CORONARY HEART DISEASE : CORONARY HEART DISEASE Satenik Baghdasaryan What is Coronary heart disease? : What is Coronary heart disease? Coronary heart disease is a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. Coronary Heart Disease is also called coronary artery disease. Coronary Heart Disease affects about 14 million people in United States. What Causes Coronary Heart Disease?: What Causes Coronary Heart Disease? Research suggests that Coronary Heart disease develops when certain factors damage the inner layers of the coronary arteries. These factors include: smoking, high cholesterol in blood, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar. When damage occurs, your body starts a healing process. Excess fatty tissues release compounds that promote this process. This healing causes plaque to build up where the arteries are damaged. What Causes Coronary Heart Disease?: What Causes Coronary Heart Disease? The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries may start in childhood. Over time, plaque can narrow or completely block some of your coronary arteries. This reduces the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle. What are the symptoms of Coronary heart Disease?: What are the symptoms of Coronary heart Disease? Symptoms may be very noticeable, but sometimes you can have the disease and not have any symptoms. Chest pain or discomfort (angina) is the most common symptom. You feel this pain when the heart is not getting enough blood or oxygen. How bad the pain is varies from person to person. What are the symptoms of Coronary heart Disease?: What are the symptoms of Coronary heart Disease? There are two main types of chest pain: Atypical chest pain -- often sharp and comes and goes. You can feel it in your left chest, abdomen, back, or arm. It is unrelated to exercise and not relieved by rest or a medicine called nitroglycerin. Atypical chest pain is more common in women. What are the symptoms of Coronary heart Disease?: What are the symptoms of Coronary heart Disease? Typical chest pain -- feels heavy or like someone is squeezing you. You feel it under your breast bone (sternum). Adults with typical chest pain have a higher risk of Coronary Heart Disease than those with atypical chest pain. Other symptoms include: shortness of breath, fatigue with exertion, and weakness. In some cases the fist signs of CHD is a heart attack How CHD is diagnosed?: How CHD is diagnosed? Tests and Exams that can determine CHD include: Coronary angiography CT angiography Echocardiogram Stress Test Magnetic Resonance Angiography Nuclear scan Treatment for CHD: Treatment for CHD Main goal for treating these conditions for patients with CHD is to maintain low blood pressure. Blood pressure less than or equal to 140/90 and even lower for some patients with diabetes, kidney disease, and heart failure. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels less than or equal to 7% Treatment depends on your symptoms and how severe the disease is. Diet and Excercise for CHD Patients: Diet and Excercise for CHD Patients Lifestyle changes are very important. Avoiding or reducing the amount of salt (sodium) you eat is very important. Eat a heart healthy diet -- one that is low in saturated fats, cholesterol, and trans fats Get regular exercise and maintain a healthy weight Keep your blood sugar strictly under control if you have diabetes Stop smoking How to prevent Coronary heart Disease?: How to prevent Coronary heart Disease? Avoid or reduce stress as best as you can. Don't smoke. Eat well-balanced meals that are low in fat and cholesterol and include several daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Get regular exercise. If your weight is considered normal, get at least 30 minutes of exercise every day. If you are overweight or obese, experts say you should get 60 to 90 minutes of exercise every day. Keep your blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol under control. New guidelines no longer recommend hormone replacement therapy, vitamins E or C, antioxidants, or folic acid to prevent heart disease.