Slide 1: UNIT I
INTRODUCTION TO AEROSPACE ENGINEERING 1 HISTORY OF FLIGHT SWETHA BALA M.N.V.S
DEPARTMENT OF AERO ENGG
MRCET INDEX : INDEX What is Aviation?
Ancient Myths and Legends
Early efforts of flight
Lighter than air aircrafts
Montgolfier Hot Air Balloons
Dirigibles or Airships
Heavier than air aircrafts
Commercial use of space
Solar system and beyond
Human in space 2 WHAT IS AVIATION? : WHAT IS AVIATION? Aviation is field which includes not only flying but all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft.
Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft.
Aviation history refers to the history of development of mechanical flight—from the earliest attempts in kites and gliders to powered heavier-than-air, supersonic and spaceflights. 3 INITIAL DEVICES : INITIAL DEVICES STONES AND SPEARS (CRUDE)
FICTION CHARACTERS AND MACHINES
Greek Character – Icarus
Pushpaka Vimana – Ramayana (A Hindu Epic)
etc., 4 AVIATION – contd.Ancient myths and Legends of flilght : AVIATION – contd.Ancient myths and Legends of flilght Greek Legend - PegasusBellerophon the Valiant, son of the King of Corinth, captured Pegasus, a winged horse. Pegasus took him to a battle with the triple headed monster, Chimera.
Icarus and Daedalus - An Ancient Greek LegendDaedal-us was an engineer who was imprisoned by King Minos. With his son, Icarus, he made wings of wax and feathers. Daedalus flew successfully from Crete to Naples, but Icarus, tired to fly too high and flew too near to the sun. The wings of wax melted and Icarus fell to his death in the ocean.
King Kaj Kaoos of PersiaKing Kaj Kaoos attached eagles to his throne and flew around his kingdom.
Alexander the GreatAlexander the Great harnessed four mythical wings animals, called Griffins, to a basket and flew around his realm. 5 AVIATION – contd.Early efforts of flight : AVIATION – contd.Early efforts of flight Around 400 BC – China
The discovery of the kite that could fly in the air by the Chinese started humans thinking about flying. Kites were used by the Chinese in religious ceremonies. They built many colorful kites for fun, also. More sophisticated kites were used to test weather conditions. Kites have been important to the invention of flight as they were the forerunner to balloons and gliders.
Humans try to fly like birds
For many centuries, humans have tried to fly just like the birds. Wings made of feathers or light weight wood have been attached to arms to test their ability to fly. The results were often disastrous as the muscles of the human arms are not like a birds and can not move with the strength of a bird. 6 AVIATION – contd Early efforts of flight : AVIATION – contd Early efforts of flight Hero and the Aeolipile
The ancient Greek engineer, Hero of Alexandria,
worked with air pressure and steam to create
sources of power. One experiment that he
developed was the aeolipile which used jets of steam
to rotary motion.
Hero mounted a sphere on top of a water kettle.
A fire below the kettle turned the water into steam,
and the gas traveled through pipes to the sphere.
Two L-shaped tubes on opposite sides of the sphere allowed the gas to escape, which gave a thrust to the sphere that caused it to rotate. 7 Early efforts of flight : Early efforts of flight Leonardo Da vinci (1490) --- gave a pictorial view of the ORNITHOPTERS from his imagination.
These Ornithopters were successfully built only in 1870’s. 8 Slide 9: 9 LIGHTER THAN AIR AIRCRAFT
The unpowered and uncontrolled aircraft which carried human beings is an ‘HOT AIR BALLOON’ designed by Montgoflier brothers in 1783 .
It had its successful flight on Nov 21, 1783
The disadvantage is that it could fly only down wind.
A STEERABLE Hot air Balloon was built by Brazil’s Alberto Santos Dumont which took its flight on Oct 1,1901
It’s name was “Number 6”. HOT AIR BALLOON BY MONTGOFLIER BROTHERS : HOT AIR BALLOON BY MONTGOFLIER BROTHERS 10 LIGHTER THAN AIR AIRCRAFT : LIGHTER THAN AIR AIRCRAFT 11 An airship or dirigible is an aerostat or "lighter-than-air aircraft" that can be steered and propelled through the air using rudders and propellers or other thrust mechanisms. Unlike other aerodynamic aircraft such as fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, which produce lift by moving a wing, or airfoil, through the air, aerostatic aircraft, such as airships and hot air balloons, stay aloft by filling a large cavity, such as a balloon, with a lifting gas. HEAVIER THAN AIR FLIGHT : HEAVIER THAN AIR FLIGHT Sir George Cayley (1773—1857) built a PILOTED GLIDER and developed an efficient CAMBERED AIRFOIL.
He designed the glider in the form of a monoplane in 1804 approximately 100 years before the construction of Wright Brother’s Flying machine in 1903.
He also designed the Tail plane comprising of horizontal stabilizers and a vertical fin.
He was the one to discover DIHEDRAL FOR LATERAL STABILITY and the importance of CENTRE OF GRAVITY.
For his contributions he is known as “FATHER OF MODERN AVIATION”. 12 REPLICA OF SIR CAYLEY’S GLIDER : REPLICA OF SIR CAYLEY’S GLIDER 13 OTTO LILIENTHAL & SAMUEL LANGLEY : OTTO LILIENTHAL & SAMUEL LANGLEY Otto Lilienthal (23 May 1848 – 10 August 1896), the German "Glider King," was a pioneer of human aviation. He was the first person to make repeated successful gliding flights.
Langley attempted to make the first working piloted heavier-than-air aircraft. His models flew, but his two attempts at piloted flight were not successful. 14 POWERED AND CONTROLLED FLIGHT : POWERED AND CONTROLLED FLIGHT On December 17 1903, Wright Brothers ( Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright) flew the first fully documented successful powered, heavier than air airplane ‘FLYING MACHINE 1’.
They gave the pilot the facility of ‘3-AXIS CONTROL’.
They were the first ones to develop AILERONS.
They tested their design in the WIND TUNNELS. 15 COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT : COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT The first practical demonstration of air freight occurred in November 1910 when a department store shipped a bolt of silk by air from Dayton to Columbus, Ohio.
National Air Transport, one of the companies that originally made up United Airlines, was founded on November 14, 1926, for the purpose of carrying parcels. This airline delivered the first air cargo in the United States on September 1, 1927, between Dallas and New York. 16 HELICOPTERS : HELICOPTERS A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by one or more engine driven rotors.
This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft would not be able to take off or land.
The capability to efficiently hover for extended periods of time allows a helicopter to accomplish tasks that fixed-wing aircraft and other forms of vertical takeoff and landing aircraft cannot perform. 17 HELICOPTERS - HISTORY : HELICOPTERS - HISTORY Early reference comes from China around 400BC
Design of an aerial screw given by Leonardo – Da – Vinci in 1480’s. 18 HELICOPTERS - HISTORY : HELICOPTERS - HISTORY In July 1754, Mikhail Lomonosov demonstrated a small coaxial rotor to the Russian Academy of Sciences. It was powered by a spring and suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments.
In 1783, Christian de Launoy, and his mechanic, Bienvenu, made a model with a pair of counter-rotating rotors, using turkey flight feathers as rotor blades, and in 1784, demonstrated it to the French Academy of Sciences.
In 1861, the word "helicopter" was coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amécourt, a French inventor who demonstrated a small, steam-powered model. 19 HELICOPTERS - USES : HELICOPTERS - USES Carry loads connected to long cables or slings - an aerial crane.
Aerial cranes are used to place heavy equipment, like radio transmission towers and large air conditioning units, on the tops of tall buildings, or when an item must be raised up in a remote area, such as a radio tower raised on the top of a hill or mountain.
aerial cranes in the logging industry to lift trees out of terrain where vehicles cannot travel and where environmental concerns prohibit the building of roads. 20 HELICOPTERS - USES : HELICOPTERS - USES Helitack is the use of helicopters to combat wildland fires. The helicopters are used for aerial firefighting (or water bombing) and may be fitted with tanks or carry helibuckets.
Used as air ambulances for emergency medical assistance in situations when an ambulance cannot easily or quickly reach the scene.
Air ambulance helicopters are equipped to provide medical treatment to a patient while in flight. The use of helicopters as an air ambulance is often referred to as MEDEVAC, and patients are referred to as being "airlifted", or "medevaced". 21 HELICOPTERS - USES : HELICOPTERS - USES Police departments and other law enforcement agencies use helicopters to pursue suspects. Since helicopters can achieve a unique aerial view, they are often used in conjunction with police on the ground to report on suspects' locations and movements. They are often mounted with lighting and heat-sensing equipment for night pursuits.
Military forces use attack helicopters to conduct aerial attacks on ground targets. Such helicopters are mounted with missile launchers and miniguns.
Transport helicopters are used to ferry troops and supplies where the lack of an airstrip would make transport via fixed-wing aircraft impossible. The use of transport helicopters to deliver troops as an attack force on an objective is referred to as Air Assault 22 HELICOPTERS - USES : HELICOPTERS - USES Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) helicopter systems of varying sizes are being developed by companies for military reconnaissance and surveillance duties.
Naval forces also use helicopters equipped with dipping sonar for anti-submarine warfare, since they can operate from small ships.
Oil companies charter helicopters to move workers and parts quickly to remote drilling sites located out to sea or in remote locations. 23 HELICOPTERS - USES : HELICOPTERS - USES Other uses of helicopters include, but are not limited to:
Motion picture photography
Electronic news gathering
Search and Rescue
Tourism or recreation
Transport 24 HELICOPTER – BASIC ANATOMY : HELICOPTER – BASIC ANATOMY 25 HELICOPTER : HELICOPTER BASIC FLIGHT CONDITIONS
FORWARD FLIGHT 26 ASSIGNMENT - 2 : ASSIGNMENT - 2 Write a brief about the commercial air transport starting from the scratch.
Helicopter - uses , anatomy describing all the main parts, the two major flight conditions of helicopters
SUBMISSION : 21st JULY 2010 27 Slide 28: THANK U
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