Phaeophyta

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IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST MERCIFUL AND MOST BENEFICENT

TOPIC:PHAEOPHYCOTA:

TOPIC:PHAEOPHYCOTA PRESENTED BY SABA RIAZ: Roll No. 354 M.phil Botany PRESENTED TO DR.GHAZALA YASMEEN BUTT GCU LAHORE

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Phaeophyta

Introduction:

Introduction The name Phaeophyta means brown plants , which is quite appropriate since the majority of the brown algae are darkly colored: chocolate- or olive-brown. Many of the species of algae that we commonly call the seaweeds are in this phylum. There are approximately a thousand species (more recent books say three thousand) in over two hundred and fifty genera in division Phaeophyta .

SYSTEMATICS OF THE PHAEOPHYTA :

SYSTEMATICS OF THE PHAEOPHYTA Harvey (1836) first classified the brown algae under class Melanospermeae . He classified all algae under three classes, the Chlorospermeae Melanospermeae Rhodospermeae The taxonomy of the Phaeophyta is based on Clayton (1990), Margulis and Schwartz (1988), Sleigh et al. (1985),  Bold and Wynne (1985), Graham and Wilcox (2000).

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Clayton (1989 ) considers that the characteristic association of the nucleus, golgi and flagellar bases shows affinities with the Chrysophyta , Xanthophyta , and Oomycota . Taylor (1922) classified the brown algae on the basis of life cycles but was unable to compete it due to non-availability of sufficient data. By 1933 suffieicnt data was available on life cycle and Kylin classified the brown algae into three classes consisting of 12 orders .

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Round (1973) followed the same classification and divided brown algae into Isogeneratae (isomorphic alternation of generation) Heterogeneratae ( heteromorphic alternation of genetration ) Cyclosporae (there is only diploid generation ) Smith (1955) also followed this pattern of classification. Later on when the brown algae were given the rank of class phaeophyceae and then that of a division Phaeophyta and these three classes were also raised to the rank of a sub-class and class respectively .

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Fritsch (1935) placed the brown algae in the class Phaeophyceae and divided it into nine orders: Ectocarpales Sphacelariales Cutleriales Tilopteridales Dictyotales Sporochnales Desmarestiales Laminariales Fucales Some phycologists added Chordariales and Dictyosiphonales to the list to make 11 orders.

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Bold and Wynne ( 1978) placed the brown algae in division phaeophycota and divided into 13 orders: including Dictyotales , Sphaecelariales , Scytosiphonales , Dictyosiphonales and Laminariales . Graham and Wilcox (2000) proposed that the brown algae occupy a single class and 15 orders .

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Mustafa Shameel (2008) proposed that pheaophycota having three classes I- Dictyophyceae Sarcinochrysales Ectocarpales Ralfsales Sphacelarales Cutlerales Tilopterales Dityotales

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II- Laminariophyceae Chordarales Sporochnales Desmarestales Dictyosiphonales Scytosiphonales Laminarales III- Fucophyceae Durvilleales Fucales

Appearance:

Appearance They differ considerably in how they appear to the naked eye. They have following structures in them. Their main physical structures are a holdfast S tipe Blades Pneumatocysts

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Blade Stipe Holdfast

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Bladders

Morphology:

Morphology Brown algae exist in a wide range of sizes and forms. The smallest members of the group grow as tiny, feathery tufts of threadlike cell no more than a few centimeters long . Other groups of brown algae grow too much larger sizes. The rockweeds and leathery kelps are often the most conspicuous algae in their habitats. E.g , Kelps can range in size from the two-feet-tall sea palm Postelsia to the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera , which grows to over 45 m (150 ft) long and is the largest of all the algae.

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Macrocystis -- Kelp

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Postelsia

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Macrocystis -- Kelp

Visible structures :

Visible structures The body of all brown algae is termed a thallus , indicating that it lacks the complex xylem and phloem of vascular plants. This does not mean that brown algae completely lack specialized structures . Holdfast : A holdfast is a root-like structure present at the base of the alga.

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Stipe A stipe is a stalk or stem like structure present in an alga. It may grow as a short structure near the base of the alga (as in Laminaria ), or it may develop into a large, complex structure running throughout the algal body (as in Sargassum or Macrocystis ). Frond Many algae have a flattened portion that may resemble a leaf, and this is termed a blade , lamina, or frond .

Pneumatocysts:

Pneumatocysts Gas-filled floats called pneumatocysts provide buoyancy in many kelps and members of the Fucale . Pneumatocysts are most often spherical or ellipsoidal The giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera bears many blades along its stipe, with a pneumatocyst at the base of each blade where it attaches to the main stipe.

  Range of Thallus in Phaeophyta :

Range of Thallus in Phaeophyta The brown algae possess a highly organized, complex thallus . All genera are multi-cellular, sessile and macroscopic. Some genera exhibit characteristic Heterotrichous habit like Ectocarpus , while others possess Cushion-like psuedoparenchymatous thalli . Chordaria , Sporochnus , and Sphacelaria all are pseudoparenchymatous taxa . Desmarestia grows as a special type of pseudoparenchymatous form.

Range of thallus:

Range of thallus In higher species Uniaxial organiztion ( nemacystus ) is found. Certain brown algae show almost angiospermic body organization. e.g , in Dictyota the plant body is differentiated into a lower c ylindrical portion attached to the substratum with the help of rhizoids and an upper dichotomously branched flattened portion.

Range of Thallus:

Range of Thallus The plant body of Fucales show more morphological and anatomical complexity. They exhibit internal tissue differentiation. There is an outer epidermal layer , a medulla composed of loosely arranged cells, followed by Cortex .

Range of Thallus:

Range of Thallus The thallus organization has reached at its maximum in members of Laminariales . The main part of a sporophyte and is the largest among the algae, Lessonia flavicans resembles a miniature tree and Postelsia palmaeformis resembles a palm tree in appearance and is commonly known as Sea palm .

Cell Structure:

Cell Structure The phaeophycean cell has an organization similar to that of higher plants. It consists of a cell wall enclosing a tiny mass of protoplast. Cell wall It consists of two layers, The inner layer is of cellulose. Outer layer is of gelatinous and pectic material.

Cell wall:

Cell wall The cellulose layer consists of fine parallel micro-fibrils. It contains glucose and xylose as sub-units. The outer layer becomes slimy or gummy due to presence of pectic compounds. Colloidal substances like “ algin ” and “ fucoidin ” occur in the outer pectic portion of the cell wall of Laminaria , Saragassum, and Ascophyllum . Outer layer is also thin and reticular in nature. Algin may form about 24% of the dry of Alga. These gum-like substances are of economic importance.

Protoplast:

Protoplast The protoplast can be differentiated into cytoplasm, nucleus, and vacuoles . In Dictyota , a large vacuole is present, therefore the cytoplasm is peripheral in position. All other eukaryotic organelle are present. The chromatophores are present singly or in many numbers. Generally these may be discoid or parietal.

Pigments:

Pigments The brown algae have chlorophylls a and c, alpha and beta carotene, and several Xanthophylls Such as flavoxanthin and lutein . The abundance of the xanthophylls such as fucoxanthin and violaxanthin provides the distinctive brownish color. Pigments are in plastids with the thylakoids in groups of three, with girdling lamellae present.

Storage Products:

Storage Products The food reserve are laminarian , mannitol and fat . Laminaria is a beta 1:3 linked glucan with 1:6 branch linkage. Pyrenoids have been reported in some Fucales , Dictyotales , and Laminariales . Glycerol and sucrose have been observed in some genera.

Motility:

Motility There are no unicellular brown algae. There are no flagellated types. Reproductive cells, both zoospores and gametes, are flagellated. Most of laterally bi-flagellated, with an anterior flagellum with hairs called the tinse l type, and trailing flagellum. The latter has no hairs and is called the whiplish type. The sperm of Dictyota are uni -flagellated, but presence of basal bodies suggests that one flagellum has been lost.

Energy and Nutrients:

Energy and Nutrients Phaeophytes (marine algae and kelp) use sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into simple sugars and amino acids for energy. This is photosynthesis. They obtain nutrients from the water surrounding their habitats and the sea animals that take shelter among them.

Annual Growth Cycle:

Annual Growth Cycle Most phaeophytes grow during the summer or sunny months and die off during winter months. They are eaten by sea urchins and damaged by storms. If the water is full of sediment from development or logging activities, the plants are unable to grow because they cannot photosynthesize the energy they need.

Reproduction:

Reproduction The brown algae reproduce by vegetative, asexual, and sexual means of reproduction. Vegetative reproduction I- Fragmentation It is the usual and universal method of vegetative propagation in the brown algae. A portion of the thallus known as the fragment breaks away from the parent thallus and grows into a new individual. The best example of multiplication by detached fragments is a free-floating specie of the genus Saragassum ( S. natas ).

II- Propagula:

II- Propagula Sphacelaria produces special, adventitious branches called the propagules or propagula . Develop on the same manner as a lateral branch, after it has become a few cells long the apical cell divides by a vertical division into two or three daughter cells. Each daughter cell acts as the initial of a propagulum which can form a new thallus .

Asexual Reproduction:

Asexual Reproduction It takes place by Spore formation in all the members except Fucales . The spores are motile, biflagellate and called zoospore. The zoospores are either produced in one-celled unilocular sporangia or in many-celled plurilocular sporangia. The unilocular sporangia are produced in plants with diploid thallus Multicellular , or plurilocular , sporangia are found on both haploid (gametophytes) and diploid ( sporophytes ) thallus

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In many genera, especially in the simpler species, the gametes can also parthenogenetically grow into new gametophytes, allowing a method of asexual reproduction. If plurilocular sporangia are present on the sporophyte , the resulting diploid zoospores (through mitosis) will germinate into more sporophytes . Meiospores are produced.

Sexual Reproduction:

Sexual Reproduction Sexual reproduction may be isogamous oogamous anisogamous Union of gametes may take place in water or within the oogonium ( oogamous species). The life cycle shows great variability from one group to another.

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The gametes are produced in many-celled plurilocular gametangia . The plant may be homothallic or heterothallic In isogamous species both male and female gametes are motile In anisogamous and oogamous species the male gametes are motile and the female ones immotile. The gametes in all cases are released from gametangia and Fertilization takes place in water. The diploid zygote germinate immediately into a new diploid plant, there is no zygotic meiosis.

The Phaeophyte: life cycle:

The Phaeophyte : life cycle Most brown algae have a sexual alternation of generations between two different multi-cellular stages as isomorphic and heteromorphic generations. Fucales , have no free-living gametophyte stage at all. The largest kelps are diploid, and release flagellated swimming sperm into the water to find egg cells. It has been shown that chemical signals called pheromones aid the sperm in their quest in at least some phaeophytes .

Isomorphic generation:

Isomorphic generation Isomorphic type of life cycle take place in Ectocarpus . Ectocarpus - common in colder seas of northern hemisphere, these organization become tolerant to the metal pollution. The sporophyte and gametophyte both are similar in appearance. It is most primitive type of brown algae.

Life cycle: Isomorphic alternation of generations(Ectocarpales):

Life cycle: Isomorphic alternation of generations( Ectocarpales )

Life cycle: Heteromorphic alternation of generations (Laminariales) :

Life cycle: Heteromorphic alternation of generations ( Laminariales )

Life cycle: Diplontic (Fucales):

Life cycle: Diplontic ( Fucales )

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Brown Algae Scytosiphon

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Laminaria Egregia Brown Algae

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Laminaria saccharina Nereocystis luetkeana

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Sargassum Sargassum fluitans

Evolutionary History :

Evolutionary History Phaeophyta evolved from the phaeothamniophyceae between 150 & 200 million years ago . The lineages of brown algae diverged in the following order, from oldest to youngest Dictyotales Sphacelariales Cutleriales Desmarestiales Ectocarpales Laminarales Fucales

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Their occurrence as fossils is rare due to their generally soft-bodied habit. Other algal groups, such as the red algae and green algae have a number of calcareous members, which are more likely to leave evidence in the fossil record than the soft bodies of the brown algae . Miocene fossils of a soft-bodied brown macro algae, Julescrania , have been found well-preserved in Monterey Formation diatomites ,

Ecology:

Ecology Ecology is the study of organisms in their natural environment So the organisms and the environmental factors interact in some way and cause minor to major changes. Though there are a few rare freshwater species, the brown algae dwell almost exclusively in marine (or coastal) environments . . Members of the group dominate many benthic marine biotas, sometimes reaching from the ocean floor to its surfac In general, they are not free-floating organisms, but are attached to rock, coral, or other firm surfaces

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The group is found primarily in colder waters of the northern hemisphere, with the largest forms occurring in cooler waters, rather than in the tropics . Many familiar species, such as rockweed, are intertidal , and are exposed to the air at low tide.

Kelp forests:

Kelp forests Kelp forests consisting mostly of species representative of phylum Phaeophyceae (brown algae) occur in cold, nutrient-rich water and are among the most beautiful and biologically productive habitats in the marine environment Kelp forests provide home and food for numerous animals including species of Foraminifers Hydroid Flatworms , polychaete worms leeches , snails ostracods , cumaceans , isopods amphipods, shrimps, crabs, bryozoans and fish . They offer hiding places for both prey and predators, and places for smaller creatures to grow

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Kelp Forest

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A kelp forest can be up to a mile wide by a few miles long Sometimes the holdfast at the bottom of the plant will detach itself and the kelp will rise to the surface and float about, still growing until it reaches waters that are too hot or until it ends up on a beach This floating mat can provide an oasis in the middle of the ocean for small and juvenile fish. But predators also will take advantage of this and stalk a patch of kelp for these small fish.

Effect of shade from kelp canopy layers:

Effect of shade from kelp canopy layers Rp Clark, Edwards, Foster examined the effects of shade from multiple kelp canopy layers (surface Macrocystis pyrifera canopy, understory Pterygophora californica canopy), both individually and in combination, on an understory algal assemblage in a central Californian kelp forest The removal of both kelp canopies resulted in a dense recruitment of the understory brown alga Desmarestia ligulata that formed a third canopy layer, which significantly decreased bottom light and the abundance of understory red alga

The Sargasso Sea :

The Sargasso Sea The Sargasso Sea is a free-floating kelp-dominated ecosystem in the western North Atlantic . It is bounded by the Gulf Stream, the Canaries Current, and other currents which together produce an ever circulating boundary . The local pattern of distribution appears to also be affected by both wind and thermal fronts, and more broadly may be affected by the action of storms . Attempts to quantify the amount and distribution of Sargassum in the Atlantic have met with many difficulties, including changes with seasonality and regional patchiness.

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Two species constitute the majority of the algae here Sargassum natans Sargassum fluitans s.natans is the primary part while most of the rest is sargassum fluitans Sargassum stays afloat by producing gas-filled bladders which act like buoys Life here is precarious for animals who are poor swimmers -- they must maintain a firm grip on floating mats of kelp, or be lost to the ocean depths.

Effects of sargasso sea on the behaviour of organisms and ecology:

Effects of sargasso sea on the behaviour of organisms and ecology Such a floating ecosystem of course will have difficulties in acquiring nutrients, and will therefore be severely limited by access to such nutrients Many of the organisms which live here survive by being generalists , not limiting themselves to a single food source but making use of whatever is available . The most common crab is a generalist carnivore, eating many different kinds of prey . It is also interesting that this ecosystem has no animals which are strict herbivores, but rather they are omnivores, switching between diets of eating algae and animals.

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The accumulated mats of Sargassum support a wide variety of animal life, some of which depend on the kelp for only a part of their life . Floating jungle: Other organisms spend their whole life among the algae, and this diversity of life has been called a "floating jungle". Some of the more unusual forms include fish and crabs which are camouflagued to look like Sargassum .

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Atlantic floating jungle of sargassum

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the best known of these is the pipefish Syngnathus pelagicus , a relative of the seahorse. This fish is brownish-green, and is covered by flaps of skin which resemble the kelp blades . There are more than 50 fish species whose lives are linked to Sargassum

Fucoid communities:

Fucoid communities Fucus , or rockweed is the organism which gives these communities their name . Communities dominated by members of the order Fucales are mostly subtidal and intertidal. In these regions, the stress of wave action makes life difficult for free-floaters; most organisms who live here attach themselves to the rocks . And it is not just the peaceful waves that must be withstood, but the powerful force of waves generated by storms as well.

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Those organisms not securely fastened to the rocks will likely be torn free and washed ashore or carried into the open ocean Algae and plants which live here must also contend with many herbivores which live in these near-shore communities Heavy grazing may damage and weaken the holdfasts which anchor the algae. Exposure at low tide also means that these organisms risk dessication , which is reduced by the presence of gelatinous compounds such as algin .

Effect of oil spill on kelp forest:

Effect of oil spill on kelp forest Effects of oil on subtidal algae may include poisoning of various biochemical pathways, destruction of photosynthetic pigments, obstruction of gas exchange due to heavy coating, and decrease in sunlight. Two phenomena in regards to marine subtidal seaweed populations may be observed after an oil spill: initial die-off of oil-coated plants often followed by uncontrolled proliferation after disappearance of primary grazers such as sea urchins and limpets. Both these effects can be detrimental to existing ecosystem and may cause permanent ecosystem

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF BROWN ALGAE:

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF BROWN ALGAE

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Humans use brown seaweeds in numerous ways, and algae are becoming very important commercially for food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and in the sciences. Many tasty types of kelp are harvested from wild populations and also grown in commercial kelp farms . Brown algae are also collected, treated, and sold as a fertilizer for terrestrial agriculture.

Brown Algae As A Food::

Brown Algae As A Food: A great many kinds of seaweed are edible and have entered as marine vegetables into the diets of human beings from ancient times. China is the largest producer of edible seaweeds, harvesting about 5 million wet tones. The greater part of this is for kombu , produced from hundreds of hectares of the brown seaweed, Laminaria japonica , that is grown on suspended ropes in the ocean. Food from brown seaweeds comes mostly from the genera Laminaria , Undaria and Hizikia .

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Kelp has been a component of Asian cuisines for centuries. In Japan, it's called kombu and is commonly used in soup stock and salads. The Vietnamese eat it in a variety of forms, including raw and pickled In addition to the abundance of the basic raw materials (brown seaweeds, mainly Ascophyllum and Laminaria seaweed meal is a rich source of minerals, vitamins and trace elements. Brown seaweed is a rich source of mineral such as magnesium, zinc, calcium, potassium, iodine and iron, which are important building blocks in the body.

Brown algae as a fodder:

Brown algae as a fodder Seaweed meal, used an additive to animal feed, has been produced in Norway, where its production was pioneered in the 1960s. Dried kelp (probably Macrocystis pyrifera ) was formerly produced.  Most of the material was incorporated into animal feeds. Sargasso weed often forms into large mats in the mid Atlantic where unique animals and communities can be found.

Use as Manure and fertilizer :

Use as Manure and fertilizer Fertilizer uses of seaweed date back at least to the nineteenth century. The large brown algae, for example Macrocystis and Ascophyllum , are the principal species used for manure. Their value as a fertilizer derives not so much from their nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents but rather from their unusual properties as a soil conditioner and growth promoter. Brown algae is sometimes used in the United States as fertilizer. It is rich in iodine, so it is appropriate as a fertilizing material for plants that require an iodine-rich soil. Nitrozime TM Concentrated 100% Organic Marine Algae Extract Super concentrated seaweed fertilizer.

Medicinal use of brown algae : :

Medicinal use of brown algae : Brown algae have a variety of medical uses. Physicians and homeopaths use medicines containing brown algae for medicines to treat such physical ailments as fibromyalgia, heart disease, high cholesterol, acid reflux disease and cancer. From earliest times the Chinese used Sargassum and various Laminariales for treatment of goiter and other glandular troubles. In a lab study published in 2007, researchers examined the health effects of fucoidan extracted from nine species of brown seaweed. Results revealed that all fucoidans delivered anti-inflammatory effects.

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Aquatic Role Kelp forests are an important part of the food chain in ocean waters. Brown algae species are food for snails, sea urchins and other grazers. Kelp grazers fall prey to larger fish and sea otters, which serve as food for sharks and sea lions. Bottom dwellers such as crabs feed on scraps of brown algae and uneaten prey when it sinks to the bottom of the ocean. Alginic acid dissolves slowly in water, which makes it useful for binding together food pellets. As a result, feed manufacturers use alginic acid in fish and prawn food pellets.

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Commercial Uses Of Brown Algae During World War II, U.S. manufacturers began producing alginic acid to use in the rubber, tire and textile industries. Alginic acid is often used to stabilize rubber, paint and coatings in industry. "Extract of seaweed" is often found on the list of ingredients on cosmetic packages, particularly in face, hand and body creams or lotions. This usually refers to the use of alginate or carrageenan in the product.

Use In Wastewater Treatment:

Use In Wastewater Treatment The accumulation of heavy metals (such as copper, nickel, lead, zinc and cadmium) by seaweeds became apparent when those seaweeds used as human foods were first analyzed. Successfully implemented using brown seaweeds such as Sargassum , Laminaria and Ecklonia as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution.

Biomass for fuel:

Biomass for fuel In 1974, the American Gas Association decided to look for a renewable source of methane (natural gas) and sponsored a project to produce seaweed on farms in the ocean, harvest it and convert it to methane by a process of anaerobic fermentation. The seaweed chosen was the "giant kelp" that grows off the coast of California, Macrocystis pyrifera , because of its high growth rate and ease of harvesting by mechanical means.

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The large brown macroalgae - or kelp - are perhaps the greatest potential source of marine biofuel . Kelp are large seaweeds, part of the brown algae class that are known for their high growth rates. To grow kelp requires nutrient-rich water below 20 °C. The concept of marine macroalgal biomass for biofuel is not new: in the late 1960s Chynoweth at IGT Chicago researched farming giant kelp ( Macrocystis pyrifera ) as a substrate demonstrating high conversion efficiencies, rapid conversion rates and good process stability. However, their attempts to farm the seaweeds failed through a lack of knowledge of seaweed biology and offshore farming methods.

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Seaweeds grown at salmon cages SAMS

Research Work On Phaeophyta :

Research Work On Phaeophyta Chemicals in Brown algae may protect against skin cancer: The study, led by researchers at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center , is published in the Dec. 15 issue of the International Journal of Cancer . The animal study indicates that chemicals called brown algae polyphenols (BAPs), which are found in a type of brown marine seaweed, might protect against skin cancers caused by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation.

Antibacterial Effect Of The Brown Alga Cystoseira trinodis :

Antibacterial Effect Of The Brown Alga Cystoseira trinodis A attempted to study of antibacterial effect of the brown alga Cystoseira trinodis harvested from the Persian Gulf. This investigation was an in vitro study. The activity of the extract of C. trinodis was examined against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa . C. trinodis c ould be a useful natural resource for preparation of antibacterial agents.

Anti-inflammatory and Pain Relief :

Anti-inflammatory and Pain Relief The June 2011 issue of "Natural Products Communications" reported a study investigating the effects of substances from brown algae on inflammation and pain sensation. The Brazilian Federal University of Ceara's researchers found that administration of the brown algae's substances to mice significantly reduced paw swelling, indicating an anti-inflammatory action.

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Diabetes: Brown algae may help improve diabetes-related outcomes based on preliminary findings from animal research. In diabetic mice, Ishige Okamurae Brown, a type of brown algae, lead to lowered blood glucose levels in a study published in August 2009 in the "European Journal of Pharmacology.“ It also slowed down carbohydrate absorption.

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Identification of a New Brown Alga , Spatoglossum qaiserabbasii , from the Karachi Coast of North Arabian Sea: A new alga, Spatoglossum qaiserabbasii Abbas et Shameel , sp. nov . ( Dictyotales , Phaeophycota ) was collected from the coast of Karachi, Pakistan during March 2009 and investigated for its taxonomy, anatomy and reproductive structures. It is characterised by very rough surface of the thallus , small proliferations all over the surface and highly undulate margins. Anatomically there are variable shapes of the peripheral cells, i.e., cubical or rectangular, triangular or polygonal.

Marine Bioenergy Scotland :

Marine Bioenergy Scotland Marine Bioenergy Scotland ( MBeS ) is a new centre of the Scottish Marine Institute focussed on research, development and commercialisation of marine biomass for use as a bioenergy crop. Large brown macroalgae naturally grow very fast in easily accessible coastal locations and are readily used as biofuel . Macroalgae can be anaerobically digested to produce methane and /or fermented to ethanol. With no lignin and little cellulose, they provide better material than land plants for complete biological degradation to methane.

Harmful effects of Brown algae ::

Harmful effects of Brown algae : If take medication for a thyroid problem, stay away from kelp. The levels of iodine in kelp, in addition to the medication, raises iodine in the blood to a dangerous level, according to the National Institutes of Health. One case study published in April 2007 in "Environmental Health Perspective" found that a woman who took a brown algae supplement experienced toxicity.

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Sea kelp supplements contain high amounts of vitamin K, which could reduce the effectiveness of anticoagulant drugs like warfarin . Brown tides”. These algal blooms can also cause numerous ecological and/or human health problems due to the toxins produced by the species and their potential bioaccumulation in the food web, or due to the degradation of blooms which may cause hypoxic (low levels of dissolved oxygen in water) conditions.

References:

References http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Phaeophyta.aspx http://kankoku.myweb.uga.edu/phaeophytauses.html http://www.cdgreen.org/SDGI/Papers/Phaeophyta.htm http://www.buzzle.com/articles/phaeophyta-brown-algae.html http://marinelife.about.com/od/plants/p/brownalgae.htm http://www.scienceclarified.com/A-Al/Algae.html

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http://comenius.susqu.edu/bi/202/CHROMALVEOLATA/HETEROKONTAE/Phaeophyta/default.htm http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/phaeophyta.html http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/browns/phaeolh.html kankoku.myweb.uga.edu/ phaeophytaclassification .htm http://www.ehow.com/about_6628173_phaeophyta-life-cycle.html http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/BOT311/Phaeophyta/phaeophyta.htm

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Thanks