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Markov Logic Networks: 

Markov Logic Networks Pedro Domingos Dept. Computer Science & Eng. University of Washington (Joint work with Matt Richardson)

Overview: 

Overview Representation Inference Learning Applications

Markov Logic Networks: 

Markov Logic Networks A logical KB is a set of hard constraints on the set of possible worlds Let’s make them soft constraints: When a world violates a formula, It becomes less probable, not impossible Give each formula a weight (Higher weight  Stronger constraint)

Definition: 

Definition A Markov Logic Network (MLN) is a set of pairs (F, w) where F is a formula in first-order logic w is a real number Together with a finite set of constants, it defines a Markov network with One node for each grounding of each predicate in the MLN One feature for each grounding of each formula F in the MLN, with the corresponding weight w

Example of an MLN: 

Example of an MLN Cancer(A) Smokes(A) Smokes(B) Cancer(B) Suppose we have two constants: Anna (A) and Bob (B)

Example of an MLN: 

Example of an MLN Cancer(A) Smokes(A) Friends(A,A) Friends(B,A) Smokes(B) Friends(A,B) Cancer(B) Friends(B,B) Suppose we have two constants: Anna (A) and Bob (B)

Example of an MLN: 

Example of an MLN Cancer(A) Smokes(A) Friends(A,A) Friends(B,A) Smokes(B) Friends(A,B) Cancer(B) Friends(B,B) Suppose we have two constants: Anna (A) and Bob (B)

Example of an MLN: 

Example of an MLN Cancer(A) Smokes(A) Friends(A,A) Friends(B,A) Smokes(B) Friends(A,B) Cancer(B) Friends(B,B) Suppose we have two constants: Anna (A) and Bob (B)

More on MLNs: 

More on MLNs Graph structure: Arc between two nodes iff predicates appear together in some formula MLN is template for ground Markov nets Typed variables and constants greatly reduce size of ground Markov net Functions, existential quantifiers, etc. MLN without variables = Markov network (subsumes graphical models)

MLNs and First-Order Logic: 

MLNs and First-Order Logic Infinite weights  First-order logic Satisfiable KB, positive weights  Satisfying assignments = Modes of distribution MLNs allow contradictions between formulas How to break KB into formulas? Adding probability increases degrees of freedom Knowledge engineering decision Default: Convert to clausal form

Overview: 

Overview Representation Inference Learning Applications

Conditional Inference: 

Conditional Inference P(Formula|MLN,C) = ? MCMC: Sample worlds, check formula holds P(Formula1|Formula2,MLN,C) = ? If Formula2 = Conjunction of ground atoms First construct min subset of network necessary to answer query (generalization of KBMC) Then apply MCMC

Grounding the Template: 

Grounding the Template Initialize Markov net to contain all query preds For each node in network Add node’s Markov blanket to network Remove any evidence nodes Repeat until done

Example Grounding: 

Example Grounding P( Cancer(B) | Smokes(A), Friends(A,B), Friends(B,A)) Cancer(A) Smokes(A) Friends(A,A) Friends(B,A) Smokes(B) Friends(A,B) Cancer(B) Friends(B,B)

Example Grounding: 

Example Grounding P( Cancer(B) | Smokes(A), Friends(A,B), Friends(B,A)) Cancer(A) Smokes(A) Friends(A,A) Friends(B,A) Smokes(B) Friends(A,B) Cancer(B) Friends(B,B)

Example Grounding: 

Example Grounding P( Cancer(B) | Smokes(A), Friends(A,B), Friends(B,A)) Cancer(A) Smokes(A) Friends(A,A) Friends(B,A) Smokes(B) Friends(A,B) Cancer(B) Friends(B,B)

Example Grounding: 

Example Grounding P( Cancer(B) | Smokes(A), Friends(A,B), Friends(B,A)) Cancer(A) Smokes(A) Friends(A,A) Friends(B,A) Smokes(B) Friends(A,B) Cancer(B) Friends(B,B)

Example Grounding: 

Example Grounding P( Cancer(B) | Smokes(A), Friends(A,B), Friends(B,A)) Cancer(A) Smokes(A) Friends(A,A) Friends(B,A) Smokes(B) Friends(A,B) Cancer(B) Friends(B,B)

Example Grounding: 

Example Grounding P( Cancer(B) | Smokes(A), Friends(A,B), Friends(B,A)) Cancer(A) Smokes(A) Friends(A,A) Friends(B,A) Smokes(B) Friends(A,B) Cancer(B) Friends(B,B)

Example Grounding: 

Example Grounding P( Cancer(B) | Smokes(A), Friends(A,B), Friends(B,A)) Cancer(A) Smokes(A) Friends(A,A) Friends(B,A) Smokes(B) Friends(A,B) Cancer(B) Friends(B,B)

Example Grounding: 

Example Grounding P( Cancer(B) | Smokes(A), Friends(A,B), Friends(B,A)) Cancer(A) Smokes(A) Friends(A,A) Friends(B,A) Smokes(B) Friends(A,B) Cancer(B) Friends(B,B)

Example Grounding: 

Example Grounding P( Cancer(B) | Smokes(A), Friends(A,B), Friends(B,A)) Cancer(A) Smokes(A) Friends(A,A) Friends(B,A) Smokes(B) Friends(A,B) Cancer(B) Friends(B,B)

Markov Chain Monte Carlo: 

Markov Chain Monte Carlo Gibbs Sampler 1. Start with an initial assignment to nodes 2. One node at a time, sample node given others 3. Repeat 4. Use samples to compute P(X) Apply to ground network Many modes  Multiple chains Initialization: MaxWalkSat [Kautz et al., 1997]

MPE Inference: 

MPE Inference Find most likely truth values of non-evidence ground atoms given evidence Apply weighted satisfiability solver (maxes sum of weights of satisfied clauses) MaxWalkSat algorithm [Kautz et al., 1997] Start with random truth assignment With prob p, flip atom that maxes weight sum; else flip random atom in unsatisfied clause Repeat n times Restart m times

Overview: 

Overview Representation Inference Learning Applications

Learning: 

Learning Data is a relational database Closed world assumption Learning structure Corresponds to feature induction in Markov nets Learn / modify clauses ILP (e.g., CLAUDIEN [De Raedt & Dehaspe, 1997]) Better approach: Stanley will describe Learning parameters (weights)

Learning Weights: 

Learning Weights Like Markov nets, except with parameter tying over groundings of same formula 1st term: # true groundings of formula in DB 2nd term: inference required, as before (slow!) Feature count according to data Feature count according to model

Pseudo-Likelihood [Besag, 1975]: 

Pseudo-Likelihood [Besag, 1975] Likelihood of each ground atom given its Markov blanket in the data Does not require inference at each step Optimized using L-BFGS [Liu & Nocedal, 1989]

Gradient of Pseudo-Log-Likelihood: 

Most terms not affected by changes in weights After initial setup, each iteration takes O(# ground predicates x # first-order clauses) Gradient of Pseudo-Log-Likelihood where nsati(x=v) is the number of satisfied groundings of clause i in the training data when x takes value v

Overview: 

Overview Representation Inference Learning Applications

Domain: 

Domain University of Washington CSE Dept. 12 first-order predicates: Professor, Student, TaughtBy, AuthorOf, AdvisedBy, etc. 2707 constants divided into 10 types: Person (442), Course (176), Pub. (342), Quarter (20), etc. 4.1 million ground predicates 3380 ground predicates (tuples in database)

Systems Compared: 

Systems Compared Hand-built knowledge base (KB) ILP: CLAUDIEN [De Raedt & Dehaspe, 1997] Markov logic networks (MLNs) Using KB Using CLAUDIEN Using KB + CLAUDIEN Bayesian network learner [Heckerman et al., 1995] Naïve Bayes [Domingos & Pazzani, 1997]

Sample Clauses in KB: 

Sample Clauses in KB Students are not professors Each student has only one advisor If a student is an author of a paper, so is her advisor Advanced students only TA courses taught by their advisors At most one author of a given paper is a professor

Methodology: 

Methodology Data split into five areas: AI, graphics, languages, systems, theory Leave-one-area-out testing Task: Predict AdvisedBy(x, y) All Info: Given all other predicates Partial Info: With Student(x) and Professor(x) missing Evaluation measures: Conditional log-likelihood (KB, CLAUDIEN: Run WalkSat 100x to get probabilities) Area under precision-recall curve

Results: 

Results

Results: All Info: 

Results: All Info

Results: Partial Info: 

Results: Partial Info

Efficiency: 

Efficiency Learning time: 16 mins Time to infer all AdvisedBy predicates: With complete info: 8 mins With partial info: 15 mins (124K Gibbs passes)

Other Applications: 

Other Applications UW-CSE task: Link prediction Collective classification Link-based clustering Social network models Object identification Etc.

Other SRL Approaches are Special Cases of MLNs: 

Other SRL Approaches are Special Cases of MLNs Probabilistic relational models (Friedman et al, IJCAI-99) Stochastic logic programs (Muggleton, SRL-00) Bayesian logic programs (Kersting & De Raedt, ILP-01) Relational Markov networks (Taskar et al, UAI-02) Etc.

Open Problems: Inference: 

Open Problems: Inference Lifted inference Better MCMC (e.g., Swendsen-Wang) Belief propagation Selective grounding Abstraction, summarization, multi-scale Special cases

Open Problems: Learning: 

Open Problems: Learning Discriminative training Learning and refining structure Learning with missing info Faster optimization Beyond pseudo-likelihood Learning by reformulation

Open Problems: Applications: 

Open Problems: Applications Information extraction & integration Semantic Web Social networks Activity recognition Parsing with world knowledge Scene analysis with world knowledge Etc.

Summary: 

Summary Markov logic networks combine first-order logic and Markov networks Syntax: First-order logic + Weights Semantics: Templates for Markov networks Inference: KBMC + MaxWalkSat + MCMC Learning: ILP + Pseudo-likelihood SRL problems easily formulated as MLNs Many open research issues

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