a long time Water causes minimal damage Few pest problems Good sound insulation Disadvantages Does not breathe Retains moisture (water in or on walls) Poor insulation and thermal mass More labor-intensive

Straw Bale:

Straw Bale Advantages Very good insulation Renewable resource Good sound insulation Disadvantages Poor thermal mass Subject to water damage Mold and mildew Subject to pests (insects, rodents)

Metal Construction:

Metal Construction Advantages Build quickly, low labor costs Holds up well against water Few pest problems Disadvantages No insulation or thermal mass Poor sound insulation Expensive (except for used shipping containers) Does not breathe

Other Construction Types:

Other Construction Types Recycled tires, cans, glass, etc Advantages Re-use and recycling of existing waste Disadvantages None of these can be used without the additional use of wood, concrete, or earth and do not have real value for building in themselves Some of them continue to exude various chemicals for years

Earth Construction:

Earth Construction Advantages Excellent thermal mass Some types hold up well against water damage Available everywhere, no transportation or additional embedded energy costs Excellent sound insulation Has been used for thousands of years Disadvantages Not good in very cold or very wet climates Can be labor-intensive to build

Types of Earth Construction:

Types of Earth Construction Rammed earth - Large wall forms are erected, earth is shoveled in & packed down, forms are removed Cob - Mud and straw are mixed, and walls are built completely freeform one handful/bucket at a time Adobe (mud brick) - Mud is poured into brick-sized molds, and dried in the sun Compressed Earth Block - dirt is poured into block molds & compressed manually or by machine Earthbag – earth-filled polypropylene bags Misc - wattle and daub, Superadobe

Green Earth:

Green Earth Cob is the most ‘green’ Nothing but dirt, water, straw, and your hands All the others require some type of forms CEB, Rammed Earth, and Earthbag are the strongest The soil is compacted or contained Thick walls, more than one story can be built The least labor-intensive to build is CEB Reasonably impervious to water Earth should be stabilized with lime

Best Choice - CEB:

Best Choice - CEB CEB blocks are very easy to work with Blocks can be cut, sanded, scored, etc Different sizes and shapes can be pressed Blocks easily accept screws, hold strongly No mortar is needed, only a thin slurry Does not require skilled labor (except roofs) Imperfections or mistakes are naturally covered by plaster Can be used for walls, roofs, floors

Making Blocks:

Making Blocks Blocks can be made using manual presses, or larger hydraulic presses that use fuel Large blocks are 10 W x 14 L x 4 H (inches) Blocks can be as small as 2 inches in height, and 4x6 inches in length and width Some presses make many shapes – cylindrical for columns, interlocking blocks, etc Blocks are made, then stored for curing before using for construction

Types of CEB presses:

Types of CEB presses Manual presses Usually require two people to pull handle for compression, total 7 people needed Block strengths are not as high as those achieved by hydraulic presses Manual presses usually cannot make larger blocks Block rates around 800 per day (over 9000 6x12 blocks required for a 1200 sf house) Excellent for building one or two houses, or for areas without fuel and equipment maintenance

Types of CEB presses:

Types of CEB presses Hydraulic presses One person can operate machine, total 4-5 people needed Block strengths are higher than with manual presses Can make large blocks (10 x 14 x 4), good for thicker walls and less construction time Block rates around 3000 per day (over 7000 required for a 1200 sf house) Excellent for building communities

Manual versus Hydraulic:

Manual versus Hydraulic Costs Costs are equivalent around 60,000 blocks, or around 6-8 houses Block cost for 100 K blocks: hydraulic = $1.03, manual = $1.50 Block cost for 500 K blocks: hydraulic = $.39, manual = $1.42 Time needed for 100,000 blocks Hydraulic: 1160 man-hours Manual: 7700 man-hours

Source Material :

Source Material We will be excavating a large lake in the center of the community Excavated earth will be our source material Proper ratio of silt, sand, gravel, clay Many areas have suitable soil, sometimes sand or clay must be added Stablized blocks for greater water resistance Lime, fly ash, or cement can be added Lime is best

Equipment and Operations:

Equipment and Operations Equipment needed Hydraulic CEB press, and bucket loader Soil mixer is optional One person per machine Taking blocks off conveyor and stacking them Two people Blocks are allowed to cure for one month Must be out of the weather Are usually shrink-wrapped on pallets


Construction Reinforced concrete Footers/stem wall, and bond beams (on top of wall) must be used on all load-bearing and exterior walls Blocks are laid on concrete footer beam Does not require skilled labor Slurry is used for head joints and bed joints Typical bond patterns are used Window and door bucks are used to keep openings for doors and windows

Windows & Doors:

Windows & Doors Bulk purchasing will greatly reduce prices Windows should be good quality with high insulation/thermal properties Door and window bucks are taken out when windows/doors are installed ‘Lintels’ are wood or concrete beams over the openings that distribute load to both sides A door buck can be installed in an exterior wall for later expansion

Plumbing & Electric:

Plumbing & Electric Each house is independent Three plumbing systems per house Separate drainage for black water & gray water Rainwater harvesting from roof area for all household use, with 10,000 gallon storage tank Electric is solar panels and inverter, with net metering within community Battery backup is optional, Nickel-Iron batteries recommended (can last 20-50 years)

CEB Hydraulic Machine:

CEB Hydraulic Machine Manual y

10x14 Blocks:

10x14 Blocks Manual y

Laying Blocks:

Laying Blocks Manual y

Arched Opening (Window Buck):

Arched Opening (Window Buck) Manual y

Applying Exterior Plaster:

Applying Exterior Plaster Manual y

Home Construction:

Home Construction Majority

Building Homes:

Building Homes Questions and Discussion

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