Slide1: Khadi The ‘Swadeshi’ fabric Slide2: Khadi Khadi is a hand-spun and hand-woven fabric.
Woven mostly in cotton, the process originates itself
more than 5000 years ago and believed to be from ancient
This almost forgotten process was revived by Mahatma
Gandhi in 1921, as a part of his movements of non-
violence and non-cooperation against the British.
It evoked tellingly the fact that in the post-industrial world,
self worth and self sufficiency was acknowledged as a
compensation for human labour. Slide3: Khadi the process… Hand picking of the cotton bolls
Opening and cleaning
Drawing and Combing
Drawing and Drafting
Finishing Slide4: Khadi Hand picking Hand picked cotton bolls, collected for further
processes. Slide5: Khadi Ginning The process of separating fibers from the
cotton seeds. It is done by hand, using a sharp comb like object like a fish
bone which also removes the larger fragments of trash. Slide6: Khadi Ginning The other method involves the use of a small wooden device with toothed rollers. Slide7: Khadi Opening & Cleaning Slide8: Khadi Bow Carding The process to eliminate the final traces of
trash from the open fibers and to separate them fully Slide9: Khadi Carding The mechanized carding machine consists of a very fine wire that separates the fibers almost individually and then passed through moving steel bars that remove the very short fibers and tangles. The carded material is then collected as ‘Slivers’. Slide10: Khadi Drawing and combing It involves the further parallelization of cotton fibers and removal of short fibers to produce finer qualities of yarn. It is the process of straightening the fibers , prior to spinning of the yarn and thus a sliver of cotton is obtained. Slide11: Khadi Roving & Spinning The traditional‘Charkha’
or the hand spinning wheel. Slide12: Khadi The New Model Charkha (NMC),
which is semi-mechanized. Roving & Spinning Slide13: Khadi Roving & Spinning Fish bone The drafted slivers are further thinned out and twisted slightly at the same time to strengthen it.
The product of this process is called Roving which is directly spun to produce yarn, during which the diameter of the yarn is controlled and calculated. Rovings are wound onto bobbins ready for spinning. Slide14: Khadi Roving & Spinning Fish bone The spinning of fiber into yarn is the most emblematic of textile production. Here the yarn is spun using a spinning wheel. Slide15: Khadi Spinning Fish bone Although most of the spinning is done on the New Model Charkha (NMC), in some remote villages the traditional hand spinning wheel is still being used. Slide16: Khadi Spinning Fish bone The spun yarns are wound into
reels of 1000 meters each. Slide17: Khadi Spinning Centers Fish bone In order to organize and systematize the spinning process, spinning is done by spinners at the spinning centers nowadays. Most cooperatives, with license from the KVIC, procure cotton slivers from South India and then spin yarn for self consumption only. Slide18: Khadi Warping Slide19: Khadi Sizing Fish bone The process involves starching or application of sizing solution to the warp prior to warping or after warping to resist the weaving abrasions. Slide20: Khadi Drawing & Drafting Fish bone The process of making the healds by looping nylon heald wire around the warp ends, depending on the weave and design of the fabric. Slide21: Khadi Fish bone Bobbin winding The reels of yarns are then wound onto bobbins by hand using a winding Charkha.
The process of weaving follows this. Slide22: Khadi Weaving Fish bone Weaving is done on a pit loom, especially with a fly shuttle, which is one of the most ancient type of looms. Slide23: Khadi Fish bone The interior villages of West Bengal where the weavers produce the finest Khadi of 300s to 500s count…
An attempt to revive the famous Bengal muslin. Slide24: Khadi The ‘Swadeshi’ fabric Khadi - Gandhi’s Quintessential Fabric Slide25: Khadi Salient features of Khadi
Hand-spun and hand woven
Hand spun yarn renders a soft character to the fabric that
is comfortable to wear.
Subtle texture in the fabric owing to hand spinning and hand
Fine fabrics up to 500s count are available…..which are otherwise
impossible to weave in mechanized looms. Slide26: Khadi The Future of Khadi
It is the only fabric where the play of texture is so unique that no
two fabrics will be absolutely identical, thus lending it exclusivity
and inimitability in terms of feel and texture.
Khadi is among the most progressively modern of all textiles,
one that not only has desirably material possibilities but also
consonance with the native ecology and sensitivity to the human
condition that sustains it.
It advocates that fact that even in the post-industrial world, self-
worth and self sufficiency are acknowledged as a compensation for
Today Khadi is being used by Top Fashion Designers in India and
abroad in garments and accessories. Slide27: Khadi Did you know?
70 % of the artisans involved in the process of Khadi production are women.
Khadi is an eco-fabric. The process involves no environmental pollution and is extremely eco friendly.
Khadi helps in supporting destitute, helpless rural women folk as they can work independently and earn their living.
Khadi production is a labour-intensive industry, with a scope of providing more employment with an investment of a very meager capital especially in the rural areas.
It enables full development of locally available raw materials and human resources. Slide28: Khadi We would like to thank the following people for their help, support and guidance without which this project would not have been a success:
Mr. G.C. Basak, Joint Director
Directorate of Handlooms and Textiles, Govt. of West Bengal.
Mr. S.S.Sil, Dy. Director & Mr. U.S. Maiti, Khadi Officer
Khadi & Village Industries Commission, West Bengal.
Mr S.K. Ghosh, Dy. Director,
Weavers Service Center, Kolkata.
Dr. B.V. Somashekhar. Director,
National Institute of Fashion Technology, Kolkata.
Mr. Malay Kumar Das, Technical Officer,
Handloom Development Commission, Murshidabad.
Bharat Khadi Sevak Sangha, Murshidabad.
Chandrakanta Lalit Mohan Resham Khadi Samity, Murshidabad.
Murshidabad Silk Weavers Co-operative Society Ltd., Murshidabad.
Khadi-o-Kutir, Kalna, Burdwan.
Nabadwip Kutir Shilpa Prathisthan , Burdwan.
Ms. Darshan Shah, Director, Weavers Studio, Kolkata.
Tarang Maheshwari, NIFT, New Delhi. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Slide29: Khadi Khadi
Volkart Foundation, Switzerland,
Amr Vastra Kosh
The Khadi Industry
Publication Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting
Govt. of India
Spinning & Khadi
Khadi: How & Why?
The Gandhian Way
Kripalani, J.B., Acharya
Nawjivan Publishing House, Ahmedabad BIBLIOGRAPHY Slide30: Khadi The ‘Swadeshi’ fabric WEAVERS STUDIO
5/1, Anil Moitra Road, Ist Floor, Ballygunj Place, Kolkata- 700 019 West Bengal India SPONSORED BY Slide31: Khadi The ‘Swadeshi’ fabric Nitin Gupta National Institute of Fashion Technology New Delhi
Subhabrata Sadhu National Institute of Design Ahmedabad DOCUMENTED BY PRESENTED BY Ms. Darshan Shah Director Weavers Studio Calcutta, India Slide32: Khadi The ‘Swadeshi’ fabric THANK YOU