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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript The Quality Gurus: The Quality Gurus S B MALLUR Quality ManagementPowerPoint Presentation: There are a number of writers whose work dominates the quality movement. Their ideas and approaches have stood the test of time and have come to from a body of accepted knowledge, to lead and advise their own movement in quality. They have become known as ‘gurus’. Many of the ‘gurus’ appear to present different theories of quality management. In reality they are all talking the same ‘language’ but they use different dialects. Quality has to be managed - it does not just happen. Task: Consider the strengths, weaknesses and different perspectives of each ‘guru.’ Remember that none of their views are ‘right’ or ‘wrong’, they are simply different, formed from the differing backgrounds, knowledge and experiences of the various writers. Each is based on the particular guru’s view of the world and is valid from his theoretical and practical perspective.PowerPoint Presentation: Crosby Philip B. - American, engineer, quality control in manufacturing Deming W. Edwards - American, considered a founding father, PhD Physics, keen statistician trained by Shewhart, major contributor to Japan - honoured Feigenbaum Armand V - originated TQC, works discovered by Japan early 50’s, PhD MIT Ishikawa Kaoru -Japanese chemist, PhD engineering, father of QCs, started 49 Juran Joseph M - naturalised American, engineering (1924) and statistical background, worked with Japan ‘50s, honoured by Japan Oakland john S - British, chartered chemist, ex Prof Shingo Shigeo - Mech engineer, Japanese, ‘45 Taguchi Genichi - textile engineer, Japanese, studied experimental design techniques, ‘80s work adopted in USAPhilip B. Crosby: Philip B. Crosby Five Absolutes of Quality Management Quality is defined as conformance to requirements, not as ‘goodness’ nor ‘elegance’ - i.e. quality is an essentially measurable aspect of a product or service and that quality is achieved when expectations or requirements are met There is no such thing as a quality problem - i.e. poor management creates the quality problem It is always cheaper to do it right first time - i.e. quality needs to be designed into a product, not that flaws should be inspected out. The only performance measurement is the cost of quality - i.e price of non conformance, cost of quality is always a measurable item, quantitative approach The only performance standard is zero defects - i.e. perfection is the target, quantitative approach to qualityPowerPoint Presentation: Three Essential strands: a belief in quantification management leadership prevention rather than cure Assumptions: management process as the key driver of quality - conformance to requirements are defined and communicated amongst all stakeholders zero defects is an achievable objective it is possible to establish a company that does not start out expecting mistakes - is this realistic? Customer’s Product volume or quality requirements?The 14 Steps: The 14 Steps Step 1: Establish management commitment - it is seen as vital that the whole management team participates in the programme, a half hearted effort will fail. Step 2: Form quality improvement teams - the emphasis here is on multi-disciplinary team effort. An initiative from the quality department will not be successful. It is considered essential to build team working across arbitrary and often artificial organisational boundaries Step 3: Establish quality measurements - these must apply to every activity throughout the company. A way must be found to capture every aspects, design, manufacturing, delivery and so on. These measurements provide a platform for the next step. Step 4: Evaluate the cost of quality - this evaluation must highlight, using the measures established in the previous step, where quality improvement will be profitable. Step 5: Raise quality awareness - this is normally undertaken through the training of managers and supervisors, through communications such as videos and books and by displays of posters etc.PowerPoint Presentation: Step 6: Take action to correct problems - this involves encouraging staff to identify and rectify defects or pass them on to higher supervisory levels where they can be addressed. Step 7: Zero defects planning - establish a committee or working group to develop ways to initiate and implement a zero defects programme. Step 8: Train supervisors and managers - this step is focussed on achieving understanding by all managers and supervisors of the steps in the quality improvement programme in order that they can explain it in turn. Step 9: Hold a zero defects day to establish the attitude and expectation within the company. Crosby sees this as being achieved in a celebratory atmosphere accompanied by badges buttons and balloons. Step 10: Encourage the setting of goals for improvement. Goals are of course of no value unless they are related to appropriate timescales for their achievement.PowerPoint Presentation: Step 11: Obstacle reporting - this is encouragement to employees to advise management of the factors which prevent them achieving error free work. This might cover defective or inadequate equipment poor quality components etc. Step 12: Recognition for contributors - Crosby considers that those who contribute to the programme should be rewarded through a formal although non-monetary reward scheme. Step 13: Establish Quality councils - these are essentially forums composed of quality professionals and team leaders allowing them to communicate and determine action plans for further quality improvement. Step 14: Do it all over again - achievement of quality is an ongoing process.PowerPoint Presentation: Possible Strengths: clarity recognition of worker participation rejection of a tangible quality problem, acceptance of the idea of solutions Crosby’s metaphors - vaccine (integrity; dedication to communication and customer satisfaction; company wide policies and operation which support the quality thrust) and maturity Crosby’s motivational style Perceived Weaknesses: danger of misdirected effort from blaming workers (in question) emphasis on marketing more than recognition of barriers the management and goal orientation of the 14 step programme as failing to free workers from externally generated goals potential for zero defects to be interpreted as zero risk ineffectiveness in coercive power structures charismatic/evangelical style - lack of substantial underpinning?W. Edwards Deming: W. Edwards Deming Approach can be seen as founded in scientific method - urged management to focus on the causes of variability in manufacturing processes. First belief in causes. Common causes are those which arise from the operation of the system itself and are a management responsibility. Special causes are seen as those relating to particular operators or machines and requiring attention to the individual cause. Use of SPC charts as key method for identifying special and common causes and assisting diagnosis of quality problems. Eliminate the outliers which arise from special causes then concentrate on the common causes to further improve quality. Second belief is the quantitative approach to identifying problems. Third belief was Deming, Shewhart or PDCA cycle - Plan, Do, Check, Action. Two further beliefs – systematic and methodical approaches; needed for continuous quality improvement action. www.deming.org.PowerPoint Presentation: Seven Deadly Sins of Western Management Lack of constancy - ‘flavour of the month’ Short term profit focus - manipulate the books for a quarter Performance appraisals - nourish short-term performance Job-hopping - destroys teamwork, short term orientation of organisation Use of visible figures only – a lot of hidden benefits, spin-offs Excessive medical costs Excessive costs of liability Summarising: quantitative, statistically valid, control systems clear definition of those aspects under the direct control of staff a systematic, methodological approach continuous improvement constancy and determination quality should be designed in to both the product and the processPowerPoint Presentation: Assumptions: Management are seen to be responsible and capable of eliminating the common causes Statistical methods properly used will provide quantitative evidence to support changes continuous improvement is both possible and desirable prime role of the service sector rests in enabling manufacturing to do its job Methods: the PDCA cycle statistical process control - 94% belong to the system 14 principles of transformation 7 point action plan Deming’s 14 points for Management : Deming’s 14 points for Management 1. Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service, with the aim to become competitive and to stay in business, and to provide jobs. 2. Adopt a new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. Western management must awaken to their challenge, must learn their responsibilities, and take on leadership for change. 3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place. 4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimise total cost. Move towards a single supplier for any one item, on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust. 5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs. 6. Institute training on the job. 7. Institute leadership (see point 12). The aim of leadership should be to help people and machines and gadgets to do a better job. Leadership of management is in need of overhaul, as well as leadership of production workers.PowerPoint Presentation: 8. Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company. 9. Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales, and production must work as a team, to foresee problems of production and in use that may be encountered with the product or service. 10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity. 11. a) Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute leadership. b) Eliminate management by objectives. Eliminate management by numbers, numerical goals. Substitute leadership.PowerPoint Presentation: 12. a) Remove barriers that rob the hourly workers of his right to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality. b) Remove barriers that rob people in management and in engineering of their right to pride of workmanship. This means abolishment of the annual or merit rating and of management by objective, management by the numbers. 13. Institute a vigorous programme of education and self improvement. 14. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is everybody’s job. The Seven Point Action Plan : The Seven Point Action Plan 1. Management must agree on the meaning of the quality programme, its implications and the direction to take 2. Top management must accept and adopt the new philosophy 3. Top management must communicate the plan and the necessity for it to the people in the organisation 4. Every activity must be recognised as a step in a process and the customers of that process identified. The customers are responsible for the next stage of the process 5. Each stage must adopt the Deming or Shewhart Cycle - Plan, Do, Check, Action - as the basis of quality improvement 6. Team working must be engendered and encouraged to improve inputs and outputs. Everyone must be enabled to contribute to this process 7. Construct an organisation for quality with the support of knowledgeable statisticiansPowerPoint Presentation: Principal strengths : the systematic logic, particularly the idea of internal customer-supplier relationship management before technology emphasis on management leadership the sound statistical approach awareness of different socio-cultural contexts Weaknesses: lack of a well defined methodology - suggests what to do without indicating very precisely how to do it the work is not adequately grounded in human relations theory as with Crosby the approach will not help in an organisation with a biased power structureArmand V. Feigenbaum: Armand V. Feigenbaum A commitment to a systemic ‘total’ approach and an emphasis on designing for quality rather than failure be inspected out and involving all departments. Suggests that many quality problems can be eradicated from both the products and the manufacturing process by paying attention to the quality issue from the conception of the idea, right through to delivery of the first and subsequent items. Defines quality as ‘best for the customer use and selling price.’ A recognition of and reliance on the human aspects of the organisation with statistical methods being used as necessary.PowerPoint Presentation: Assumptions: explicit assumption of a world composed of systems human relationships are a basic issue in quality achievement continuous improvement is both desirable and achievable - but has potential for conflict and contradiction - if customer expectations on performance and price are met then quality by definition has been achieved - end of processPowerPoint Presentation: ‘Total Quality System.’ The agreed company-wide and plant-wide operating work structure, documented in effective, integrated technical and managerial procedures, for guiding the co-ordinated actions of the people, the machines and the information of the company and plant in the best and most practical ways to assure customer quality satisfaction and economical costs of quality. Four Steps to quality: Step 1 Set quality standards. Step 2 Appraise conformance to standards. Step 3 Act when standards are not met. Step 4 Plan to make improvements. A tool of measurement used is ‘ operating quality costs.’ prevention costs - including quality planning. appraisal costs - including inspection costs. internal failure costs - including scrap and rework. external failure costs - including warranty costs and complaints.PowerPoint Presentation: Principal strengths : a total or whole approach to quality control emphasis on the importance of management socio-technical systems thinking is taken into account participation is promoted reliance on statistics ‘where appropriate’ is a useful guide encouraging managers to use discretion in their choice of measurements - quite selective about what it is useful to measure and when Principal weaknesses: the work is systemic but not complementarist the breadth of management theory is recognised but not unified the political or coercive context is not addressed approach provides little value for service based organisations as with Deming what but not howKaoru Ishikawa: Kaoru Ishikawa Systemic or holistic approach advocated by ‘Company-Wide Quality’ - everyone involved in or affected by the company and its operations should be involved in the quality programme Participation, active and creative co-operation between those affected - an atmosphere where employees are continuously looking to resolve problems; greater commercial awareness; a change of shop floor attitude in aiming for ever increasing goals - all qualitative - cultural requirements Emphasis on communication through simplicity of analysis and method and commonality of language - language of the shop floorPowerPoint Presentation: Assumptions: interrelatedness, a total or systems view. a fully participative approach can be adopted (without reward). the quality activity takes place in an organisational environment which is free from politics and power relations between participants. effective communication. simplicity in techniques and method is useful (arrogant?). Ishikawa’s overarching method is company-wide quality control. This he sees as being supported by the Quality Circles technique and the 7 tools of quality control.Fifteen effects of company-wide quality control: : Fifteen effects of company-wide quality control: 1. Product quality is improved and becomes uniform 2. reliability of goods is improved 3. cost is reduced 4. quantity of production is increased and it becomes possible to make rational production schedules 5. wasteful work and rework are reduced 6. technique is established and improved 7. expenses for inspection and testing are reduced 8. contracts between vendor and vendee are rationalised 9. the sales market is enlarged 10. better relationships are established between departments 11. false data and reports are reduced 12. discussions are carried out more freely and democratically 13. meetings are operated more smoothly 14. repairs and installations of equipment and facilities are done more rationally 15. human relations are improvedPowerPoint Presentation: Quality circles are the principal method for achieving participation composed of between 4 and 12 workers from the same area of activity . Their function is to ‘identify local problems and recommend solutions’ - aims are: to contribute to the improvement and development of the enterprise to respect human relations and build a happy workshop offering job satisfaction to deploy human capabilities fully and draw out infinite potential Cornerstones to successful quality circles: J. Gilbert top management support operational management support and involvement voluntary participation of the members effective training of the leader and members shared work background solution oriented approach recognition of the quality circle’s efforts have an agenda and minutes and rotating chairmanship keep to the time allowed for the meeting members should inform bosses of meeting times make sure that quality circles are not hierarchicalPowerPoint Presentation: Seven tools of quality control: taken together they are a set of pictures of quality, representing in diagrammatic, or chart form, the quality status of the operation or process being reviewed. Pareto charts: used to identify the principal causes of problems. Ishikawa/fishbone diagrams: charts of cause and effect in processes. Stratification: layer charts which place each set of data successively on top of the previous one. Check sheets: to provide a record of quality. Histograms: graphs used to display frequency of various ranges of values of a quantity. Scatter graphs: used to help determine whether there is a correlation between two factors. Control Charts: used as a device in SPC. The approach contains both quantitative and qualitative aspects which taken together focus on achieving ‘company-wide quality.’PowerPoint Presentation: Strengths: emphasis on participation variety of quantitative and qualitative methods a whole system view QCC’s are relevant to all sectors of the economy Weaknesses: fishbone diagrams are systematic but most systemic problems are often interacting and far more complex than the fishbone approach will reveal QCC’s depend upon management support - failure to listen to ideas there is a failure to address coercive contexts blame culture of the west rather than opportunity to learn There does not emerge an overarching methodology which binds together and integrates all the different strands of his thinkingJoseph M Juran: Joseph M Juran ‘Quality does not happen by accident, it has to be planned.’ ‘management controllable defects account for over 80% of the total quality problems’ - quality cannot be consistently improved unless the improvement is planned. The emphasis of his work is on ‘planning, organisational issues, managements responsibility for quality and the need to set goals and targets for improvement.’ avoidance of slogans and exhortations ‘the recipe for action should consists of 90% substance and 10% exhortation, not the reverse.’ ‘Quality has become too gimmicky, full of platitudes and supposed good intentions, but short on real substance’ - clear reliance on quantitative methods. Quality is ‘fitness for use or purpose.’ Management is largely responsible for quality. Quality can only be improved through planning.PowerPoint Presentation: plans and objectives must be specific and measurable - establish specific goals to be reached -identify what needs to be done, the specific projects that need to be tackled; establish plans for reaching the goals - provide a structured process for going from here to there; assign clear responsibility for meeting the goals; base the rewards on results achieved - feed back the information and utilise the lessons learned and the experience gained. training is essential and starts at the top. three step process of planning, control and action. The Quality Trilogy: Quality planning: determine quality goals; implementation planning; resource planning; express goals in quality terms: create the quality plan. Quality control: monitor performance; compare objectives with achievements; act to reduce the gap. Quality improvement: reduce waste; enhance logistics; improve employee morale; improve profitability; satisfy customers.PowerPoint Presentation: Emphasis is in changing management behaviour through quality awareness, training and then spilling down new attitudes to supporting management levels. Assumptions: There is a quality crisis? Have the quality gurus created the crisis by driving up consumer expectations. Awareness of costs of poor quality focused attention on improving quality. Consumers have driven the quality movement through increasing expectations. Truth probably lies in a combination of these factors - achievement of quality became not an ideal to aim for but, like profit, a fundamental requirement for staying in business. Both management of the organisation and quality are processes. Potential for continuous improvement. Juran’s work focuses very clearly on measurement and specific objectives - tendency to measure those aspects which are easily accessible rather than those which are most important; how to measure individual customer expectations, expectations which may vary each time the service is purchased.PowerPoint Presentation: The Quality planning road map: 1. Identify who are the customers (internal as well as external - identify all possible customers in the chain) 2. Determine the needs of those customers 3. Translate those needs into our language i.e. the organisation 4 Develop a product that can respond to those needs - building quality in rather than inspecting defects out 5 Optimise the product features so as to meet our i.e. company needs as well as customers needs - ease of manufacture is becoming accepted as a design constraint 6 Develop a process which is able to produce the product 7 Optimise the process 8 Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions 9 Transfer the process to operations Ten steps to continuous quality improvement : Ten steps to continuous quality improvement 1. Create awareness of the need and opportunity for quality improvement 2. Set goals for continuous improvement 3. Build an organisation to achieve goals by establishing a quality council, identifying problems selecting a project appointing teams and choosing facilitators 4. Given everyone training 5. Carry out projects to solve problems 6. Report progress - enables experience and learning to be shared/sense of achievement 7. Show recognition 8. Communicate results 9. Keep a record of successes - for reference 10. Incorporate annual improvements into the company’s regular systems and processes and thereby maintain momentumPowerPoint Presentation: Juran uses a variety of statistical methods - studied under Shewhart. - use of control charts and Pareto analysis Strengths: concentration on genuine issues of management practice a new understanding of the customer, referring to both internal and external customers management involvement and commitment Weaknesses: the literature on motivation and leadership is not addressed workers’ contributions are underrated methods are traditional, failing to address culture and politics most suitable for industrial and manufacturing sectors, limited application in service organisations Juran is a practitioner, he deals best with the practice of quality, than the theoryJohn S Oakland: John S Oakland ‘We cannot avoid seeing how quality has developed into the most important competitive weapon and many organisations have realised that TQM is the way of managing for the future.’ ‘Quality starts at the top.’ Seven key characteristics of TQM: 1 Quality is meeting the customers’ requirements. 2. Most quality problems are inter-departmental. 3 Quality control is monitoring, finding and eliminating causes of quality problems. 4 Quality assurance rests on prevention, management systems, effective audit and review. 5 Quality must be managed , it does not just happen. 6 Focus on prevention not cure. 7 reliability is an extension of quality and enables us to ‘delight the customer’ - services require a different form of reliability - consistency.PowerPoint Presentation: Assumptions: Quality is the only issue for organisational survival - true? Microsoft oligopoly, no choice for customers, Railtrack, Financial services until recently undifferentiated - not valid across global markets Quality must be driven from the top Errors can always be prevented through planning, design and effective processes - however robust the technical process may be, actual minute by minute delivery of service depends very largely on the personal interaction between customer and supplier - no standard form of words can cater for the varies of mood, sense and interpretation which influence the outcome of such transactions and determine whether customer requirements are met Quality is an organisation-wide issue - systemic Involvement of all people through communication, teamwork and participation Ten points for Senior Management : Ten points for Senior Management 1 Long term commitment 2. Change the culture to ‘right first time’ - EPDCA helix 3 Train the people to understand the ‘customer-supplier relationship - problem with lower order customer e.g. doctors and nurses 4 Buy products and service on total cost - may save money over time, Mercedes, stainless steel 5 Recognise that systems improvement must be managed 6 Adopt modern methods of supervision and training and eliminate fear 7 Eliminate barriers, manage processes, improve communications and teamwork 8 Eliminate, arbitrary goals, standards based only on numbers, barriers to pride of workmanship, fiction (use the correct tools to establish facts) - recognise measurements that are both meaningful and factual 9 Constantly educate and retrain the in house experts 10 Utilise a systematic approach to TQM implementation Total Quality Model - Culture, Communication, Commitment/Teams, Tools,Systems/Customer-Supplier Quality ChainPowerPoint Presentation: To support implementation he relies on standard tools for achieving quality - statistical approaches, quality circles, process analysis and review etc Also use Quality Function Deployment - systematic approach to design of a product or service around the expressed requirements of the customers. It involves members from across the organisation in converting customer requirements to a technical product or service specification. The QFD process is intended to ensure that the product or service meets the customer requirements first time and every time QFD activities: 1. Market Research 2. Basic research 3. Invention 4 Concept design 5 Prototype testing 6 Final product or service testing 7 After-sales service and trouble-shootingPowerPoint Presentation: Strengths: systematic, methodical approach. Process based view of organisations. Capitalises on developments in quality practice. Participative approach which utilises the literature on teamwork. stresses the importance of management commitment and leadership. the generality of Oakland’s overarching methodology renders it potentially useful in service as well as manufacturing industry. Weaknesses: ignores many developments in organisation theory, especially the systems literature. fails to offer assistance in coercive contexts. justifies quality in terms of developed economies (the focus on competition). ignores other aspects of strategy formulation. does not explain how to obtain the commitment from senior management on which the whole process relies.Shigeo Shingo: Shigeo Shingo Started with the ‘scientific management’ ideas of Frederick Taylor in the early 19th c (1911) i.e. the ‘economic man’ theory of motivation, until he became aware of the methods of Statistical Quality Control. Then in the ‘70s he came to believe in defect prevention. Shingo believed that ‘statistical methods detect errors too late in the manufacturing process’. He became focused ion prevention. ‘he would prefer to be remembered for his promotion of the understanding necessary behind the concepts of looking at the total manufacturing process and the elimination of transportation, storage, lot delays and inspection.’ He believed in zero defects but through good engineering and process investigation and rectification.PowerPoint Presentation: Assumptions: Adhered to a mechanistic approach to organisation throughout his career. Scientific management to statistical quality control to error prevention through good engineering. However, while error free may be possible in an engineering context, in the service sector there are many variables which cannot be controlled to the extent that Shingo’s approach requires. He ignores the human relations aspects of organisations. Principal contribution to quality is the mistake proofing concept, Poke-Yoke, ‘Defect=0’. This approach stops the production process whenever a defect occurs, defines the cause and generates action designed to prevent a recurrence. Alternatively ‘on-line’ adjustment to the product or process may be made, enabling continuous process to be managed. Poke-Yoke relies on a process of continuously monitoring potential sources of error. Machines used in the process are equipped with feedback instrumentation to carry out this task as Shingo considered that human personnel are fallible. People are used to trace and resolve the error causes. Installation of the system is expected to lead over time to a position where all likely recurring errors have been eradicated. Concept adopted to some extent in food processing.PowerPoint Presentation: Strengths: on-line real-time control Poke-Yoke emphasis effective control systems Weaknesses: source inspection only works effectively in manufacturing processes - not so for the service sector Shingo says little about people other than that they are fallibleGenichi Taguchi: Genichi Taguchi The two founding ideas of his quality work are essentially quantitative. First is a belief in statistical methods to identify and eradicate quality problems. The second rests on designing products and processes to build quality in, right from the outset. Could be seen as the cost of non-quality i.e. ‘the loss imparted to society from the time the product is shipped’. His prime concern is with customer satisfaction and with the potential for ‘loss of reputation and goodwill’ associated with failure to meet customer expectations. He saw that loss not only occurred when a product was outside its specification but also when it varied from its target value.PowerPoint Presentation: Three stage prototyping method: system design - involving both product and process - attempt to develop a basic analytical, materials, process and production framework - functional design - product design and process design. parameter design - search for the optimal mix of product variation levels and process operating levels aiming to reduce the sensitivity of the production system to external or internal disturbances - monetary loss arising from variation. tolerance design - enables the recognition of factors that may significantly affect the variability of the product. Additional investment, alternative equipment and materials are then considered as ways to further reduce variability. - minimising the total sum of product manufacturing and lifetime costs.PowerPoint Presentation: So there is a clear belief in identifying and as far as possible eradicating potential causes of ‘non-quality’ at the outset. His approach also relies on a number of organisational principles: 1. Communication 2. Control 3. Efficiency 4 Effectiveness 5 Efficacy 6 Emphasis on location and elimination of causes of error 7 Emphasis on design control 8 Emphasis on environmental analysisPowerPoint Presentation: Quantitative methods provide measurements for control; eradication as far as possible of causes of failure at the outset; societary cost of non-quality; systems view of inter-dependence and interrelationship both within the organisation and with its environment. Assumptions: Quality can always be controlled through improvement in design - validity in service sector must be questioned. Little or nothing is said about people or the management process which implies that they are not considered a significant factor in the production of quality goods. Seems to assume that the organisation can wait for results - that delays between product conception and production will be acceptable - while such delays are to some extent inevitable, they must be minimised in the contemporary market. Much of his work has been informed by his background in engineering and quantitative methods. The adoption of a systemic view, while not apparently extending to the management process of the organisation, is certainly a step forward from the work of many of his fellow gurus.PowerPoint Presentation: The principal tools and techniques espoused by Taguchi centre around the concept of kaizen thinking i.e. continuous improvement. His backward step into the design process helps to ensure a high basic quality standard. Besides the usual statistical methods, he also adopts experimental studies, prototyping and the quadratic loss function. Eight stages of product development i.e. design of experiments. 1. Define the problem. 2. Determine the objective - what output characteristics are to be studied and optimised through the 4experimental process, and what measurements are to be taken - may have to run control experiments in order to validate results. 3. Conduct a brainstorming session - all managers and operators are involved to determine the controllable and uncontrollable factors affecting the situation. 4. Design the experiment. 5. Conduct the experiment. 6. Analyse the data.PowerPoint Presentation: 7. Interpret the results - aims to identify optimal levels for the control factors which seek to minimise variability and bring the process closest to its target value. Prediction is used at this stage to consider the performance of the process under optimal conditions 8. Run a confirmatory experiment may have to revisit stages 3-8 suggested steps fall into the ‘parameter design’ stage of product development - Deming's ‘Plan,Do,Check,Action cycle’ The quadratic loss function is his principal contribution to the statistical aspects of achieving quality - it is used to minimise the cost of a product or service L = c(x - T) 2 + k where x is a particular quality characteristic with target T c is cost of failing to meet target, k represents the minimum loss to society May be viewed as a measure of efficiency and of effective utilisation of resourcesPowerPoint Presentation: Strengths: quality is a design requirement the approach recognises the systemic impact of quality it is a practical method for engineers (rather than statisticians) it guides effective process control Weaknesses: usefulness is biased towards manufacturing guidance is not given on management or organisational issues it places quality in the hands of the experts it says nothing about people as social animals You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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