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It may include addition of a new product line, addition of a new product item in a particular product line, elimination of existing product or product line & changes in the size, color, design, packing, characteristics, and prices of the product & discontinuation of the unprofitable item or product line. A new product is any product which is perceived by the customer as being new. REASONS FOR NEW PRODUCTS : REASONS FOR NEW PRODUCTS There are at least 3 reasons for which new products should be developed. 1st, new products become necessary for meeting the changes in consumer needs. 2nd, new products become necessary for making new profits. 3rd, new products become necessary for combating environmental threats. CATEGORIES OF NEW PRODUCTS : CATEGORIES OF NEW PRODUCTS BOOZ, ALLEN & HARMILTON have identified 6 categories of new products, such as: 1: New to the world. 2: New to the product lines. 3: Additions to the existing product line. 4: Improvements & revisions of existing products. 5: Repositioning. 6: Cost reductions. FACTORS OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: : FACTORS OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: New product development is a continuous function of marketing management in the present day highly competitive environment. In the process of new product development, a company should keep in mind the following considerations: Adequate market demand. The product should fit into company’s present market structure. The idea should fit into the company’s present production structure. The product should fit as per the financial resources available. Adequate distribution in depth & breadth. NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS : NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS STEP 1:IDEA GENERATION : STEP 1:IDEA GENERATION The new product development process starts with the search for ideas. Consumer’s problems are the most fertile ground for the generation of new product ideas. New product ideas come from interacting with various groups & from using creativity generation techniques like BRAINSTORMING, SYNECTICS etc. BRAINSTORMING is a process, where a small group of people are encouraged to came up with their ideas on a specified problem. Whereas in SYNECTICS, the real problem is kept away initially from the group & only a broader framework of the problem is given to them. The group is encouraged to think in all possible dimensions and slowly the problem will be made clear to them, & their ideas would get refined. STEP 2: IDEA SCREENING : STEP 2: IDEA SCREENING The purpose of screening stage is to drop poor ideas as early as possible. Thus an idea committee is formed to classify the proposed ideas into 3 categories, such as: promising, marginal & rejects. Every promising idea is kept together for rigorous screening by product evaluation committee. In screening ideas, the companies normally face 2 serious errors & they must try to avoid these mistakes as far as possible, those 2 serious errors are: DROP ERROR & GO ERROR. Let’s clarify: DROP ERROR: error which occurs when the company rejects one really good idea having potential. GO ERROR: error which occurs, when the company permits & facilitates a poor idea to move onto further development stages & commercialization. STEP 3:CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT & TESTING : STEP 3:CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT & TESTING A concept is an elaborated version of a product idea expressed in meaningful consumer terms. Example: a leading soft drink company, if wants to add a new product, i.e. fruit juice to its product lines, then the following concepts can came across: CONCEPT 1: FRUIT JUICE FOR YOUNG & GROWN UPS AS A FUNNY THIRST QUENCHING ITEM. CONCEPT 2: FRUIT JUICE FOR CHILDREN AS A HEALTH SUPPLEMENTS. CONCEPT 3: FOR ADULTS AS A NUTRITIONAL ENERGY SUPPLEMENTS. From the above 3 concepts, the 1st one looks to be attractive & promising. After the product concept has been developed, the stage is now set for testing them. It is here the prospective consumer understand the product idea. Here whether they are receptive towards the idea & their willingness to try out such product is tested. STEP 4: BUSINESS ANALYSIS : STEP 4: BUSINESS ANALYSIS This stage will decide whether from financial as well as marketing point of view, the project is beneficial or not. The projects overall impact on the corporation’s financial position with & without the new product are estimated & compared. Here management needs to prepare sales as well as cost & profit projections to determine whether they satisfy company objectives. STEP 5: PROTOTYPING & MARKET TESTING : STEP 5: PROTOTYPING & MARKET TESTING At this stage the company will determine whether the product idea can be translated into technically & commercially feasible product. Its goal is to find a prototype that consists the key attributes described in the product concept & that performs safely under normal use & conditions and that can be produced within the budgeted cost. Here the companies conduct 2 types of major testing’s, such as: ALPHA TESTING & BETA TESTING. ALPHA TESTING: testing within the firm to see its function. BETA TESTING: It includes listing a set of customers to use the prototype & give feedback. Slide 13: MARKET TESTING: The product here is actually tested in the selected market segments. Based on the outcomes of the test marketing, the marketer lunches large scale manufacture of the new product. It is a controlled marketing experiment to decide the soundness & feasibility of fully fledged marketing of the product. STEP 6: TECHNOLOGICAL IMPLEMANTATION : STEP 6: TECHNOLOGICAL IMPLEMANTATION It involves technical feasibility, search for new available technologies & its economic alternatives if available. It also includes the technological relevance of current technologies, the firm’s knowledge & experience of the techniques, manpower in handling those technologies etc. STEP 7: COMMERCIALISATION : STEP 7: COMMERCIALISATION At this stage the company takes decision to go in for large scale production & marketing of the new product. Various marketing strategies are employed by the company at this stage, when it starts commercialization of a new product idea. The important factors to which strategists should focus here are: Market entry timing period. Whether to lunch the product in a single locality, a region, several regions, nationally or internationally, i.e. geographic strategy. To whom the new product should target for i.e. targeting & segmenting. CONCLUSION : CONCLUSION Every year millions of rupees are being spent on R&D for new products development. Such a huge investment is necessary as new products are the only means of survival of a firm. New product development provides a number of advantages to the enterprise. It helps in producing goods & services of best quality. It helps in providing maximum customer satisfaction, because it is developed in the view of customer specification. It helps in expanding the market of the products of the enterprise. It helps in achieving stability in product demand. Slide 17: ..CONTINUED.. It minimizes the risk of obsolescence, because producers introduce a new product or makes an improvement in the existing product in the market place by replacing the existing one. It increases the profit earning capacity. It enhances the potentiality & goodwill of the firm. 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