CH 7 9 Research Assignment

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ASIA AFRICA and the AMERICAS [2,000 B.C.E. – 550 C.E.] This finely crafted piece represents the fabled "celestial horses" of the Han Dynasty period (206 BCE – 200 CE). Brought into China from central Asia during the second century BCE, the new breed was larger and stronger and faster than native horses and they rapidly became the image of power and prestige during the Han dynasty. This ceramic figurine can be viewed in the Minneapolis Art Institute. It does seem at times that archaeology in Africa focuses solely on Egyptology. Yet sub-Saharan societies of Africa flourished in the centuries before and after the time of Christ, and one of those powerful urban kingdoms was Aksum or Axum. Enormous monolithic stelae as shown here were erected during the third and fourth centuries A.D. as funerary markers for deceased members of its elite. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 In the east Mexico lowlands once lived the Olmecs (1300-400 BCE) who established a unique culture. They are often regarded as the Mother Culture of later Middle American civilizations. The Olmecs made these colossal heads some of which were deformed. This life-sized greenstone head was found in Mexico State. The Olmec people called themselves Xi (pronounced Shi). Some researchers say the Olmec descended from Asians crossing the Pacific - others say they were from African ancestors who migrated across the Atlantic.

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Day 1: “India and China Establish Empires” [Chapter 7] Day 2 “African Civilizations” [Chapter 8] ASIA AFRICA and the AMERICAS [2,000 B.C.E. – 550 C.E.] PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 INDEX: Choose a Day below. Day 3 “The Entrance of First Americans” [Chapter 9] REMINDERS: Students remember that you may choose any one Day from the index above to work on each day we are in the library. HOWEVER, you are required to submit a fully completed Day’s task at the end of each class period. Be responsible and focused as you work or you may not finish in time. No extensions will be given! Grading criteria will be based on the completion of the full packet – including quiz at end of each Research Task - as well as your level of focus, effort, and work in library. 2.

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Day 1: “India and China Establish Empires” [Chapter 7] PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 3. ENTER

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Day 1: “India and China establish Empires” (Chapter 7) Students will Examine the rise of India’s first unified kingdom – the Mauryan Empire >>> and the events after its fall. Describe the rise and fall of the Gupta Empire >>> and the achievements of this period. Explain how the religions of India underwent major changes. Students will Describe the rise and fall of the Han Dynasty >>> in China and examine its government structure. Characterize Han technology, commerce, and culture including a thorough examination of the role of the Silk Road. Describe the period of political instability in the middle of the Han period. Students, take the time to read the objectives for this lesson: …and… ENTER 4.

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Students, Now that you’ve read and understood the objectives for this lesson, pull out your packet and turn to page 1. While reading the Prior Knowledge paragraph and answering the first question you’ll need to view the next slide. CLICK ENTER PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 5. Day 1: Chapter 7, “India and China establish Empires”

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DATES PERIODS EVENTS 2300 – 1700 BCE INDUS Valley Civilization Development of urban grain-growing civilization on the Indus River, two main cities are Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; undeciphered script; destroyed by possible environmental pressures and/or migrations. Ca. 1750 – 1000 BCE Aryan Invasions / Migrations Migration into Northwest of India of nomadic tribes from central Asian steppes or Iranian plataeu; spoke an Indo-European language. Their oral traditions are preserved in the Hindu Vedas, oldest of which, the Rig Veda predates their own migrations into India. 1000 BCE Brahmanism Early Hinduism characterized by sacrificial rituals, belief in karma and reincarnation, and division of society into four classes (varnas). 500 BCE Buddhism Buddhism spreads. 326 BCE Invasion by Alexander the Great 324 – 200 BCE Mauryan Empire Domination of North India by Chandra-gupta, extended to South by grandson, Asoka. 250 BCE Development of Sanskrit culture Major texts of Hindu tradition take shape: Mahabharata, Ramayana, codified laws, advances in science, arts; gods Shiva, Vishnu major figures 200 BCE Invasions by Central Asian tribes 300 - 500 CE Classical Period Period of great cultural achievement in poetry, drama (Kalidasa); art, temple architecture: philosophy (Vedanta); and new forms of (bhakti) worship. 320 - 550 CE Gupta Dynasty Guptas dominate North India at beginning of "classical" period. 455 – 528 CE Invasion of the Huns and others Successive invasions of Huns; other Central Asian tribes destroy Gupta empire. 3,000 BCE – 550 CE 6.

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Asoka (304-232 BC) was third king of the Mauryan dynasty and is regarded by many as the most tolerant and exemplary ruler of the ancient world. The texts which follow are excerpts from his "Rock Edicts" and "Pillar Edicts," so-called because they were inscribed on rocks and stone pillars to make them public. (Much like the stele pillar of the Code of Hammurabi you read about in Chapter 2).   “Beloved-of-the-Gods, the King Piyadasi (Asoka), has caused this edict to be written. Here (in my domain) no living beings are to be slaughtered or offered in sacrifice.” [1] “Everywhere has Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical treatment for animals. Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available, I have had them imported and grown. Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them imported and grown. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals.” [4] “Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, desires that all religions should reside everywhere, for all of them desire self-control and purity of heart. But people have various desires and various passions, and they may practice all of what they should or only a part of it.” [14] “Beloved-of-the-Gods is deeply pained by the killing, dying and deportation that take place when an unconquered country is conquered. But Beloved-of-the-Gods is pained even more by this -- that Brahmans, ascetics, and householders of different religions who live in those countries, and who are respectful to superiors, to mother and father, to elders, and who behave properly and have strong loyalty towards friends, acquaintances, companions, relatives, servants and employees -- that they are injured, killed or separated from their loved ones. These misfortunes befall all (as a result of war), and this pains Beloved-of-the-Gods. Therefore the killing, death or deportation of a hundredth, or even a thousandth part of those who died during the conquest of Kalinga now pains Beloved-of-the-Gods. Now Beloved-of-the-Gods thinks that even those who do wrong should be forgiven where forgiveness is possible.” [26] 8.

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DATES PERIODS EVENTS 2300 – 1700 BCE INDUS Valley Civilization Development of urban grain-growing civilization on the Indus River, two main cities are Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; undeciphered script; destroyed by possible environmental pressures and/or migrations. Ca. 1750 – 1000 BCE Aryan Invasions / Migrations Migration into Northwest of India of nomadic tribes from central Asian steppes or Iranian plataeu; spoke an Indo-European language. Their oral traditions are preserved in the Hindu Vedas, oldest of which, the Rig Veda predates their own migrations into India. 1000 BCE Brahmanism Early Hinduism characterized by sacrificial rituals, belief in karma and reincarnation, and division of society into four classes (varnas). 500 BCE Buddhism Buddhism spreads. 326 BCE Invasion by Alexander the Great 324 – 200 BCE Mauryan Empire Domination of North India by Chandra-gupta, extended to South by grandson, Asoka. 250 BCE Development of Sanskrit culture Major texts of Hindu tradition take shape: Mahabharata, Ramayana, codified laws, advances in science, arts; gods Shiva, Vishnu major figures 200 BCE Invasions by Central Asian tribes 300 CE Classical Period Period of great cultural achievement in poetry, drama (Kalidasa); art, temple architecture: philosophy (Vedanta); and new forms of (bhakti) worship. 320 - 550 CE Gupta Dynasty Guptas dominate North India at beginning of "classical" period. 455 – 528 CE Invasion of the Huns and others Successive invasions of Huns; other Central Asian tribes destroy Gupta empire. 3,000 BCE – 550 CE 9.

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To answer question #17 on the Day 1 research assignment you will need to view this website. Gupta Empire – The Classical Period in India http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/goldenages/gupta.cfm After you’ve finished answering #17, return to the next PowerPoint slide. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 10.

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DATES PERIODS EVENTS 2300 – 1700 BCE INDUS Valley Civilization Development of urban grain-growing civilization on the Indus River, two main cities are Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; undeciphered script; destroyed by possible environmental pressures and/or migrations. Ca. 1750 – 1000 BCE Aryan Invasions / Migrations Migration into Northwest of India of nomadic tribes from central Asian steppes or Iranian plataeu; spoke an Indo-European language. Their oral traditions are preserved in the Hindu Vedas, oldest of which, the Rig Veda predates their own migrations into India. 1000 BCE Brahmanism Early Hinduism characterized by sacrificial rituals, belief in karma and reincarnation, and division of society into four classes (varnas). 500 BCE Buddhism Buddhism spreads. 326 BCE Invasion by Alexander the Great 324 – 200 BCE Mauryan Empire Domination of North India by Chandra-gupta, extended to South by grandson, Asoka. 250 BCE Development of Sanskrit culture Major texts of Hindu tradition take shape: Mahabharata, Ramayana, codified laws, advances in science, arts; gods Shiva, Vishnu major figures 200 BCE Invasions by Central Asian tribes 300 CE Classical Period Period of great cultural achievement in poetry, drama (Kalidasa); art, temple architecture: philosophy (Vedanta); and new forms of (bhakti) worship. 320 - 550 CE Gupta Dynasty Guptas dominate North India at beginning of "classical" period. 455 – 528 CE Invasion of the Huns and others Successive invasions of Huns; other Central Asian tribes destroy Gupta empire. 3,000 BCE – 550 CE 11.

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Gupta Rulers http://prabhu.50g.com/guptas.html For question #19 on your Day 1 research assignment you will need to view this website: After you’ve finished answering #19, continue to the next PowerPoint slide. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 12.

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This timeline features important dates during the two Indian Empires (Mauryan and Gupta) discussed in this chapter. Answer the three questions below as part of #20 on your Research Assignment. 13.

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Day 1 continued: “India and China Establish Empires” [Chapter 7] Students will Describe the rise and fall of the Han Dynasty >>> in China and examine its government structure. Characterize Han technology, commerce, and culture including a thorough examination of the role of the Silk Road. Describe the period of political instability in the middle of the Han period. Section 3: China 14.

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The Qin Dynasty [221-206 B.C.E.]BCE  In Chapter 4 you read about Shi Huangdi, the “First Emperor” of China. He restored order after years of conflict between warring feudal states. To do so he adopted a policy of strict and rigid Legalism. His short-lived (15 year) Dynasty was called the Qin (also called Ch’in). The dynasty that came after the Qin was the Han. The Han ruled China for more than 400 years. The Han Dynasty [202 B.C.E.- 220 C.E.] 15. Only if you have time, click on the pic above to see more pics of the Great Wall.

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Besides silk, an amazing variety of goods were traded along the routes. Silk road travelers braved scorching deserts, steep mountain rockslides and scary precipices, as well as the ever-present threat of bandits. The reason to take such risk was simple – huge profits could be made. The most significant commodity carried along this route was not silk, but religion. Buddhism came to China from India this way. 16.

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SILK ROAD history: Under the Han emperor Wudi or, Wu-Ti (141-187 B.C.E.) the Silk road was finally opened fully – stretching from Changan all the way to the Mediterranean coast at Byzantium (later called Constantinople). Changan was the capital of China under the rule of the Han dynasty. Wudi had to campaign against the Xiongnu or, Hsiung-nu nomads in the north - they are the ancestors of the Huns. He sent out his general Zang Qian to find allies, to buy the famous Iranian war horses in the Parthian region, and to introduce Chinese trade in Europe.   The caravans received some protection from the authorities for a substantial part of their route. Moreover, bridges and paved roads were constructed. Beyond the Jade Gate, the political situation was more complex: central Asia was dominated by sometimes aggressive mountain tribes and the empires of the Parthians and Seleucids were fighting a more or less constant war. Nonetheless, the Chinese received horses and other valuable articles -myrrh, frankincense, ostrich eggs, aloe- from the west; and the Parthians, Seleucids, Greeks and Romans acquired bales of silk, which had been carried by donkeys, mules, horses, yaks and camels for almost thousands of kilometers. 17. As shown in this picture spread from a 1950s textbook, the 7,000 mile route spanned China, Central Asia, Northern India, as well as the Parthian and Roman Empires.

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A Timeline History of Silk production from its origins in China to its arrival in Europe. 18.

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Han China made such tremendous advances in so many fields, that the Chinese later called themselves “the people of Han.” The Han Golden Age 19.

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Did You Know? Today China is actively promoting the re-building of an international highway that would follow the historic Silk Road spanning from China to Europe. The new road will traverse the following countries: China, Kyrghistan, Kazakstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Turkey. Afghanistan was intentionally left out of the road plan by China citing the continued unstable political situation there as well as what China criticizes as Afghanistan’s refusal to curb its opium (poppy) production. Linking the Past to the Present : A New Silk Road 21.

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1. This king of the Mauryan dynasty converted to Buddhism, posted laws on Rock Pillars throughout India, and for this is regarded as the most tolerant ruler of the ancient world A. Asoka B. Bhagadavita C. ChandraGupta D. Krishna 2. The Gupta Empire enjoyed a "Golden Age" in part because of the: A. spread of Buddhism B. general peace and prosperity of the times. C. invention of the decimal system. D. power of the Delhi Sultans. 3. The Gupta Empire of India tried to bring about unity by: A. promoting Hindu culture exclusively. B. abolishing the caste system. C. conquering Chinese territory. D. enforcing the code of Bushido. 4. One of the major cultural contributions of the Gupta Dynasty was that it made one language the language of Indian literature. That language was: A. Sanskrit. B. Bengali. C. Hindi. D. Swahili. 5. Perhaps the greatest contribution of the Gupta Dynasty in mathematics and science was the discovery of: A. the telescope. B. the laws of gravity. C. calculus and the laws of motion. D. the concept of zero and the decimal system. QUIZ TIME: . 6. Under the Han dynasty, China: A. set up a bureaucratic system of government. B. sent out armies to conquer the Roman Empire. C. forbade all trade with other lands. D. outlawed the teachings of Confucius. 7. Goods traveled from China to Greece and Rome in the West on the Silk Road by: A. sea around the coast of India. B. land across central Asia. C. land across northeastern China. D. water along the Yangtze River. 8. Candidates for the Chinese civil service needed a thorough knowledge of: A. the Confucian classics. B. the teachings of Buddha. C. science and mathematics. D. world geography. 9. The Han era is considered a golden age in China for all of the following reasons EXCEPT: A. the revival of learning. B. the defeat of the Huns and other barbarians. C. the development of trade. D. the influence of Confucius' ideas. 10. In retrospect, one of the most significant commodities traded on the Silk Road was not silk but the religion: A. Hinduism B. Buddhism C. Confucianism D. Daoism END DAY 1: China and India (Chapter 7) 22.

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Day 2: “African Civilizations” [Chapter 8] PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 23.

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Day 2: Chapter 8, “African Civilizations” Students will Identify the different geographic regions of Africa and explain how various African groups adapted to these environments. Summarize the achievements of West African societies. Explain how maritime trade would lead to the growth of Aksum as a major trade center in East Africa. Describe the arrival of both Christianity and Islam in this region of east Africa. Explain what contributed to the decline of Aksum power. Summarize the causes and effects of human migration using the Bantu migrations into southern Africa as an example. Students, take the time to read the objectives for this lesson: ENTER PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 24.

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The African Kush Empire rules over Egypt 743–664 B.C. The Nubian king Piankhi invaded Upper Egypt around 743 B.C. and claimed to be king of Upper and Lower Nubia - the ruler of all of Egypt and Nubia. He called his kingdom the Kingdom of Kush – and it was the largest unified state in existence at this time. His dynasty’s Kushite rule over Egypt was brought to an end when the Assyrians conquered Egypt and the last of the Kushite pharaohs, Taharqo, was driven from Egypt back to the Nubian capital of Meroe. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 25.

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Use your textbook, Chapter 8, Section 1 to complete questions 2. and 3. on your research assignment. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 26.

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ART HISTORY LESSON Example of Setting an Archetype in Aesthetics : Nok Art The terracotta statuary of the Nok Culture is a classic art style whose sudden appearance radically challenged the traditional art of African Sculpture. On the site of NOK, stone heads were discovered ranging in age from Early Stone Age (37, 000 BC) until the first millennium. The earliest NOK figures belonged to a Neolithic Environment which then gradually moved into an Iron working Age. The ICONOGRAPHY of NOK ART Four main characteristics distinguish the NOK STYLE. 1. The treatment of the eyes, which form either a segment of a circle or sometimes a triangular form, with the eyebrow above balancing the sweep of the lower lip, sometimes making a circle. 2. The piercing of the pupils, the nostrils, the lips and the ears. 3. The careful representation of elaborate hairstyles, with complex constructions buns, tresses, locks and the profusion of beads around the neck, torso and waist. 4. The realism in the modeling of the curled lips, the straight nose with flaring nostrils and the large overhanging forehead. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 27.

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Beautiful Tississat Falls in Ethiopia What do you know of East Africa’s Ethiopia? ENTER 28.

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WHAT DO YOU KNOW… About the Amazing History of East Africa’s Ethiopia Over 3000 years ago the Greek poet Homer sang of "the blessed Ethiopians." The English writer Samuel Johnson wrote a novel 200 years ago about an Ethiopian prince, in which the philosophers of the country contemplated the mysteries of the universe. In the twentieth century, Pan-Africanists such as W. E. B. Du Bois saw Ethiopia as the "all-mother of men," an ancient land of immense importance to human history, while the followers of Marcus Garvey dreamed that the children of slaves might return to Africa and live in Ethiopia, a nation that, in the biblical Book of Psalms, "stretched out her hands unto God." More recently, television and newspapers have depicted Ethiopia in harsh terms as a land of famine, war, and very little else, but the country possesses an extraordinary history, which remains little known outside its borders. The land we now know as Ethiopia witnessed the birth of modern humanity over 100,000 years ago in it’s Great Rift, and it was home to some of Africa's most ancient and advanced civilizations. Indeed, Ethiopia is one of the oldest nations on earth. For centuries the people of Ethiopia's highlands have maintained a rich cultural legacy, including a literary tradition dating from over 2000 years ago and a form of Christianity dating from the time of the Roman Empire.  Over the centuries many of the country's people came to practice Islam, and by the twentieth century, Ethiopia incorporated one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse populations in Africa. From the 1960s to the early 1990s Ethiopia suffered a long economic decline, famine, and civil warfare, first under an autocratic emperor and later under a brutal socialist military government. In the late 1990s Ethiopia still faced the challenge of overcoming ethnic strife and years of economic mismanagement to recover the prosperity and cultural richness it once enjoyed. Linking the Past to the Present PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 29.

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HISTORY OF EAST AFRICA East coast Africans were closer to the people of Arabia and the Gulf of Persia than to African societies in the central interior. Marriage between women of Africa and men of the Middle East created and cemented a rich Swahili culture, fusing urban and agricultural communities, rich in architecture, textiles, and food, as well as purchasing power. The Coast of East Africa has had a long history of trade, involving constant exchanges of ideas, style and commodities for well over two thousand years. The contact between the East African coast and Arabia, Persia and even China, goes back long before Islam came in the 8th century. Greeks and Romans called the area Azania. The Arabs talk about the Land of Zanj. _______________________________________________ PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 30.

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THE HISTORY OF AKSUMITE CIVILIZATION & ITS CHRISTIAN LEGACY On a continent and in a region that is mostly Muslim today, the Ethiopian Christian Church looms large. How is it that Christianity took root here long ago? An Alexandria-based trader's handbook written in the first century A.D., the People of the Erythraean Sea, provides one of the earliest testimonies of Aksum's expanding involvement in trade. Linked to the Red Sea trade routes by its port city of Adulis, Aksum itself was situated further inland, perhaps to allow for better control of the ivory that was one of its most lucrative exports. Aksumite ties through Adulis to the Red Sea would remain vital to the kingdom throughout its history. The minting of Aksumite coins begins in the third century A.D., and from this point it is possible to date the individual reigns of Aksumite royalty. In the fourth century A.D., the rule of one monarch in particular marked a defining transition in Ethiopian religious and cultural history. Byzantine and Roman historians chronicle how a Syrian Christian named Frumentius, called Abba Salama in Ethiopian versions, came to be captured and later hosted by the Aksumite court, whose king he ultimately converted to the Coptic branch of Christianity. Following his conversion, King Ezana (r. 320–50) had the crescent-and-disk of South Arabian polytheism removed from his coins and replaced with the Christian cross. Christianity was originally limited to Aksum's royal elite. In the later Fifth century it was spread to the general populace through missionaries fleeing into Ethiopia to escape the chaos within the Eastern Roman Empire. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 31.

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HISTORY in ARCHITECTURE Pictured is one of 12 remarkable rock-hewn churches in Ethiopia today. Called prayers in stone, these churches were carved from cliff faces and scooped out of the region’s red mountains to stand in deep stone trenches some 800 years ago. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 32.

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THE HISTORY OF AKSUMITE CIVILIZATION & ITS DECLINE IN POWER As we have said, there was early contact between the people on the East African coast and the peoples of the East - Arabia, Persia, India and even China, going back long before the prophet Mohammed began preaching the message of Islam in the 600's A.D. Before there was Islam, Arab peoples arrived and intermarried with the people of the east African coast very early on, forming a new kind of coastal society, the Swahili, with their own architecture, style of dress and music. "From of old this country has not been subject to any foreign power. In fighting they use elephant tusks, ribs and wild cattle's horns as spears, and they have corselets and bows and arrows. They have twenty myriads of foot-soldiers. The Arabs are continually making raids on them.“ ~ from the Compendium of Knowledge, by Tuan Ch'eng-shih, 8th c. A.D. In the beginning Muslim outsiders did not arrive on the Coast with the main aim of converting people; they came as traders, with influence. Not everyone became Muslim. There was a constant movement of slaves and traders coming from inland to the coast. On the whole, they only converted to Islam if they attained some permanent position in coastal society, as a leading trader, or craftsman, or in the case of women, as a wife or concubine to a rich man. However, by the Seventh century, the Islamic political scene had become more militant with clear expansionist goals and Muslim conversions became forced. As the Islamic empire spread through Africa, Muslim dominance in the region of east Africa cut off the region’s access to international trade. This was devastating to the economy of the region and was the main factor contributing to Aksum’s decline. 33.

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About 2500 B.C., the Sahara began to dry out. Through the process of desertification, the land became dry and the desert spread. Desertification was the principle reason for the massive migrations of this period, as people were forced to seek new places to live. Over thousands of years, migration has contributed to the rich diversity of people and cultures in Africa. But more than any other, it was the migrations of the Bantu people that helped to shape and even unify the cultures of Africa! STOP ! PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 34. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9

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1. The mixing of Bantu and Arabic cultures resulted in the: A. Bantu migrations. B. development of Swahili. C. spread of iron smelting. D. rise of Zimbabwe. 2. This African kingdom conquered Egypt in the 8th c. B. C.: A. Kush. B. Axum. C. Ghana. D. Zimbabwe. 3. The Aksumite city of Axum prospered partly because it had a port on the: A. Red Sea. B. Atlantic Ocean. C. Mediterranean Sea. D. Zambezi River. 4. The Nok culture was among the earliest to: A. establish trading centers in the Mediterranean. B. master iron working and the archetype of African art. C. establish a unified government for most of Africa. D. conquer neighboring tribes. 5. Traditional African art has had the greatest influence on: A. classical Roman mosaics and pottery. B. Renaissance painting. C. medieval European architecture. D. 20th century painting and sculpture. QUIZ TIME: . 6. In East Africa, east-west travel is hindered by the: A. Sahara Desert B. Great Rift Valley C. Zambezi River D. Savanna 7. The geographic features of Africa are partly responsible for: A. use of French or English as the official languages of many African nations. B. decline of the slave trade in the 19c. C. recent advances in technology in African nations. D. the diversity of cultures found in Africa. 8. A griot's role in West African society is similar to that of a: A. scientist. B. musician. C. military leader. D. historian. 9. The kingdom of Ethiopia is distinctive in Africa for its: A. early abolition of the slave trade. B. early conversion to and continued influence of Christianity. C. weak central government it has maintained for centuries. D. early conversion to Islam even before Islamic expansion. 10. The Bantu: A. were a war-like tribe who built an early African kingdom. B. brought stability and prosperity to Aksum after years of war. C. have occupied the same region of Africa since prehistoric times. D. Are a group of peoples who share a language and culture and whose migrations had a unifying effect on Africa. END DAY 2: African Kingdoms (Chapter 8) 35. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment

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Day 3: “The Entrance of First Americans” [Chapter 9] PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 36.

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Day 3: Chapter 8, “The Americas” Students will Describe the first inhabitants of the Americas. Explain the origins and impact of agriculture in the Americas. Describe the achievements of Olmec civilization. Trace the rise and fall of the Zapotec. Explain the impact of early Mesoamerican cultures. Describe the first people of the Andes and the Chavin civilization. Explain the rise of the Nazca and Moche civilizations. Students, take the time to read the objectives for this lesson: ENTER PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 37.

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INTRODUCTION: “Ten years ago most experts would have agreed that the first Americans arrived about 14,000 years ago by walking across a land bridge - the frozen Bering Strait - connecting Siberia and Alaska, then traveled south. Today, scientists who research the story of the first Americans – DNA experts, archaeologists, physical anthropologists, linguists, and historians – disagree on some fundamental points of that story. Instead of an arrival 14,000 years ago, some scientists now place humans in the Americas 15,000, 20,000, or even 30,000 or more years ago. Some suggest that instead of a single first migration, people came in a complex series of waves. The idea that they walked across land is now being challenged by theories that some may have come by boat.” ~ National Geographic magazine, December 2000 38. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9

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What do you think? The remains of the “Kennewick Man” were found in Washington State in 1996. And since that time the skeleton has been locked away from most research during a legal fight that developed because five different native American tribes believe they have a right to claim and bury Kennewick Man, while a group of scientists think the ancient bones should be studied. What do you think? 41.

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The Olmec 44. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 The Mystery of Olmec Jade Finally Solved June 2002 - World Scientist Since the 18th century, collectors, geologists and archaeologists have sought the answer to a frustrating mystery: The ancient Olmecs fashioned statues out of striking dark blue-green jade, but the stone itself was nowhere to be found in the Americas. Now scientists believe they have discovered the source – They’ve discovered a mother lode of jade in Guatemala that could tell much about ancient American civilizations. Back in the 18th c. Alexander von Humboldt found jade in Latin America and this light green type has been used for craftwork in Central America ever since. But never had the kind of dark green jade seen in Olmec sculptures been located. Then in 1999, Russell Seitz, a geophysicist who had spent 23 years searching for the source of Olmec jade, took his fiancee to the colonial city of Antigua in central Guatemala. On the roof of a store, he found jade that was vastly different from the opaque jade he had seen in Mexico and Central America . Instead, it was identical to the translucent blue-green stones so coveted by the Olmecs, who lived in central and southern Mexico from 1000-400 B.C. Seitz asked the storeowner where the jade was from and the man’s 10 y.o. son led Seitz to the site. The mystery of Olmec jade had been solved.

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OLMECS MAYAS Were the earliest American civilization Had powerful priests and aristocrats at the top of society Built ceremonial centers Spread influence through trade Developed calendar Introduced tradition of priestly leadership and religious devotion Developed complex irrigation methods for farming Built towering pyramid temples in Tikal Traded extensively across Middle America Developed hieroglyphic writing system Developed accurate calendar and numbering system Abandoned cities around A.D. 900

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Linking the Past to the Present Did You Know? The Zapatista native Americans of the Mexican state of Oaxaca (see map below) continue to resist living under Mexico’s authority. Descendants of the great Zapotec who once reigned supreme in the Oaxaca region for over a thousand years, they have fought for their independence since the arrival of Spain in the 1500s. A young member of the EZLN (Zapatista Army of National Liberation) is shown at right. 45.

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View of Monte Alban's Main Plaza Only if you have time, you may click on the pic to see more pics of Monte Alban. The Zapotec were the largest native American group of Oaxaca, from 800 BC to 1600 CE. The early Zapotecs were a sedentary, agricultural city-dwelling people who worshipped a pantheon of gods headed by Cocijo the rain god, represented by a fertility symbol combining the earth-jaguar and sky serpent symbols common in MesoAmerican cultures. They had no traditions or legends of migration, but believed themselves to have been born directly from rocks, trees, and jaguars. A priestly hierarchy regulated religious rites, which sometimes included human sacrifice! The Zapotecs worshipped their ancestors, and believing in a paradisaical underworld, stressed the cult of the dead. In art, architecture, hieroglyphics, mathematics, and calendar the Zapotecs seem to have had cultural affinities with the Olmec (ancient Maya), and later with the Toltec. By 200 B.C. the Zapotecs were using the bar and dot system of numerals used by the Maya. There capital of Monte Alban was the largest urban center in MesoAmerica during its day. 46.

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PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History Research Assignment Chapters 7-9 47.

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CHAVIN MOCHICA NAZCA Built huge temple complex Worshiped ferocious-looking god Chavin art and religion influenced later peoples of Peru Were skilled farmers who developed methods of terracing, irrigation, and fertilization of the soil Organized relay-runners to carry messages Perfected skills in textile production, goldwork, and woodcarving Etched glyphs in the desert. A glyph is a pictograph or symbol carved into a surface.

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The Incas strictly regulated the lives of millions of people within their empire Government officials arranged marriages. Community leaders assigned jobs to each family and organized the community to work the land. Farmers had to spend part of each year working land for the emperor and the temples. Government officials controlled the harvest.

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1. Today scientists believe that first Americans arrived in America not in a single first migration but: A. were here all along. B. came in two groups, one from Asia and one from Africa. C. in a complex series of waves. D. All of the above. 2. Kennewick Man is: A. the name scientists affectionately give the unknown first man who stepped into America. B. a 9,500 year old male skeleton discovered in Washington state in 1996. C. a mysterious statue found in the Olmec terrritory of MesoAmerica. D. the name of the first tribe of homo sapiens thought to crossthe Bering Strait (Berengia). 3. Evidence suggests that human populations in Meso- America were entering the agricultural revolution by: A. 10,000 B.C. B. 8,000 B.C.. C. 5,000 B.C. D. 3,000 B.C. 4. Some of the first permanent settlements in the Americas were located near: A. Kissimmee, Alaska. B. Seattle, Washington. C. Clovis, New Mexico. D. Tehuacan Valley, Mexico. 5. The first civilization builders in MesoAmerica were: A. the Aztec. B. the Nazca. C. The Chavin. D. the Olmec. . 6. Which of the following is NOT mentioned about the Olmec: A. They sculpted giant, colossal-sized heads. B. They were master craftsmen with jade. C. They practiced jaguar worship. D. They built the first real urban center in the Americas. 7. The Zapotec: A. dominated the Oaxaca region of Mexico for over 1,000 years. B. built first real urban center in the Americans – Monte Alban. C. are ancestors of Zapatista native Americans in Mexico today. D. all of the above.. 8. All of the following were pre-Inca Andean empires except: A. Nazca. B. Moche. C. Chavin. D. Mayan. 9. Archaeologists now believe Machu Picchu was: A. the sole Inca capital and administrative center. B. an Incan religious center for monastic priests. C. estates where the Incan royalty retreated in winter months. D. originally a Chavin center later overtaken by the Inca. 10. It was the Spanish conquistador ______ who held the Inca ruler __________ for ransom and then executed him: A. Coronado / Pachacuti B. Pizarro / Atahuallpa C. Cortez / Monteczuma D. Diez / Picchu END DAY 3: Early Americans (Chapter 9) 48. QUIZ TIME

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