14 ZIMBABWE Country Report

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AVIAN INFLUENZA ZIMBABWE COUNTRY STATUS REPORT Dr J Nyika, Dr SM Midzi, Dr O Kakono Roode Vallei Country Lodge Pretoria 7-9 March 2006

Presentation Outline: 

Presentation Outline Background Migratory birds Livestock farming systems Trade issues Country capacities Human Resources Diagnostics Infrastructure Preparedness Suspect andamp; Outbreak situations Challenges

Migratory birds: 

Migratory birds Transcontinental migratory birds are said to be of very minor threat They maybe problems with regional migrators coming out of the Great Rift Valley We have few, if any, ducks and geese which are likely to be the major carriers of the disease

Livestock Farming Systems: 

Livestock Farming Systems Vibrant well regulated industry Commercial and communal Beef, dairy, poultry, pigs Export of livestock and livestock products to the region and beyond


Trade International trade (Formal) The country exports: Day old chicks Hatching (embryonated) eggs Table eggs And until recently poultry and ostrich meat. Beef Local Trade Animals and birds slaughtered at registered abattoirs are sold through the formal market. However there is informal trading at local level.

Capacity: Human resources-Animal Health: 

Capacity: Human resources-Animal Health

Capacity-Human Resources-Human Health: 

Capacity-Human Resources-Human Health

Diagnostics-Animal Health: 

Diagnostics-Animal Health The Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL) that is ISO 17025 Accredited, employs an HAI test Determines the H and not N of the virus. Capacity to test at least 2 000 samples per day. Has validated and are using the AI ELISA. The lab is making efforts to develop molecular based techniques for the typing of the AI virus. CVL has put up a High Security Lab for dangerous pathogens but it needs EQUIPPING. They have received assistance from regional FAO AI TCP to acquire reagents and protective gear In addition to CVL a private laboratory,ZIMVET, has been accredited by Government to screen samples on their behalf using the HAI and ELISA.

Capacity-Diagnostics-Human Health: 

Capacity-Diagnostics-Human Health Currently there is no capacity to test human samples in the country Relying on sending samples to RSA However the country has WHO accredited Virology lab for testing measles and polio viruses There is potential to capacitate the existing virology lab to test AI samples need to be pursued with assistance of WHO


Capacity-Infrastructure VETERINARY 8 Provincial Veterinary Offices 53 Field Veterinary Offices 308 Animal Health Centres 4 000 Dip tanks 1 Central Laboratory andamp; 4 Provincial Diagnostic Laboratories Virology and Bacteriology section have ISO 17025 certification HUMAN HEALTH 6 Government Central Hospitals (all with Labs but no capacity for AI virus-testing) University Teaching Hospital has a WHO accredited regional Virology Laboratory (Measles and Polio) which can be improved to do AI testing. 10 Private Tertiary Hospitals 7 Provincial Hospitals 60 District Hospitals 17 Mission Hospitals 1 316 Rural/Municipal Health Facilities At least 15 Private laboratories


Preparedness National A multi-stakeholder National Taskforce on HPAI has been set up and is co-chaired by Veterinary Services (Ministry of Agriculture) and the Department of Disease Prevention and Control (Ministry of Health and Child Welfare)(MOHCW)   The Taskforce, which also includes Wildlife Management andamp; National Parks, Bird Groups, WHO, FAO, Ostrich/Pig Producers, Transport and Communications, Home Affairs and ZIMRA, meets once a month. Provincial and District Level Zoonotic subcommittees comprised of Veterinary Services and MOHCW meet quarterly but meets more frequently when necessary.

Suspect situations : 

Suspect situations VETERINARY Wild birds Surveillance of wetlands (identified and mapped) by Wildlife Management and Parks Ostriches and Poultry Sero-surveillance Enforcement of Bio-security measures Movement control Establishment of disease free compartments Awareness programmes in the print and electronic media, extension by departmental staff and local government structures. HUMAN HEALTH Seasonal (May to September)-Weekly reporting of clinical Human Influenza cases in place from 750 health institutions (representing 75% of all health facilities).

Outbreaks situations-Veterinary : 

Outbreaks situations-Veterinary As soon as an outbreak is confirmed: Properties are quarantined Screening and surveillance of birds in the whole country to establish extend of infection Mapping of problem areas Establishment of disease free compartments Movement control Suspension of exports Policy on control (slaughter, vaccination etc.) still to be developed Awareness programmes in the print and electronic media, extension by departmental staff and local government structures.

Outbreaks situations- Human Health: 

Outbreaks situations- Human Health A wide network of health facilities in place which are within 8km of any individual however there is a shortage of professional staff particularly in outlying rural areas. Shortage of suitable equipment, reagents and drugs will be a problem  Guidelines will be needed from the WHO on the management of HPAI in human beings


Challenges Demand for high insurance by health workers working in infectious disease hospitals remains unresolved outbreak experiences SARS VHF (Ebola,Marburg ) Protective clothing Compensation for farmers of culled poultry Quarantine facilities are likely to be stretched Capacity to import Vaccines ,Osteltamivir(Tamiflu),Lab reagents In light of FC constraints

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