Shift Registers and Counters

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Shift Registers and Counters:

Shift Registers and Counters By SANDESH DUBEY Things that appear hard are normally trivial, If you do the obvious in the obvious way. After all, how “tough” c an “easy” be? -- Anonymous

What is an LFSR?:

What is an LFSR? Linear Feedback Shift Register An N-bit LFSR counts through all non-zero bit patterns in a pseudo-random order. Useful for the Project!!! Random Number Generator for collision back-off Error Checking

Tips on LFSR…:

Tips on LFSR… Things to do Place a linear array of D Flip Flops and feedback the last output to the first. (FF(N-1) output to FF(0) input) For an N-bit LFSR look at the table in Page 6 for a polynomial starting with x^N. For every term x^K in the polynomial compute an XOR of outputs of FF(N-1) and FF(K-1) and feed it to FF(K) as input (FF numbered from 0 to N-1) Things NOT to worry about What is a Galois Field? What is an irreducible polynomial?

An Example 5-bit LFSR:

An Example 5-bit LFSR XOR Q Q Q Q Q D D D D D D D The polynomial from the table is x^5+x^2+1 Only x^2 is present in the polynomial take an XOR of Bit4 and Bit1 and feed it to Bit2 as input. Magic!!! You have a 5-bit LFSR in front of you Bit4 Bit3 Bit2 Bit1 Bit0 CLK

PowerPoint Presentation:

XOR Q Q Q Q Q D D D D D Bit4 Bit3 Bit2 Bit1 Bit0 CLK Parity Computation XOR Serial Input Plug in the actual bits serially(one after another) The final bits in the flip flops are the parity bits Note: The Last N(=5) bits of the serial input have to be 0 This is for computing the N parity bits of the serial input

Magic Error Checking:

Magic Error Checking Consider a 4-bit LFSR Serial Input:11001000111 (Note 11= 15-4 bits) 11001000111 0000 -> 1010 11001000111 1010 -> 0000 Introduce error in 7 th bit 1100 0 000111 1010 -> 0111 0000 1 000000 1010 -> 0111 Isn’t 0111 equal to 7? Figure out how lazy I am. Refer to error correction example in the handout!!!

What to do in the lab?:

What to do in the lab? DIP switch ROM LFSR Control FSM 8-bit counter LED output Comparator Spare Reset count ENABLE CLK CLK TC

Modes of Operation:

Modes of Operation Mode 1: LFSR would shift 256 bits Display final parity in 8 LEDs Mode 0: Process sequence until pattern in DIP switch is equal to parity bits Final counter will be displayed in LEDs ( position of error ) If output is “0” then no errors in message Mode controlled by SPARE button

Things to do:

Things to do Run MODE=1 with all DIP switches set to 0. Compute parity bits as shown in LEDs. Enter parity bits on the switches, run MODE=1 and observe the output. Is it 0? Introduce only one error in the ROM – modify ROM schematic Use MODE=1 operation to detect the error. Use MODE=0 operation to find position of error. Is there anything easier than copying?

Control FSM:

Control FSM Want Extra Credit! Do this logic as pre-lab. 3 inputs: TC output of counter, comparator and MODE from SPARE button 2 states: ACTIVE state: upon RESET, enables the counter and LFSR Waits until either TC from counter or PAR=LED signal from comparator(if MODE=0) and enters DONE state DONE state: Can leave this state only thru RESET Hooray!!! Need only 1 FF for the FSM

Things to know:

Things to know The last 8 bits of the ROM are set to 0 and are always read from the DIP switches Galois fields knowledge is useless for the lab! Xchecker cable clock runs at 1Mhz makes it difficult to observe what’s going on. Use of 16-bit counter to divide clock by 65536! Want to observe cycle-by-cycle, use Apply button in Hardware Debugger but should bypass the 2^16 bit counter To change ROM contents use INIT attribute by clicking on a ROM block

Before you Wake up!:

Before you Wake up! Do Control FSM logic as pre-lab Learn how to build an 8-bit LFSR Read the lab sheet twice before starting the lab Get your understanding about parity bits and error correction clear Every closed eye is sleeping, and every open eye is not seeing. --Bill Cosby

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