Off Peak Cooling Thermal Energy Storage

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Presentation Transcript

Thermal Energy Storage and Peak Load Reduction: 

Thermal Energy Storage and Peak Load Reduction Mark M. MacCracken, PE, LEEDAP, Pte CALMAC Mfg. Corp. Fair Lawn, NJ Calmac.com NARUC Summer Meeting 7-16-07

Benefits of Thermal Energy Storage: 

Benefits of Thermal Energy Storage Reduces Peak Demand at most critical time 20-40% Reduces consumer’s energy costs 10-20% May reduce energy usage at the building up to 14% Reduces source energy usage at power plant 8-34% Reduces emissions up to 50% Increases Load Factor of Generation up to 25% Provides operational flexibility

Thermal Energy Storage For Off-Peak Cooling: 

Thermal Energy Storage For Off-Peak Cooling What is it? How does it work? Why is it Green? Other “Green” Advantages Applications/Case Studies

Storage is Natural: 

Storage is Natural

Most common TES System: 

Most common TES System Water Heater (Electric) Assume one low-flow shower ((2.5gpm x 8.33 lb/gal x (110-60)) x 60 minutes/hr / 3,414 Btu/kW = 18.3 kW 4.5 kW Heater Gas Water Heater Design Load = 2 Showers at a time 18.3 kW x 2 x 3414 = 124,950 Btus East Coast of US 100,000,000 people x 25% x 1/12 Hr/shower x 18.3 kW= 38 Gigawatts = CA Electric Peak on Summer day TES has already impacted US infrastructure

Utility Load Factors* in the USA: 

Utility Load Factors* in the USA *Load Factor = Avg. Load Peak Load

ASHRAE 90.1 Base Building Non-Storage Electrical Profile: 

ASHRAE 90.1 Base Building Non-Storage Electrical Profile Total kWh = 28,000/day (Load Factor = 53%)

Design 30% better than 90.1 Non-Storage Electrical Profile: 

Design 30% better than 90.1 Non-Storage Electrical Profile Total kWh = 19,200/day (Load Factor = 53%)

Off Peak Cooling (OPC) Electrical Profile: 

Off Peak Cooling (OPC) Electrical Profile Total kWh = 19,200/day (Load Factor = 88%) Avg. Load 800kW 40% Peak Load Reduction

Power continue to be less expensive at Night because of Generation Load Factor : 

Power continue to be less expensive at Night because of Generation Load Factor 4 Buildings x 1 Megawatt = 4 Megawatts 8,000 mW-h Sold The same generator produces 25% more sellable kW-h! 5 Buildings with TES @ 0.8 mW = 4 Megawatts 10,000 mW-h Sold!

Slide11: 

3-D Electric Load Profile -- Full Year 4200 ton-hr of Storage Installed 1990

Large Scale Sustainable Energy Future will Require Storage: 

Large Scale Sustainable Energy Future will Require Storage 1 TRILLION Watts of Generation in USA (approx.) Costs of New Generation, Installed Combined Cycle Gas Turbine ~ $0.50 to $1.00/Watt Nuclear $3.00 to $6.00/Watt New Coal Plant $1.50/Watt New Clean Coal $2.00/Watt Wind (30% Cap Factor ~ 0 Peak Reduction) $1.60/Watt PV (30% Cap Factor ~ 15% Peak Reduction*) $7.50/ Watt STORAGE (Thermal) $0.50 to $1.00/Watt *NREL Report

Thermal Energy Storage For Off-Peak Cooling: 

Thermal Energy Storage For Off-Peak Cooling What is it? How does it work? Two Basic Systems Water Ice

Slide14: 

40 56 Load Chiller 40

Slide15: 

40 56 Load Chiller 40 Warm Water 56 F Cold Water 40 F Thermocline

Slide16: 

Temperature Modulating Valve Storage Tanks Control Logic Chiller Based System Closed System So what is “Different”? Heat Transfer Fluid 75%H20/25%EG

Bank of America Tower at 1 Bryant Park, New York City Bank of America / Durst Organization : 

Bank of America Tower at 1 Bryant Park, New York City Bank of America / Durst Organization History Channel “Sky Scrapers” 9-7-04 ~2.2 Million ft2 Going for LEED Platinum

Thermal Storage Tank Ice-on-Coil Internal Melt: 

Thermal Storage Tank Ice-on-Coil Internal Melt Expansion Chamber Heat Exchanger Tank Insulation

Slide19: 

Coil & Glycol 25 Temperature Control Valve 31 1000 ton On-Peak Load 500 ton Chiller 25 31

Slide20: 

44 Temperature Control Valve 54 Ice 500 ton Load 500 ton Chiller 44 Coil & Glycol

Slide21: 

52 Temperature Control Valve 60 44 Ice Coil & Glycol 1000 ton Load 500 ton Chiller 44 34- 44

Basic Operating Modes for any Storage System: 

Basic Operating Modes for any Storage System Storage System 60 ton Chiller 1,100 ton-hr Storage ICE DISCHARGE CHILLERS ICE CHARGE

Space?: 

Space? Full Storage: 0.70% of cooled floor space Partial Storage: Ice provides about 33% of a cooling system reducing ice tank floor space to 0.23% of cooled floor space. Same ratio as the water heater in your house 1 ton cools 500 ft2 1 tank provides 20 tons 1 tank cools 10,000 ft2 1 tank needs 70 ft2 (60 ft2 )

National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC USA: 

National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC USA 4,700 Ton Hrs of Storage On-Peak Chiller – 1122 Tons On-Peak Ice Contribution – 729 Tons 40% On-Peak Chiller Demand Avoided

Thermal Energy Storage Myths Article (Ashrae Journal Sept 03): 

Thermal Energy Storage Myths Article (Ashrae Journal Sept 03) 1. Uncommon 2. Too Much Space 3. Too Complicated 4. Doesn’t Save Energy 5. Too Expensive 6. Lack of Redundancy (Risky) Rates Will Change Modeling doesn’t Show Results Reality: TES is a Proven Technology that saves Money and Energy

Thermal Energy Storage For Off-Peak Cooling: 

Thermal Energy Storage For Off-Peak Cooling What is it? How does it work? Why is it Green?

Slide27: 

Materials & Resources Energy & Atmosphere Water Efficiency Sustainable Sites Indoor Environmental Quality LEEDTM Credits Sustainable Sites: 14 points Water Efficiency: 5 points Energy* & Atmosphere: 17 points Materials & Resources: 13 points Indoor Environment Quality: 15 points Innovation & Design: 5 points 69 points *10 Energy Credit are based on ASHRAE 90.1 which is based on Energy COST Reduction

Real reasons Off-Peak Cooling is Green:: 

Real reasons Off-Peak Cooling is Green: It is much more Energy Efficient to create and deliver a kWh of Electricity at night than during the hot of the day. Research from the California Energy Commission on 2 Cal. Utilities Reports 8 to 34% savings in raw fuel when comparing On and Off Peak Operation! Heat Rates for Base Load Plants ~7,800 Btu/kWh vs. Peaking Plants ~9,400 to 14,000 Btu/kWh The last power plants to come on during peak hours are normally the dirtiest per kW Ashok Gupta (Director of Energy, NRDC) in NYTimes article “Peak Shifting results in lower emissions because some of the plants used to meet demand peaks are among the dirtiest in the city” New CA Report by Greg Kats The Costs and Financial Benefits of Green Buildings states Peak power in CA is twice as dirty as Off Peak Power.

Thermal Energy Storage For Off-Peak Cooling: 

Thermal Energy Storage For Off-Peak Cooling What is it? How does it work? Why is it Green? Other “Green” Advantages

Other “Green” Issues : 

Other “Green” Issues Safety Factors/Redundancy (Oversizing) Well documented that oversizing chiller plants creates less efficient real world operation. Engineers have to protect their license Storage is the Natural solution

Safety Factor and Redundancy Without Oversizing for same Cost: 

Safety Factor and Redundancy Without Oversizing for same Cost Storage System 2 - 400 ton Chiller 3,500 ton-hr Storage * as per GSA Guideline P-100

Design Day Off-Peak Cooling System: 

Design Day Off-Peak Cooling System Storage System 2- 400 ton Chillers 3,500 ton-hr Storage 500 ton Load Reduction or ~ 375 kW STORAGE DISCHARGE CHILLERS (ONLY 500 TONS) Installed Chillers Max Capacity STORAGE CHARGE

Costs of Storage: 

Costs of Storage What’s the Installed Cost of a ton of Chiller Plant? $1000/ton , $1200/ton, $1400/ton $1600/ton, $1800/ton Storage Costs installed ~ $100 to $150 per ton-hr Depending on location, application and design For each 1 ton of chiller you reduce you need about 8 to 9 ton-hrs of storage. Costs are similar to conventional design for New Construction

Thermal Energy Storage For Off-Peak Cooling: 

Thermal Energy Storage For Off-Peak Cooling What is it? How does it work? Why is it Green? Other “Green” Advantages Applications/Case Studies

UL 8,000 Ton-Hr 2.5 days to install: 

UL 8,000 Ton-Hr 2.5 days to install

Costco Installations 3 in Japan 2 in Korea 2 in USA : 

Costco Installations 3 in Japan 2 in Korea 2 in USA

Slide37: 

41 Stories 3400 Ton Hours Storage Avoids  700kW out of 3500kW Original Total Durst Headquarters Retrofit 1155 Avenue of the Americas

Slide38: 

~1200 TONS

Credit Suisse 11 Madison Ave.: 

Credit Suisse 11 Madison Ave. 30 Stories, 2.2 Million Ft2 6200 Ton Hours Storage Avoids ~ 900 kW NYSERDA Incentive $620,000 Main reason for Storage: Resiliency

Morgan Stanley: 

Morgan Stanley

Slide41: 

Morgan Stanley Westchester, NY

1 Bryant Park Bank of America Tower 2.2 Million Sqft: 

1 Bryant Park Bank of America Tower 2.2 Million Sqft

Bank of America Tower ICEBANK Facts: 

Bank of America Tower ICEBANK Facts Over Half a Million Pounds of Ice made every night. Enough Ice to Cool 250 Homes 1000 Tons of Air Conditioning Shifted to Off-Peak

Goldman-Sachs New York City : 

Goldman-Sachs New York City 2.2 Million Sqft. 6,000 tons Peak 4,500 tons of Chiller (Only 3000 during the Day) 19,000 Ton-hr of Ice Storage ~2 MW Reduction Going for LEED Gold

Off-Peak Cooling… in over 6000 installations in 35 countries, many installed over 20 years ago: 

Off-Peak Cooling… in over 6000 installations in 35 countries, many installed over 20 years ago

Slide46: 

Mark M. MacCracken, CEO MM@Calmac.com www.Calmac.com 201-797-1511 NARUC Summer Meeting 7-16-07 Questions?

Slide47: 

*Assumes 33% National Electric Grid Efficiency Chiller Energy and Water Efficiency Comparison

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