Medical Microbiology : Medical Microbiology 醫學微生物這門課包含的內容繁多, 千頭萬緒. 在 Murray PR et al. 編寫的 Medical Microbiology (第四版) 所寫的序言裡說: 學生最好能 " Thinking like a physician", 要常常問七個問題: Who, Where, When, Why, Which, What and How.
醫學微生物的內容不只是應用醫學的一項, 它也是一門自然科學. 它也有科學思辨的趣味, 知識不只是工具而已. 學生還可以 “ Thinking like a scientist”. 要常常問古早人是怎麼想的? 問題的困難在哪裡? 有沒有比目前的解釋更好的答案?
上課內容在網頁上:http://myweb.ncku.edu.tw/~y1357/course/micro.html Scale of life: Scale of life BC Yang Paramecium HIV virion Animal Cell Bacterial Cell In mm3 Prion 27-30 kDa 20-50,000 0.01-50 0.00001-0.01 Pox group Photosynthetic bacteria Unicellular algae Viroid ~400bp For lecture only Discovery of microbes: Discovery of microbes BC Yang Antony van Leeuwenhoek My work, which I've done for a long time, was not pursued in order to gain the praise I now enjoy, but chiefly from a craving after knowledge, which I notice resides in me more than in most other men. And therewithal, whenever I found out anything remarkable, I have thought it my duty to put down my discovery on paper, so that all ingenious people might be informed thereof.
Antony van Leeuwenhoek. (1632-1723)
Letter of June 12, 1716
Robert Hooke 1635-?, (cell theory) For lecture only A short history of microbiology: A short history of microbiology On spontaneous generation: 1668, Francesco Redi (with cover, against); 1749, John Needham (simple boiling, for); 1765, Lazzaro Spallanzani (extensive boiling, against)
1673: Anton van Leeuwenhoek (microbes)
1678: Robert Hooke (cell structure)
1861: Louies Pasteur (gooseneck bottle; against)
1870: Joseph Lister (1% carbolic acid, phenol in surgical procedure)
1881: Robert Koch (Koch’s postulate)
1892: Dmitrii Iwanowski (Tobacco Mosaic Virus)
1909: Paul Ehrlich (chemotherapy, arsenicals against spirochetes)
1915: Frederick W. Twort (bacteriophage)
1940: O.T. Avery (DNA as transforming factor)
1953: James D. Watson & Francis H.C. Crick (DNA structure) BC Yang For lecture only Big person in microbiology: Big person in microbiology Louis Pasteur, 1822-1895, French BC Yang For lecture only L. Pasteur at "scientific evening" of the Sorbonne University in Paris: L. Pasteur at "scientific evening" of the Sorbonne University in Paris " And I wait, I watch, I question it!-begging it to recommence for me the beautiful spectacle of the first creation. But it is dumb, dumb since these experiments were begun several years ago; it is dumb because I have kept it from the only thing the human mind does not know how to produce: from the germs which float in the air, from Life, for life is a germ and a germ is life.“
" The germ theory is not a philosophical theory of life, but merely a body of factual observations from a series of practical operations." Pasteur's own drawings of the swan-necked flasks BC Yang For lecture only Big person in microbiology: Big person in microbiology Rober Koch,1843-1910, Germany BC Yang For lecture only Communication and classification: Communication and classification By making photomicrobiographs, I can reveal the bacteria true to nature and free of subjective misinterpretation
---Rober Koch BC Yang For lecture only Slide9: Privy Health Officer
Berlin W, 15, June 30, 1904
Dear Sir, I still remember very well the first time I took an oil system into my hands and myself witnessed the dramatic progress achieved by the optical workshop of Carl Zeiss under the direction of Professor Abbe's ingenious advisory board. Every time I subsequently used oil systems, I thought with admiration and gratitude of the magnificent gift made by the Zeiss optical workshop to everyone working with a microscope. After all, I owe a large percentage of the success I have had the privilege of achieving for science to your excellent microscopes which were of enormous benefit to me in the expedition to South Africa which I have just completed. Respectfully yours, R. Koch http://www.zeiss.com/C12567A100537AB9/allBySubject/DAF3D66784516F2CC1256B45003DA810 For lecture only , BC Yang An obvious true is never easy to be recognized and accepted: An obvious true is never easy to be recognized and accepted Koch’s demonstrations in the Institute of plant pathology; University of Breslau (15 Nov. 1876) Now leave everything as it is, and go to Koch, This man has made a magnificent discovery
----Julius Cohnheim 1817-1891
By making photomicrographs, I can reveal the bacteria true to nature and free of subjective misinterpretation
---- Robert Koch 1843-1910 Whole business seemed quite improbable; Anything I couldn’t see with a dry lens wasn’t worth looking at.
----Rudolf Virchow 1821-1902 BC Yang For lecture only Two key factors: Two key factors Improvement of optical instruments
Establishment of pure culture system For lecture only BC Yang Microbial classification and structure (1): Microbial classification and structure (1) BC Yang Yersinia pestis Description of bacteria (G+/G-) Bacillus sp. For lecture only 叫不出名字就無法溝通: 叫不出名字就無法溝通 Phenotypic classification
Analytic classification (composition)
Genotypic classification (gene constitute) For lecture only BC Yang Morphological study of bacteria: Morphological study of bacteria Culture techniques
Light microscope: 0.2 mm
Phase-contrast; dark field
Electron microscope: 0.0001 mm
Near-field microscope: atom-level
Growth condition/Culture technique
Staining: simple or differential BC Yang For lecture only Growth/Culture condition: Growth/Culture condition Plating technique of Robert Koch for single colony isolation The majority of microbes persist attached to surfaces within a structured biofilm ecosystem and not as free floating organisms.
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64:847-867 (2000) BC Yang For lecture only Differences in culture: when cells grow as biofilm: Differences in culture: when cells grow as biofilm 1. On metabolism 2. Drug resistance BC Yang For lecture only Two types of biofilms: Two types of biofilms Symbioses
Termite, ruminant digestion
Sewage treatment bioreactors
Contact lens cases Dental plaque
Implants Disease-associated Environmental BC Yang For lecture only Classification: Classification Phenotypic classification
Morphology; Biotyping; Serotyping; phage typing; Antibiogram….
Cell wall fatty acid; lipid; protein; enzyme isomers…..
G/C ratio; DNA sequence compare; DNA/RNA hybridization, plasmid….
BC Yang For lecture only Morphological study: Morphological study Unstained
General shape, motility, spore, intracellular granules
Fix and stained
Positive: methylene blue, methyl violet, basic fuchsin, silver…
Negative: acidic dye for background…
Gram’s stain: (by Hans C. Gram, 1884) base on the resistance to decoloration with acetone, alcohol or aniline oil after stained with a triphenyl methane dye. (+: purple; -:red)
Acidfast stain reaction: (Ziehl-Neelsen method) cell wall consists of lipids and forms a special anatomical disposition of the lipids.
Immunostaining: labeled antibodies BC Yang For lecture only Slide20: Gram stain (cell wall structure)
Mole percent G+C in the genome
Ability to form heat stable spores
Electron acceptors for respiration
Ability to use various carbon and nitrogen sources
Special nutritional requirements The prokaryotes and eukaryotic protists were more difficult to classify. They are much simpler, and there are few obvious features. Classifications based upon features such as these were not natural systems (Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology ) BC Yang For lecture only General description of bacteria: General description of bacteria Found in most habitats
Most numerous organisms on earth
Earliest life forms (fossils date 2.5 billion years old)
Most are unicellular
Most bacteria grow best at a pH of 6.5 to 7.0
Main decomposers of dead organisms so recycle nutrients
Some bacteria breakdown chemical & oil spills
Some cause disease
Classified by their structure, motility (ability to move), molecular composition, & reaction to stains (Gram stain)
Grouped into 2 kingdoms --- Eubacteria (true bacteria) & Archaebacteria (ancient bacteria); that once grouped together in the kingdom Monera BC Yang For lecture only Classification: Tree of evolution: Classification: Tree of evolution BC Yang For lecture only Classification: can you remember all the names?: Classification: can you remember all the names? BC Yang For lecture only