203 Lec 21 St Lucia Conservation

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St. Lucia Modern Steps Towards Conservation: 

St. Lucia Modern Steps Towards Conservation Lecture 21

Bright Spot: 

Bright Spot What we have briefly discussed about St. Lucia then and now may leave us with a negative evaluation of the country. Even though what we have said is generally accurate the society is not without its heroes. One of these is Derek Walcott

His Famous Book : 

His Famous Book

We Now Explore Efforts to Conserve Nature in St. Lucia: 

We Now Explore Efforts to Conserve Nature in St. Lucia Always a first question “Why is there a need to conserve a natural resource?” Naturally, the basic answer is “Because the resource is being used or impacted beyond its capacity to recover on its own, i.e. its species and/or community resilience.” So, “Who or what caused the resources to be adversely impacted?” Ahh, here is the rub, because unless you know the cause you cannot define an effective solution!

St. Lucia From Air: Where is the human footprint?: 

St. Lucia From Air: Where is the human footprint?

So who has endangered the natural resources of St. Lucia?: 

So who has endangered the natural resources of St. Lucia? International corporations? Local business? Farmers? Fishers? Charcoal Makers? Women? Men? ?????? – Perhaps, combinations?

Mamiku Gardens http://www.mamiku.com/ : 

Mamiku Gardens http://www.mamiku.com/ Features a creole bush medicine garden on the grounds of an old French plantation

Web Site: 

Web Site Welcome to Mamiku Botanical Gardens Saint Lucia Mamiku Gardens are the finest botanical gardens in St Lucia - truly an unforgettable natural experience! Tour Mamiku Gardens Take a virtual tour of the gardens     Mamiku's History The gardens are situated on the site of a 18th-century plantation with a colourful history     Visit our Gift Shop Where you'll find St Lucian art & crafts, maps and (of course) flowers!     Garden Gate Flowers Send flowers to someone special!     Coming to St. Lucia? Here's how to find us     Sign our Guest Book Let us know you've visited     Useful links Some web sites we think you'll find interesting  

Conservation and a Business: 

Conservation and a Business Garden Gate Flowers is located on the small, lush, tropical island of St. Lucia in the Caribbean. Our flowers reflect the natural beauty of this gem of an island, whose magnificent rain forests are home to a variety of exotic plants, such as wild orchids and giant ferns. When you visit St. Lucia, why not carry home an assortment of flowers and foliage, or have us send them to you. Our flowers are shipped freshly cut from the flower fields of St. Lucia directly to your doorstep via Federal Express. Wherever possible, we use recycled packaging materials and our boxes are environmentally-friendly. Moist shredded paper is used to preserve freshness.

Culturing Sea Moss By Allan Smith, Research Scientist Caribbean Natural Resources Institute (CANARI) Vieux Fort, St. Lucia, West Indies: 

Culturing Sea Moss By Allan Smith, Research Scientist Caribbean Natural Resources Institute (CANARI) Vieux Fort, St. Lucia, West Indies Research on low-cost cultivation methods began in St. Lucia in the 198Os, in response to declining wild stocks and the evident increasing demand. The transfer of a workable technology for Gracilaria cultivation began in the mid- 198Os, and has since been established in three communities in St. Lucia, where both men and women operate self-sufficient farms.

Sea Weed Harvesting: 

Sea Weed Harvesting There is a seaweed fishery and seaweed is considered a prime candidate for aquaculture by the Government. Edible seaweed, Gracilaria debilis, grows around the island, but mostly on the south side from Choiseoul to Sayarnes Bay. Fishermen dive to harvest the seaweed, breaking it off or pulling it loose, being sure to leave the holdfast. The harvest occurs three times a year for about two weeks each time. It is collected only when the water is clear, and cannot be collected during the rainy season when river runoff keeps the water turbid. Fishermen report that it is best to wait three months between harvests, during which the seaweed will grow to 40 or 50 cm. Anywhere from 10 to 50 divers may take part in a harvest. One fisherman reported that he collected about 200 kg of seaweed (wet weight) in one week. It takes about 3 kg of wet seaweed to make 1 kg of dry. It is common for the fisherman to dive and for his family to transport, bleach and dry the seaweed. Bleaching is done by spreading the seaweed in the sun and sprinkling it with sea-water to keep it moist, or by covering it with clear plastic film. The bleaching takes about two days. Afterwards the seaweed is dried for two or three days, and then it is bagged in 40 kg sugar sacks. The producer is paid from U.S.$ 4.25 to 6.80/kg for dried seaweed1. www.fao.org/docrep/006/P4495E/P4495E07.htm

Sea Weed Harvesting: 

Sea Weed Harvesting The dried seaweed, known locally as ‘sea moss’ is found in the local market in season. It is usually made into a drink, but is sometimes eaten as porridge. Most fishermen sell to agents who apparently, in turn, sell to inter-island traders who sell it in Barbados, Trinidad and Guyana. In Barbados and Trinidad the retail price is said to be about U.S.$ 12.75/kg. www.fao.org/docrep/006/P4495E/P4495E07.htm

Sea Moss Culture: 

Sea Moss Culture Recognizing the economic potential of small-scale cultivation of seamoss, a regional non-governmental organization or NGO, the Caribbean Natural Resources Institute (CANARI), has been working with farmers in Saint Lucia to cultivate seamoss as part of a wider natural resources management programme. Seamoss is traditionally regarded as a nutritious ingredient for food and drink. It contains complex carbohydrates, as well as amino acids and minerals that are lost if the plants are washed in fresh water after drying. Perhaps because of its energy-giving properties, it also enjoys an age-old reputation as a potent aphrodisiac! Source: www.tve.org/ho/doc.cfm?aid=974

Sea Moss Transfer: 

Sea Moss Transfer The key to the CANARI project is the involvement of local stakeholders in resource management, which increases the likelihood that coastal resources will be used in a sustainable manner. It represents an important contribution to the development of alternative approaches to coastal resource use in the Caribbean. The most established commercial seamoss ventures are located in St Lucia, but the technology has been transferred to many islands, including Grenada, Jamaica, Dominica, and Antigua Source: www.tve.org/ho/doc.cfm?aid=974

Marine Protected Area - SMMA: 

Marine Protected Area - SMMA The Soufriere Marine Management Area (SMMA) was created in 1995 along the southwest coast of the Caribbean island of St. Lucia (2, 17). It encompasses 11 km of coast and includes a network of five marine reserves that constitute about 35% of coral reef fishing grounds (Fig. 1). This network was designed to rehabilitate the severely overexploitedreef fishery (2). Roberts et al. Science 2001 Vol 294: 1920-1923

Soufriere Marine Management Area: 

Soufriere Marine Management Area

St. Lucian Fishers - Net: 

St. Lucian Fishers - Net

St. Lucia Fishers - Pot: 

St. Lucia Fishers - Pot

St. Lucia Survivors of Over fishing: 

St. Lucia Survivors of Over fishing

Evaluation of MPA: 

Evaluation of MPA Science Vol 294 Nov 30 2001: 1920-1923

MPA Results: 

MPA Results We studied the reef fishery in the SMMA for two 5-month periods (20), in 1995–1996, immediately after reserves were created, and in 2000–2001, after 5 years of protection. We collected data from two trap-fishing methods— large traps soaked overnight and small drop and-lift traps, baited and soaked for 1 or 2 hours—that account for .70% of fish caught. Catches increased significantly between 1995–1996 and 2000–2001 (Fig. 3). Mean total catch per trip for fishers with large traps increased by 46%, and for fishers with small traps by 90%. Catch per trap increased 36% for big traps and by 80% for small traps (Fig. 3). Roberts et al. Science 2001 Vol 294: 1920-1923

Healthy Reef Fish Communities: 

Healthy Reef Fish Communities

MPA Results: 

MPA Results Our findings indicate that in 5 years, reserves have led to improvement in the SMMA fishery, despite the 35% decrease in area of fishing grounds. There were more fish in the sea, and evidence for little initial impact of reserves on total catches in the first year of implementation, together with constant fishing effort since protection began, indicates a greater weight of total landings. Interviews with local fishers (conducted in Creole via an interpreter) showed that most felt better off with reserves than without (Table 1). Younger fishers were especially positive about the benefits. In St. Lucia, reserves were designed to enhance artisanal, subsistence fisheries. They protect coral reef habitats and relatively sedentary fish species. Roberts et al. Science 2001 Vol 294: 1920-1923

The Social Science Data That Proves the Fishers are Ok With the MPA: 

The Social Science Data That Proves the Fishers are Ok With the MPA The fish data published in the article was extensive reflecting the complexity of the marine environment. The Social Science Data, however, was simple being presented as the responses to a single question and in the above table. I would like the class to talk, given what you know about Caribbean culture, about what might be wrong (incomplete) with this analysis. What do you see in this table? What else would you have liked to see?

St. Lucia - Ecotourism: 

St. Lucia - Ecotourism http://www.stluciatravel.com.lc/ The New MPA – Movie to follow

References: 

References Smith, Allan ( ) Finding Better Crops for Seaweed Farmers in the West Indies. Out of the Shell Vol. 6(1): 12-13.

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