Code switching in pakistan

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CODE SWITCHING IN ENGLISH AND PAKISTANI LANGUAGES STUDENT'S NAME : SAMI UL HAQ PROGRAME : PGD TEFL ROLL NO : AP509169 TUTOR'S NAME : SIR MUHAMMAD ALI JAUHAR

BILANGUALISM:

BILANGUALISM (I) The ability to speak two languages (ii) The frequent use (as by a community) of two languages (iii) The political or institutional recognition of two languages

BILANGUALISM (DEFINITIONS BY EXPERTS ):

BILANGUALISM (DEFINITIONS BY EXPERTS ) Bloomfield (1933:55): ‘Native - like control of two or more languages’ Haugen (1953:7) ‘The point where a speaker can first produce complete meaningful utterances in the other language' Grosjean (1997): ‘The use of two (or more) languages in one's everyday life, not knowing two or more languages equally well and optimally’

CODE SWITCHING:

CODE SWITCHING “It is the juxtaposition within the same speech exchange of passages of speech belonging to two different grammatical systems or subsystems” (Gumperz 1982:59)

POSSIBLE CODE SWITCHING IN PAKISTAN:

POSSIBLE CODE SWITCHING IN PAKISTAN URDU+ENGLISH URDU+PUNJABI URDU+PUSHTO URDU+SINDI URDU+BALUCHI URDU+KASHMIRI PUNJABI+PUSHTO/SINDI/BALUCHI/KASHMIRI PUSHTO+PUNJABI/SINDI/BALUCHI/KASHMIRI SINDI+PUNJABI/PUSHTO//BALUCHI/KASHMIRI BALUCHI+SINDI/PUNJABI/PUSHTO//KASHMIRI KASHMIRI+PUNJABI+PUSHTO/SINDI/BALUCHI/

Communication Accommodation Theory :

Communication Accommodation Theory The Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT), developed by Howard Giles, professor of communication at the University of California, Santa Barbara, seeks to explain the cognitive reasons for code switching, and other changes in speech, as a person seeks either to emphasize or to minimize the social differences between him or herself and the other person(s) in conversation.

Types of Code switching :

Types of Code switching Scholars use different names for various types of code-switching. Inter sentential switching occurs outside the sentence or the clause level (i.e. at sentence or clause boundaries).It is sometimes called "extra sentential" switching. Intra-sentential switching occurs within a sentence or a clause. Tag-switching is the switching of either a tag phrase or a, or both, from language-B to language-A, (common intra - sentential switches). Intra-word switching occurs within a word, itself, such as at a morpheme boundary.

Examples of Urdu-English code switching (cs) and Pakistani English :

Examples of Urdu-English code switching (cs) and Pakistani English

Examples of Urdu-English code switching (cs) and Pakistani English:

Examples of Urdu-English code switching (cs) and Pakistani English

Examples Code switching in discourse:

Examples Code switching in discourse 1.      Amjad considered her as ustad se ziyada dost (friend rather than teacher). 2.      And an old friend of hers, a female writer, was so infuriated on being referred to as a Cycle wali larki (female cyclist) that she broke relations with her for good. 3.      According to one of them, they were not shunned by the public as lula, langra and apahaj (lame and paralyzed). 4.      What was sworn upon yesterday as guiding principle will be chucked at the altar of expediency tomorrow as mere siyasi bayan (political statement).

Conclusion:

Conclusion Most speakers command several varieties of the language they speak, and bilingualism, even multilingualism, is the norm for many people throughout the Pakistan and other countries rather than unilingualism’ and while using these language they do exercise code switching. In Pakistan peoples do exercise code switching for convenient or for the purpose of teaching. Major code switching in pakistan is Urdu+English

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