The Role of Technology in Reducing Motor Vehicle Crashes and Their Aftermath: The Role of Technology in Reducing Motor Vehicle Crashes and Their Aftermath Drew Dawson, Director
NHTSA Office of EMS Motor Vehicle Injuries:The leading cause of injury, world wide!: Motor Vehicle Injuries: The leading cause of injury, world wide! Haddon Matrix: Haddon Matrix Comprehensive Approach to Highway Safety Pre-Crash Crash Human Vehicle Environment Technology: Technology The Vehicle History: History 1901 - Speedometers - Oldsmobiles are the first to feature speedometers.
1906 - Closed body Cadillac. Cadillac offered a closed body car.
1908 - Headlight - General Motors introduces the first electric headlamp. History: History 1912 - Self Starter - Cadillac introduced the 1st successful electric self starter.
1912 - All Steel Body
History: History 1924 - Two Filament Headlamps improving night time visibility distance.
1925 - Electric Wipers - wiper speed could be maintained regardless of engine speed.
1926 - Safety Glass- Safety Plate, shatter proof (laminated) glass is introduced to reduce the potential for flying glass during an accident. History: History 1930 - Slanted Windshields - eliminate night time glare of headlamps from oncoming traffic.
1933 - Knee Action - Independent front wheel suspension, improves ride, car stability, and steering.
1939 - Automatic Shift
1939 - Turn Signals History: History 1940 - Front/Rear Directional Signals - Buick is first to offer front/rear directional signaling with self canceling switch.
1945 - War Years History: History 1952 - Power Steering
1953 - Power Brakes
1955 - Seat Belts
1954 - Electric Windows
1959 - 2 Speed Electric Wipers History: History 1966 - Energy Absorbing Steering Column
1969 - Impact Testing
1969 -Side Guard Beam History: History 1971 - Sealed Battery
1973 - Air Cushions
1974 - Catalytic Converter History: History 1986 - Rear Seat lap/shoulder safety belts. History: History 1990 - Anti-lock Brakes
1999 - In Vehicle Computers/MAYDAY Evolution of Vehicle Safety: Evolution of Vehicle Safety Vehicle Innovations: Vehicle Innovations Back-up Aid : Back-up Aid Typical Application
Back-up Aid is active anytime a vehicle is put into reverse gear. It’s useful for parallel parking, backing in and out of parking spaces, and backing at higher speeds.
Adaptive Cruise Control: Adaptive Cruise Control Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) greatly increases the value of cruise control, especially in congested traffic situations.
Detects objects in the vehicle’s path.
If the lane ahead is clear, the system will maintain the set speed.
When slower traffic is detected, the system will maintain a driver-selected headway — using throttle control and limited braking. Night Vision: Night Vision Night Vision: Night Vision Night Vision: Night Vision Stability Control: Stability Control Fishhook Maneuver: Fishhook Maneuver Intervention Example2006 Porsche Boxster: Intervention Example 2006 Porsche Boxster ESC Disabled
(Note occurrence of transient oversteer) Intervention Example2005 Nissan Titan: Intervention Example 2005 Nissan Titan Intervention Example2005 Mitsubishi Montero: Intervention Example 2005 Mitsubishi Montero Tire Pressure Monitoring System: Tire Pressure Monitoring System Still to come…..: Still to come….. Slide29: Rear-end Collision Slide30: Intersection Collision Slide31: Roadway Departure Slide32: Lane Change/Merge Collision The Future … Integration: The Future … Integration Technology: Technology The Driver Slide35: Driver Monitoring Ignition Interlocks: Ignition Interlocks
Visual and Ocular Measures of Driver Impairment: Visual and Ocular Measures of Driver Impairment Drowsiness
PERCLOS (percent of eye closure) measured using cameras aimed at face
Machine vision analysis of glance directions shows tunnel vision of search and scan patterns or glances inside vehicle instead of on the roadway
Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus
Pupil response to light
??? Issues: Issues Accuracy
Installation and upkeep
Research and development Technology: Technology Post Crash Care Automatic Collision Notification: Automatic Collision Notification Slide43: Data Shared Provider Name/ID Incident ID
Call Back Number Event Verified
Date Stamp Time Received
Latitude and Longitude VIN
Datum Device Event Type
Delta V, Direction of Force Which airbags deployed
Vehicle Manufacturer, Make, Model, Year, Color
Rollover information (if available and present)
Multiple Impacts Automatic Crash NotificationAdvanced Automatic Crash Notification: Automatic Crash Notification Advanced Automatic Crash Notification
Revision of ACS Field Triage Protocol
University of Michigan
Other efforts to evaluate which data elements are clinically useful EMS Technology Project: EMS Technology Project Technology in EMS is important
Assuring clinical efficacy of devices is critical
Cooperative agreement with National Association of EMS Physicians
Develop a process for medical review of EMS equipment Next Generation 9-1-1: Next Generation 9-1-1 Slide47: = Slide48: All telephones are not alike Other devices can now act like telephones Current and Future 9-1-1: Current and Future 9-1-1 Next Generation 9-1-1 - The Opportunities: Next Generation 9-1-1 - The Opportunities Leveraging convergence
Provide better wireless Enhanced 9-1-1
Allow simultaneous communications to multiple destinations
Integration of data from multiple sources
Automatic Crash Notification
Improved text and video
Improved transfer to other PSAPs
Background: Background 9-1-1 system capabilities have critical implications for public safety in general, and transportation safety, mobility, and security in particular.
The “convergence” trend in telecommunications and information technology provides an opportunity to make integrated voice, data, and graphical communications for public safety practical. DOT Vision for 9-1-1: DOT Vision for 9-1-1 Establish the foundation for public emergency services in a wireless mobile society
Pave the way for fundamental changes (who, what, where, how) in moving emergency information
Enable E9-1-1 “calls” from most types of communication- or networked- devices NG9-1-1 Program Plan: Engage stakeholders. Leverage Wireless E9-1-1 Initiative activities and relationships. Involve other stakeholders through RFI, technology forums and other outreach efforts.
Establish the vision. Partner with public safety agencies and telecommunications industry to achieve consensus operational practices and user requirements for an Internet / multimedia-capable 9‑1‑1 system
Define the future. With 9-1-1 community partners, define the system architecture and develop a transition plan that considers responsibilities, costs, schedule, and benefits for deploying the NG9-1-1 System across
the Nation. NG9-1-1 Program Plan Define the Future: Define the Future Define Next Generation 9-1-1 System
Create government/industry partnership to define and document the system framework and a transition plan.
Provide the bridge between this initiative and on-going IP-telephony standards development and related activities
Evaluate NG9‑1‑1 Framework and Transition Plans
Assess potential system performance, costs and benefits, and risks Milestones: Milestones National architecture and high-level design for NG9-1-1 System
Transition plan for NG9-1-1 implementation Additional Information - ESC: Additional Information - ESC NHTSA’s ESC Docket
Docket Number 19951
VRTC ESC Website
ESC installation information
An excellent overall vehicle safety resource