SAVE TIGERS

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CONTENT ABOUT TIGER COLOUR VARIATIONS WHITE GOLDEN OTHER RELATION WITH HUMAN TIGER AS PREY MAN EATING TIGERS WORLD’S FAVOURITE ANIMAL CONSERVATION EFFORTS INDIA USES OF TIGERS SOLUTIONS TO TIGER EXTINCTION

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About tigers The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to 3.3 metres (11 ft) and weighing up to 306 kg (670 lb). It is the third largest land carnivore (behind only the Polar bear and the Brown bear). Its most recognizable feature is a pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with lighter underparts. It has exceptionally stout teeth, and the canines are the longest among living felids with a crown height of as much as 74.5 mm (2.93 in) or even 90 mm (3.5 in). In zoos, tigers have lived for 20 to 26 years, which also seems to be their longevity in the wild. They are territorial and generally solitary but social animals, often requiring large contiguous areas of habitat that support their prey requirements. This, coupled with the fact that they are indigenous to some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans. Tigers are among the most recognisable and popular of the world's charismatic megafauna. They have featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore, and continue to be depicted in modern films and literature. Tigers appear on many flags, coats of arms, and as mascots for sporting teams. The Bengal tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh and India.

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Colour variations White tigers There is a well-known allele that produces the white tiger, technically known as chinchilla albinistic, an animal which is rare in the wild, but widely bred in zoos due to its popularity. Breeding of white tigers will often lead to inbreeding. Many initiatives have taken place in white and orange tiger mating in an attempt to remedy the issue, often mixing subspecies in the process. Such inbreeding has led to white tigers having a greater likelihood of being born with physical defects, such as cleft palates and scoliosis. Furthermore, white tigers are prone to having crossed eyes. Even apparently healthy white tigers generally do not live as long as their orange counterparts. Recordings of white tigers were first made in the early 19th century. They can only occur when both parents carry the rare gene found in white tigers; this gene has been calculated to occur in only one in every 10,000 births. The white tiger is not a separate sub-species, but only a colour variation; since the only white

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tigers that have been observed in the wild have been Bengal tigers, it is commonly thought that the recessive gene that causes the white colouring is probably carried only by Bengal tigers, although the reasons for this are not known. Nor are they in any way more endangered than tigers are generally, this being a common misconception. Another misconception is that white tigers are albinos, despite the fact that pigment is evident in the white tiger's stripes. They are distinct not only because of their white hue; they also have blue eyes. Golden tigers In addition, another recessive gene may create a very unusual "golden" or "golden tabby" colour variation, sometimes known as "strawberry." Golden tigers have light gold fur, pale legs and faint orange stripes. Their fur tends to be much thicker than normal. There are extremely few golden tigers in captivity, around 30 in all. Like white tigers, golden tigers are invariably at least part Bengal. Some golden tigers carry the white tiger gene, and when two such tigers are mated, can produce some stripeless white offspring. Both white and golden tigers tend to be larger than average Bengal tigers.

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Other colour variations There is no authenticated case of a black tiger, with the possible exception of one dead specimen examined in Chittagong in 1846. There are unconfirmed reports of a "blue" or slate-coloured tiger, the Maltese tiger. Largely or totally black tigers are assumed, if real, to be intermittent mutations rather than distinct species. Relation with humans Tiger as prey The tiger has been one of the Big Five game animals of Asia. Tiger hunting took place on a large scale in the early nineteenth and twentieth centuries, being a recognised and admired sport by the British in colonial India as well as the maharajas and aristocratic class of the erstwhile princely states of pre-independence India. A Single maharaja or English hunter could claim to kill over a hundred tigers in their hunting career. Tiger hunting was done by some hunters on foot; others sat up on machans with a goat or buffalo tied out as bait; yet others on elephant-back. In some cases, villagers beating drums were organised to drive the animals into the killing zone.

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Man-eating tigers Normally wild tigers, especially if they have no prior contact with humans, will actively avoid interactions with humans. However, according to some sources, tigers are thought to be responsible for more human deaths through direct attack than any other wild mammal. Attacks are occasionally provoked, as tigers will lash out after being injured while they themselves are hunted. Occasionally, attacks are provoked accidentally, as when a human surprises a tiger or inadvertently comes between a mother and her young. Occasionally human behavior will inadvertently provoke tiger attacks by triggering their natural instincts. In one case, a postman who delivered mail on foot in a rural region of India where interactions with tigers are commonplace, was not bothered by them for several years despite many interactions. Soon after the postman started to use a bicycle, the man was attacked by a tiger, theorically having been instinctively provoked by the chase. Although humans are not regular prey for tigers, occasionally tigers will come to view people as prey. Such attacks tend to be particularly prevalent in areas where population growth, logging, and farming have put pressure on tiger habitats and reduced wild

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prey for them. Most man-eating tigers are old and missing teeth, acquiring a taste for humans because of their inability to capture their preferred prey. This was the case in the Champawat Tiger, a tigress found in Nepal and then India, that was found to have had two broken canines. She was responsible for an estimated 430 human deaths, the most attacks known to be perpetrated by a single wild animal per the Guinness Book, by the time she was shot in 1907 by Jim Corbett. World's favourite animal In a poll conducted by Animal Planet, the tiger was voted the world's favourite animal, narrowly beating the dog. More than 50,000 viewers from 73 countries voted in the poll. Tigers received 21% of the vote, dogs 20%, dolphins 13%, horses 10%, lions 9%, snakes 8%, followed by elephants, chimpanzees, orangutans and whales. Animal behaviourist Candy d'Sa, who worked with Animal Planet on the list, said: "We can relate to the tiger, as it is fierce and commanding on the outside, but noble and discerning on the inside". Callum Rankine, international species officer at the World Wildlife Federation conservation charity, said the result gave him hope. "If people are voting tigers as their favourite animal, it means they recognise their importance, and hopefully the need to ensure their survival," he said.

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Conservation efforts The tiger is an endangered species. Poaching for fur and body parts and destruction of habitat have simultaneously greatly reduced tiger populations in the wild. At the start of the 20th century, it is estimated there were over 100,000 tigers in the wild but the population has dwindled outside of captivity to between 1,500 and 3,500. Demand for tiger parts for the purposes of Traditional Chinese Medicine has also been cited as a major threat to tiger populations. Some estimates suggest that there are less than 2,500 mature breeding individuals, with no subpopulation containing more than 250 mature breeding individuals. India India is home to the world's largest population of tigers in the wild. According to the World Wildlife Fund, of the 3,500 tigers around the world, 1,400 are found in India. Only 11% of original Indian tiger habitat remains, and it is becoming significantly fragmented and often degraded. A major concerted conservation effort, known as Project Tiger, has been

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underway since 1973, initially spearheaded by Indira Gandhi. The fundamental accomplishment has been the establishment of over 25 well-monitored tiger reserves in reclaimed land where human development is categorically forbidden. The program has been credited with tripling the number of wild Bengal tigers from roughly 1,200 in 1973 to over 3,500 in the 1990s. However, a tiger census carried out in 2007, whose report was published on February 12, 2008, stated that the wild tiger population in India declined by 60% to approximately 1,411. It is noted in the report that the decrease of tiger population can be attributed directly to poaching.

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uses of tigers The tail of the tiger is sometimes ground and mixed with soap to create an ointment for use in treating skin cancer. The bones found in the tip of the tiger's tail are said to ward off evil spirits. Crushed tiger bones added to wine serve as a Taiwanese general tonic. The feet of a tiger, when dipped in palm oil and hung in front of a door, are said to diminish the likelihood of evil spirits from entering. Tiger's skin is said to cure a fever caused by ghosts. To use it effectively, the user must sit on the tiger's skin, but beware. If too much time is spent on the tiger's skin, legend says the user will become a tiger. Adding honey to the gallstones and applying the combination to the hands and feet is said to effectively treat abscesses. Burnt tiger hair can allegedly drive away centipedes. Mixing the brain of a tiger with oil and rubbing the mixture on your body is an alleged cure for both laziness and acne. Rolling the eyeballs into pills is an alleged remedy for convulsions. The whiskers are used to cure toothaches. One will allegedly possess courage and shall be protected from sudden fright by wearing a tiger's claw as a piece of jewellery or carrying one in a pocket. Strength, cunning, and courage can allegedly be obtained by consuming a tiger's heart.

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Floating ribs of a tiger are considered a good luck talisman. The tiger's penis is said to be an aphrodisiac. Small bones in a tiger's feet tied to a child's wrists are said to be a sure cure for convulsions. Solutions to tiger extinction In order to conserve the Wild tigers as a species in the environment, several threats need to be addressed – habitat loss, reduction of prey populations, and direct hunting of tigers. In response to the poaching and hunting of tiger species for the making of medicines and other tiger derived products, The Chinese government should regulate and if needed terminate or set a quota for the number of allowable practices for this type of action. Because a lot of these hunting practices take place illegally it is hard put an end to poaching. Enforcement of existing laws and sanctions against illegal trade markets that circulate tiger parts is greatly needed (Barber-Meyer). Human scarcity makes for less exploitation of natural resources and the wild tiger populations can in these places remain stable or increase, as long as they are not subject to poaching.

Siberian Tiger:

Siberian Tiger What led to the drop in number of this species? What of other species? Mass extinction event happening now..

Biodiversity loss by…:

Biodiversity loss by… Habitat Alteration Invasive species Pollution Over harvesting Climate Change

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Endangered Species: • The tiger ( Panthera tigris) is classified as endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). • The tiger population has fallen by about 95 percent since the beginning of the 20th century. • No more than 5,000 – 7,000 tigers remain in the wild. • Recognized throughout the world for its ferocity and unmistakable beauty, the tiger faces an uncertain future. Tiger Facts

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Natural Habitat: • Tigers live across South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Russian Far East. • They now occupy only seven percent of their historic range and 40 percent less territory than estimated 10 years ago. • Tiger habitat encompasses evergreen forests, rainforests, temperate forests and, deciduous forests, grasslands and mangrove swamps. • Large areas of tiger habitat still remain, however we must act now to conserve these valuable landscapes

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Major Challenges: • Poaching for global illegal wildlife trade. • Habitat and prey loss leading to starvation and death. • Human-tiger conflict caused by expanded development and lost habitat.

Human CAN HELP Tigers!:

H u m a n CAN HELP T i g e r s !

Save Tigers:

Save Tigers Many years and decades have passed and we are not taking action against this problem of the ‘Endangered Species of Tigers of India ’.

Save the tigers with full initiative and care then only this mission of saving the tigers will succeed. :

Save the tigers with full initiative and care then only this mission of saving the tigers will succeed.

Habitat of the Tigers:

Habitat of the Tigers Tigers are wild animals and they have to stay in their original habitat that are jungles, hills and many more natural and purely green places in open jungles, evergreen forests and mango grove swamps. The Indian tiger lives in open jungles, evergreen forests and mango grove swamps here they can have their own privacy. Many tigers are dead because of deforestation. Deforestation leads to make tigers homeless. Many tigers also enter villages and become man- eaters.

Everyone has a right to live:

Everyone has a right to live Everyone has a right to live, now suppose any human is dead or murdered we do so many prayers and we have so many emotional feelings in our heart for that human. Like, the feelings which we have for the human why don’t we have the feelings for the tigers and other animals. If humans have some sympathy and respect for every being in this world we can make this world a better place to live.

Associations to protect tigers:

Associations to protect tigers WWF is one example of the associations to protect tigers. These type of associations prepare the arrangement for saving tigers. They also prevent deforestation as it destroys the habitat of the tigers

Size, Features and Eating habits :

Size, Features and Eating habits The females work hard to search for the prey the tiger family eats. The tigress searches for the prey and bring it home. The first bite is for the tiger. The regular diet of Indian/Bengal tiger consists mainly of deer, gaurs, antelopes and wild pigs. Sometimes it feeds itself on birds, lizards, turtles, fishes, crabs and frogs. 3 feet tall to the top of the shoulder, 7-10 feet long from the head to the rear end, with an additional 3 foot long tail. weight ranges from 175-650 pounds.

How many tigers are left in the world?:

How many tigers are left in the world? There is about 3200; around 1411 Bengal tigers, about 450 Siberian and the same with Sumatran, Indo-Chinese is anywhere between 1100 and 1800, and the South China tiger is close to none, to be precise, less than 20.

How many tigers left in India?:

How many tigers left in India? Just 1411, according to the latest survey/census by the National Tiger Conservation Authority formed to implement the 'Project Tiger'.

The Magnificent Indian Tigers:

The Magnificent Indian Tigers The Indian tiger, also called as the Royal Bengal tiger, is one of the most fascinating animals found in India. The tiger is the largest living member of the cat family and has an elegant built. The reddish yellow coat with black stripes gives the tiger a magnificent look. The ears of tigers are black on the outside and have a prominent white spot on them. The Indian tiger/ Royal Bengal tiger is one of the most graceful animals found in Sundarbans in Bengal.

Where did the tigers originate?:

Where did the tigers originate? The scientific name of tigers is 'Panthera tigris'. It is believed that the cat family, to which the tiger belongs, originated in Siberia. From Siberia, the tigers are believed to have migrated down south as the climate became colder.

Acts by which the species of tigers are becoming endangered? :

Acts by which the species of tigers are becoming endangered? Increasing urbanization, developmental activities and poaching have resulted into rapid decline in the tiger population not only in India but also the world. In the last millennium itself as many as three sub-species of tigers lost their existence while five other tiger species have become endangered. The endangered tiger species include Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), Chinese Tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis), Amur Tiger (Panthera tigris attaica), Indonesian Tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and Indo-Chinese Tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti).

Project tiger :

Project tiger To save the dwindling number of tigers in India, Project Tiger was started in the year 1973. Though there has been increase in the number of tigers in India but the increase does not commensurate the efforts made in this field. Some of the important Project Tiger reserves in India are the Corbett National Park, Kanha National Park, Sariska National Park, Palamou Tiger Reserve, Sunderbans National Park, Manas Sanctuary, Namdapha National Park and Bandipur National Park.

Tiger Population in Orrisa:

Tiger Population in Orrisa The population of tiger in Orissa has increased from 142 in 1972 to 192 in 2004. Though only 35% increase over 32-years, this is perhaps the best that could happen to tiger in the wild. The Elephant Reserve network comes in aid of the objectives of Project Tiger as the former encompasses tiger habitat also. Two additional areas, Sunabeda and Satkoshia-Baisipalli Sanctuaries, have come under the network of Tiger Reserves.

Mission of Project Tiger:

Mission of Project Tiger Some of the field activities under the aegis of Project Tiger cover the following: ·       Enforcement of anti-poaching measures. ·       Census and estimate of the numbers of carnivores, their prey animals. ·       Habitat improvement measures, ·       Water and soil conservation measures ·       Ecodevelopment programmes and organization of alternate livelihood, ·       Motivation and awareness of local people, ·       Eliciting participation of students through nature camps and competitions. ·       Capacity building of staff, ·       Development of telecommunication and road network ·       Development and maintenance of other infrastructure ·       Research, planning and monitoring of wildlife population and spatial distribution. ·       Management of ecotourism

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The tiger is one of the most charismatic and evocative species on Earth- it is also one of the most threatened. Only 6000 or so remain in the wild, most in isolated pockets spread across increasingly fragmented forests, stretching from India to south-eastern china and from the Russian far east to Sumatra , Indonesia. Across its range, this magnificent animal is being prosecuted. Today tigers are being poisoned, shot, trapped and snared to meet the demands of illegal wildlife trade.

Life Expectancy, Birth, Mating:

Life Expectancy, Birth, Mating A typical tiger's life expectancy in the wild is 15-20 years; somewhat longer in captivity. The oldest tiger on record was 26 years. Although there is no set mating season for tigers, breeding often occurs in the spring. The male may stay with the female for 20-80 days during this period. Gestation period is typically about 15. The cubs nurse for about 2 months, learn to hunt after about 11 months, and spend the first two years of their lives with their mother, before going out on their own.

Tiger Subspecies :

Tiger Subspecies Bengal (subspecies tigris) The Bengal tiger is the most populous type, with between 2500 and 4700 remaining in the wild. Most live in the mangrove forests of the Sundarbans in eastern India and Bangladesh . Some also live in the neighboring countries Bhutan, Myanmar, and Nepal . There are about 333 Bengal tigers in captivity. Males typically weigh around 500 pounds; the females about 300. All white tigers are male Bengals and have a double recessive gene that causes the coloration. Official status: ENDANGERED .

Indochinese (subspecies corbett) :

Indochinese (subspecies corbett) Indochinese tigers are centered in Thailand, but also in surrounding countries - Myanmar, southern China, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and peninsular Malaysia. They are smaller and darker than Bengal tigers, averaging around 400 pounds for males and 300 for females. Males average about 9 feet long and females about 8 feet in length (not counting the tail). Numbers in the wild are estimated to be in the range 1227-1785. There are about 60 in zoos. Official status: ENDANGERED.

Sumatran (subspecies corbett) :

Sumatran (subspecies corbett) The smallest and darkest subspecies, Sumatran tigers are reddish and have closely spaced stripes. The males average 250 lbs. About 400-500 remain in the wild, exclusively on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. About 210 of this subspecies are captive around the world. Official status: ENDANGERED

Amur/Siberian (subspecies altaica) :

Amur/Siberian (subspecies altaica) These guys are the largest of the big cats. weighing in at 675 pounds and stretching a full 11 feet. The heaviest Siberian Tiger on record was 1025 pounds (Guiness Book of World Records). Only about 360-470 exist in the wild and there are roughly 490 captive. Their habitat is mostly Northeastern Russian. Despite their size, they have been known to jump as far as 33 feet. Official status: ENDANGERED

South Chinese (subspecies amoyensis) :

South Chinese (subspecies amoyensis) Unfortunately, there are perhaps only 20-30 South Chinese tigers left in the wild and 47 in Chinese zoos. They are found in central and eastern China. China joined CITES in 1981 and passed the Wild Animal Protection Law of the People's Republic of China in 1988. Official status: ENDANGERED .

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The Javan tiger once roamed the Indonesian island of Java. The last one was seen in 1972 and is now believed to be extinct. The Caspian tiger once ranged from Turkey to Central Asia, including Iran, Mongolia, and Central Russia. They went extinct in the 1950's . The Bali tiger existed on the island of Bali. The last one was killed in 1937 . There are no existing photos of a live Bali tiger . Already extinct!

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Figure shows how the range of tigers has changed over the past 100 years. Once ranging all throughout India, southeast Asia, central Asia, and eastern China, only small pockets of natural habitat remain.

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In early 1900's, world tiger population was estimated at around 100,000. By 1950, this number had dropped to 40,000. The lowest point of tiger population was about 4000 in the 1970s. Due to conservation efforts, the total number of tigers in the wild has increased modestly since then to around 5000-7000 today. At least twice that number exist in captivity. The tiger is officially classified as an Endangered Species , as are all of the remaining subspecies. They have been on the Endangered Species list since 1970. The tiger population dropped over the past 100 years by a factor of 25 - from an estimated 100,000 in 1900 to only 4000 in the 1970's. A concerted effort by wildlife protection groups in the 1970's halted their rapid demise and the global population of tigers in the wild has grown modestly to around 6000 at the turn of the century).

TIGER TIGER Fading Fast!:

TIGER TIGER Fading Fast! Bitter truth! It’s official-India has just 1,411 tigers. the 2002 census figure of 3500 tigers was clearly an effort to cover up the sarkari failure to protect the glorious cat. This is the stark finding of the NATIONAL TIGER CONSERVATION AUTHORITY estimation report. Safe havens dark holes Corbett,Uttarakhand Palamau,Jharkhand Kaziranga,Assam Nagarjun Srisailam,Andhra Pradesh Nagarhole,Karnataka Indravati,Chattisgarh Kanha,Bandhavgarh, Madhya Pradesh Ranthambore, Rajasthan

BIG CATS IN PERIL:

BIG CATS IN PERIL JAN 2, 2008 : One tiger seized at Bandipur,Karnataka Jan 6: A tiger poisoned to death at Wynad at Kerala. Jan 7: One tiger found dead at Kanha,MP. Jan 13: Three pieces of tiger bones seized at Jaigaon,West Bengal. Jan 21: One tiger skin seized at Munnar,Kerala. Jan 28: Tigress found dead at Katerniaghat,Uttar Pradesh. Jan 29: One tiger found dead at Gudalur, Tamil Nadu Feb 8: A tiger killed in road accident South Kheri division, UP Feb11: One tiger found dead at Melghat,Maharashtra.

CAUSES FOR TIGER DEMISE:

CAUSES FOR TIGER DEMISE UNLIMITED POACHING a) supplying underground black markets with its organs , pelts and bones , which are used for fur , Chinese medicine . Dead tiger's parts are worth as much as $200,000 on the black market. The trade continues today in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Singapore, although tiger medicine is a hoax and has been shown to have no curative powers. b) hunted for recreation. Human expansion 3) deforestation (insecticides have reduced the danger of malarial mosquitoes in India, making land habitable that was previously home to tigers) .

Can they be saved?:

Can they be saved? Yes! 1) Saving the forest patches. 2) Waging a war against poaching in tiger-breeding zones. The strictest enforcement of anti-poaching laws is a must-especially in the “hot spots”. 3) We need to make a national pledge-there will be no further shrinkage. Instead of spending a few crores thinly across the entire country, more can be achieved by focusing money and effort on identified “ hot spots ” like Corbett , Bandhavgarh , Kanha and some parts of the northeast where tigers truly have a chance to breed and grow.

Quiz:

Quiz Que 1. Tell 4 ways by which the tigers can be saved? Que 2. Tell 3 causes for tiger demise. Que 3. Name the 4 subspecies of tigers. Que 4. When was the last Bali tiger killed? Que 5. Name all the features of the tigers.

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THANK YOU

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MADE BY RITESH KR. SINGH OF VII-C AND SHEKHAR KR. SINGH OF IV-A OF SOUTH DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL DEFFENCE COLONY

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