EXOGENOUS

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EXOGENOUS & ENDOGENOUS FACTORS FOR PLANT CULTIVATION : 

EXOGENOUS & ENDOGENOUS FACTORS FOR PLANT CULTIVATION BY INDER & RAVIRAJ

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Introduction: Plant cultivation and its need. Advantages of cultivation: To improve quality & quantity of drug. For supply of raw materials. Prevent endangered medicinal plants & to preserve natural resources. To build national economy & business.

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Variation in plant yield is due to exogenous & endogenous factors. Exogenous Factors:   Exogenous factors affecting the production of crude drugs are as follows,   Temperature and Humidity Climate and light Latitude and altitude Rainfall or Irrigation Soil and soil fertility Fertilizer Pest Allelopathy

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Temperature and Humidity:   For Example:   in Digitalis moisture content of more than 5% will activate various enzymatic reactions. Camphore & Coffee can’t withstand frost. Saffron needs only cold climate hence grow well in Kashmir. R.Serpentina cannot tolerate temperature below 50 C. and Senna below 100 C. The fix oil produced at lower temperature contains fatty acids with higher content of double bonds, than those found at higher temp.   Optimum temperature for drug cultivation

Air Temperature : Optimum temperature for plant growth is 55 and 75ºF (12 and 24ºC).   Crops from temperate climates require low temperature, while those that originate in the tropical climates require warm temperature.  Soil Temperature: effects on microbial growth development.organic matter decay, seed germination, root development, and water and nutrient absorption by roots. Vernalization: The exposure of certain plants to low temperatures induces or accelerates flowering (bolting). This is vernalization. The required length of low temperature exposure varies with species. For example: Chinese cabbage.  Climate and LIGHT: Light Intensity : Plays role in photosynthesis. The light saturation point: The light saturation point is the point above which an increase in light intensity does not result in an increase in photosynthetic rate For example.Crops such as corn, cucurbits, legumes, potato, and sweet potato require a relatively high level of light for proper plant growth. While onions, asparagus, carrot, celery, cole crops, lettuce and spinach can grow satisfactorily with lower light intensity : 

Air Temperature : Optimum temperature for plant growth is 55 and 75ºF (12 and 24ºC).   Crops from temperate climates require low temperature, while those that originate in the tropical climates require warm temperature.  Soil Temperature: effects on microbial growth development.organic matter decay, seed germination, root development, and water and nutrient absorption by roots. Vernalization: The exposure of certain plants to low temperatures induces or accelerates flowering (bolting). This is vernalization. The required length of low temperature exposure varies with species. For example: Chinese cabbage.  Climate and LIGHT: Light Intensity : Plays role in photosynthesis. The light saturation point: The light saturation point is the point above which an increase in light intensity does not result in an increase in photosynthetic rate For example.Crops such as corn, cucurbits, legumes, potato, and sweet potato require a relatively high level of light for proper plant growth. While onions, asparagus, carrot, celery, cole crops, lettuce and spinach can grow satisfactorily with lower light intensity

Light Regulated Plant Development - Photomorphogenesis :  Photomorphogenesis is defined as the ability of light to regulate plant growth and development, independent of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis - Chlorophil. Photomorphogenesis - phytochrome. Phytochrome is a colorless pigment that is in plants in very small amounts.Photosynthesis - wavelength (400 to 700 nm). Photomorphogenesis - wavelength 600-660 nm & 700 - 740 nm. Photomorphogenesis is considered a low energy response - meaning that it requires very little light energy to get a growth-regulating response. Plants generally require greater amount of energy for photosynthesis to occur.  For example :Light inhibits seedling hypocotyl growth via activation of phytochrome and additional photoreceptors of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). : 

Light Regulated Plant Development - Photomorphogenesis :  Photomorphogenesis is defined as the ability of light to regulate plant growth and development, independent of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis - Chlorophil. Photomorphogenesis - phytochrome. Phytochrome is a colorless pigment that is in plants in very small amounts.Photosynthesis - wavelength (400 to 700 nm). Photomorphogenesis - wavelength 600-660 nm & 700 - 740 nm. Photomorphogenesis is considered a low energy response - meaning that it requires very little light energy to get a growth-regulating response. Plants generally require greater amount of energy for photosynthesis to occur.  For example :Light inhibits seedling hypocotyl growth via activation of phytochrome and additional photoreceptors of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana).

Climate affect the growth of plant. In cloudy weather: - amount of carbohydrates produced in leaves is decreased since photosynthesis is light dependent.This affect formation of secondary metabolites, which requires carbohydrate as starting material.Content of alkaloid in stramonium leaves is lower in rainy & cloudy weather.Dry sunny weather may increase the content of essential oil of lavender,valerian and warm wool.Pyrethrum needs dry weather for cultivation.Belladonna gives maximum yield of alkaloid in summer. : 

Climate affect the growth of plant. In cloudy weather: - amount of carbohydrates produced in leaves is decreased since photosynthesis is light dependent.This affect formation of secondary metabolites, which requires carbohydrate as starting material.Content of alkaloid in stramonium leaves is lower in rainy & cloudy weather.Dry sunny weather may increase the content of essential oil of lavender,valerian and warm wool.Pyrethrum needs dry weather for cultivation.Belladonna gives maximum yield of alkaloid in summer.

Latitude and Altitude: Latitude means distance sidewise from given point. Altitude is very important factor as altitude can’t be produced artificially. : 

Latitude and Altitude: Latitude means distance sidewise from given point. Altitude is very important factor as altitude can’t be produced artificially.

Rainfall or Irrigation: Plants use a tremendous amount of water. Example: Water requirement for rice is 300 to 950 mm Importance of water for plantsEg. Heavy rain can reduce the alkaloid content of Ephedra and mucilage contain of Isapgol. Rainfall during ripening of fruit or during flowering of plant is unfavorable. : 

Rainfall or Irrigation: Plants use a tremendous amount of water. Example: Water requirement for rice is 300 to 950 mm Importance of water for plantsEg. Heavy rain can reduce the alkaloid content of Ephedra and mucilage contain of Isapgol. Rainfall during ripening of fruit or during flowering of plant is unfavorable.

Soil & Soil fertility: The study of soil is called as Pedology. The soil is the shallow upper layer of earth’s crust (form by withering of rocks) & is enrich with nutrients and decaying organic matter.Role of soil in plant growthDepending up on the size of mineral matter soil names as follow. : 

Soil & Soil fertility: The study of soil is called as Pedology. The soil is the shallow upper layer of earth’s crust (form by withering of rocks) & is enrich with nutrients and decaying organic matter.Role of soil in plant growthDepending up on the size of mineral matter soil names as follow.

Depending up on percentage of clay present in soil it is classified as. : 

Depending up on percentage of clay present in soil it is classified as. Examples: Sandy soil: vinca, digitalis, squill, ginger, dill Loamy soil: opium, glycrrhiza Clay loamy: rauwolfia. Loamy sand: isapgol.

Depending up on percentage of organic matter present soil classified as follow. : 

Depending up on percentage of organic matter present soil classified as follow. Absolute water holding capacity: it is the maximum amount of water that remain in the soil after the excess has drained away.AWC is higher in colloidal clay 40.91% and in coarse sand 13.7% Air capacity: it is inversely proportional to AWC, in clay sopil its capacity is less.

CLAY: It consists of finest particle. These provide soil adhesive & cohesive properties. It also hold plant nutrient. Depending on the mineral contains soil are classified into three types, : 

CLAY: It consists of finest particle. These provide soil adhesive & cohesive properties. It also hold plant nutrient. Depending on the mineral contains soil are classified into three types,

The PH of soil decides favorable growth of plant and microorganism. The maximum availability of plant nutrient is in between the PH range of 6.5 to 7.5.  Depending upon the PH soil is divided in to the following;Neutral soil- peppermint, opiumSlightly acidic soil- dillAcidic soil- deficient in calcium: digitalis grows well.Alkaline soil- calciphilous (lime loving): isabgol & cotton grows well. : 

The PH of soil decides favorable growth of plant and microorganism. The maximum availability of plant nutrient is in between the PH range of 6.5 to 7.5.  Depending upon the PH soil is divided in to the following;Neutral soil- peppermint, opiumSlightly acidic soil- dillAcidic soil- deficient in calcium: digitalis grows well.Alkaline soil- calciphilous (lime loving): isabgol & cotton grows well.

FERTILIZERS: : 

FERTILIZERS:

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Examples of fertilizers used for certain plants: Opium – Nitrates of soda. Black pepper – Potash, Ammonium sulphate, phosphates, cattle compost. Digitalis – Nitrates, super phosphates.

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PESTS: Pest is the undesirable animal or plant species which affect the plant of our importance. Plant also gets bacterial and viral decease as animals. Types of Pests: Fungi and viruses Weeds Non-insect pests including rodents. For examples: Ascochyta atropae – Formation of white irregular spots and leaf necrosis. Cercospora atropae – Round and angular brown spot on both side of leaf. Diaphania nilgirica, Indomia cretaceous – attacks Rauwolfia plant. Gonocephalum species , Agrotis inflammatra – Cause leaf fall in Belladona. Phytopthora nicotianae – Falling of leaf in tobacco plant. Insects

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ALLELOPATHY: It is a science which explains effect of one living organism on other when both of they are in close vicinity. Examples: Ethylene gas exhaled from apple fruit enhances the ripening of other apple nearby. Growth of belladonna is suppressed when grown together with mustared, but with Artimisia its constituents increased. Allelopathy is divided as SYMBIOSIS & ANTI-BIOSIS. Symbiosis: Some organisms depend upon each other to such an extent that their existence is dependent on each other. Eg Leguminous plants and nitrogen fixing bacteria. Anti-biosis: When allelopathy action cause destruction of other individual, then it is called as Anti-biosis. This action may use for infectious diseases. Eg Growth of Belladonna is suppressed by Mustard.

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ENDOGENOUS FACTORS: Selection Mutation Polyploidy Hybridization Chemodemes SELECTION: Purpose of selection: To exclude low yield plants and to concentrate high yield plant. To modify the mean. To reduce variability To extend the range in one direction.

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Importance of selection: Eg. Cinchona ledgeriana increase yield from 5 to 15 % by selection. Mentha arvensis yielding drought resistant varieties by selection. Type of selection: NATURAL SELECTION ARTIFICIAL SELECTION Natural Selection: It is the capacity of individual to have maximum no of survivable and reproducible offspring. Eg A natural gene mutation causing the roots of the plant to become resistant to rotting in wet soil. Artificial selection: It is a systematic, non random process intended for better quality of the population in the next generation.