YOGA & MEDITATION

Views:
 
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Slide 1:

YOGA AND MEDITATION

Slide 2:

YOGA Yoga ( Sanskrit , Pāli : योग yóga ) refers to traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India . [1] The word is associated with meditative practices in Hinduism , Buddhism and Jainism . [2] [3] [4] Within Hinduism, it also refers to one of the six orthodox ( āstika ) schools of Hindu philosophy , and to the goal towards which that school directs its practices. [5] [6] In Jainism, yoga is the sum total of all activities — mental, verbal and physical.

Slide 3:

Major branches of yoga in Hindu philosophy include Rāja Yoga , Karma Yoga , Jnana Yoga , Bhakti Yoga , and Hatha Yoga . According to the authoritative Indian philosopher Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan , yoga, based on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali , comprises one of the six main Hindu schools of philosophy (darshanas), together with Kapila's Samkhya, Gautama's Nyaya, Kanada's Vaisheshika, Jaimini's Purva Mimamsa, and Badarayana's Uttara Mimamsa or Vedanta.Many other Hindu texts discuss aspects of yoga, including the Upanishads , the Bhagavad Gita , the Hatha Yoga Pradipika , the Shiva Samhita and various Tantras . Padmasana or Lotus pose is a more advanced seated posture

Slide 4:

The Sanskrit word yoga has many meanings, and is derived from the Sanskrit root "yuj", meaning "to control", "to yoke" or "to unite".Translations include "joining", "uniting", "union", "conjunction", and "means".It is also possible that the word yoga derives from "yujir samadhau," which means "contemplation" or "absorption." This translation fits better with the dualist Raja Yoga because it is through contemplation that discrimination between prakrti (nature) and purusha (pure consciousness) occurs. Sarvangasana , a commonly practiced Asana

Slide 5:

Outside India, the term yoga is typically associated with Hatha Yoga and its asanas (postures) or as a form of exercise . Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy to a high level of attainment is called a yogi or yogini . Students in Utthita Ashwa Sanchalanasana (High lunge)

Slide 6:

History of yoga Hinduism and Asana The Vedic Samhitas contain references to ascetics , while ascetic practices ( tapas ) are referenced in the Brāhmaṇas (900 to 500 BCE), early commentaries on the Vedas . Several seals discovered at Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 B.C.E.) sites in Pakistan depict figures in positions resembling a common yoga or meditation pose, showing "a form of ritual discipline, suggesting a precursor of yoga", according to archaeologist Gregory Possehl . Some type of connection between the Indus Valley seals and later yoga and meditation practices is speculated upon by many scholars, though there is no conclusive evidence. Techniques for experiencing higher states of consciousness in meditation were developed by the shramanic traditions and in the Upanishadic tradition.

Slide 7:

While there is no clear evidence for meditation in pre-Buddhist early Brahminic texts, Wynne argues that formless meditation originated in the Brahminic tradition, based on strong parallels between Upanishadic cosmological statements and the meditative goals of the two teachers of the Buddha as recorded in the early Buddhist texts. He mentions less likely possibilities as well. Having argued that the cosmological statements in the Upanishads also reflect a contemplative tradition, he argues that the Nasadiya Sukta contains evidence for a contemplative tradition, even as early as the late Rg Vedic period. The Buddhist texts are probably the earliest texts describing meditation techniques. They describe meditative practices and states which had existed before the Buddha as well as those which were first developed within Buddhism. In Hindu literature, the term "yoga" first occurs in the Katha Upanishad , where it refers to control of the senses and the cessation of mental activity leading to a supreme state.Important textual sources for the evolving concept of Yoga are the middle Upanishads , (ca. 400 BCE), the Mahabharata including the Bhagavad Gita (ca. 200 BCE), and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (150 BCE).

Slide 8:

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Raja Yoga and Yoga Sutras of Patanjali In Indian philosophy , Yoga is the name of one of the six orthodox philosophical schools The Yoga philosophical system is closely allied with the Samkhya school. The Yoga school as expounded by the sage Patanjali accepts the Samkhya psychology and metaphysics, but is more theistic than the Samkhya, as evidenced by the addition of a divine entity to the Samkhya's twenty-five elements of reality. The parallels between Yoga and Samkhya were so close that Max Müller says that "the two philosophies were in popular parlance distinguished from each other as Samkhya with and Samkhya without a Lord...."The intimate relationship between Samkhya and Yoga is explained by Heinrich Zimmer :

Slide 9:

These two are regarded in India as twins, the two aspects of a single discipline.Sāṅkhya provides a basic theoretical exposition of human nature, enumerating and defining its elements, analyzing their manner of co-operation in a state of bondage ( bandha ), and describing their state of disentanglement or separation in release ( mokṣa ), while Yoga treats specifically of the dynamics of the process for the disentanglement, and outlines practical techniques for the gaining of release, or 'isolation-integration' ( kaivalya )

Slide 10:

Patanjali is widely regarded as the founder of the formal Yoga philosophy. Patanjali's yoga is known as Raja yoga , which is a system for control of the mind.Patanjali defines the word "yoga" in his second sutra,which is the definitional sutra for his entire work: योग : चित्त - वृत्ति निरोध : ( yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ ) - Yoga Sutras 1.2 This terse definition hinges on the meaning of three Sanskrit terms. I. K. Taimni translates it as "Yoga is the inhibition ( nirodhaḥ ) of the modifications ( vṛtti ) of the mind ( citta )". The use of the word nirodhaḥ in the opening definition of yoga is an example of the important role that Buddhist technical terminology and concepts play in the Yoga Sutra; this role suggests that Patanjali was aware of Buddhist ideas and wove them into his system. Swami Vivekananda translates the sutra as "Yoga is restraining the mind-stuff (Citta) from taking various forms (Vrittis)

Slide 11:

Patanjali's writing also became the basis for a system referred to as "Ashtanga Yoga" ("Eight-Limbed Yoga"). This eight-limbed concept derived from the 29th Sutra of the 2nd book, and is a core characteristic of practically every Raja yoga variation taught today. The Eight Limbs are: 1. Yama (The five "abstentions"): non-violence, non-lying, non-covetousness, non-sensuality, and non-possessiveness. 2. Niyama (The five "observances"): purity, contentment, austerity, study, and surrender to god .

Slide 12:

3. Asana : Literally means "seat", and in Patanjali's Sutras refers to the seated position used for meditation. 4. Pranayama ("Suspending Breath"): Prāna , breath, "āyāma", to restrain or stop. Also interpreted as control of the life force. 5. Pratyahara ("Abstraction"): Withdrawal of the sense organs from external objects. 6. Dharana ("Concentration"): Fixing the attention on a single object. 7. Dhyana ("Meditation"): Intense contemplation of the nature of the object of meditation. 8. Samādhi ("Liberation"): merging consciousness with the object of meditation. In the view of this school, the highest attainment does not reveal the experienced diversity of the world to be illusion . The everyday world is real. Furthermore, the highest attainment is the event of one of many individual selves discovering itself; there is no single universal self shared by all persons.

Slide 13:

Yoga and Samkhya Samkhya Patanjali systematized the conceptions of Yoga and set them forth on the background of the metaphysics of Samkhya, which he assumed with slight variations. In the early works, the Yoga principles appear along with the Samkhya ideas. Vyasa's commentary on the Yoga Sutras, also called the “Samkhyapravacanabhasya”, brings out the intimate relation between the two systems. Yoga agrees with the essential metaphysics of Samkhya, but differs from it in that while Samkhya holds that knowlege is the means of liberation, Yoga is a system of active striving, mental discipline, and dutiful action. Yoga also introduces the conception of God. Sometimes Patanjali's system is referred to as “Seshvara Samkhya” in contradistinction to Kapila's “Nirivara Samkhya”.

Slide 14:

Bhagavad Gita The Bhagavad Gita ('Song of the Lord'), uses the term yoga extensively in a variety of ways. In addition to an entire chapter (ch. 6) dedicated to traditional yoga practice, including meditation, it introduces three prominent types of yoga: Karma yoga : The yoga of action, Bhakti yoga : The yoga of devotion, Gnana yoga : The yoga of knowledge. Madhusudana Sarasvati (b. circa 1490) divided the Gita into three sections, with the first six chapters dealing with Karma yoga, the middle six with Bhakti yoga, and the last six with Jnana (knowledge).Other commentators ascribe a different 'yoga' to each chapter, delineating eighteen different yogas.

Slide 15:

Hatha yoga and Hatha Yoga Pradipika Hatha Yoga is a particular system of Yoga described by Yogi Swatmarama , compiler of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika in 15th century India. Hatha Yoga differs substantially from the Raja Yoga of Patanjali in that it focuses on shatkarma , the purification of the physical body as leading to the purification of the mind ( ha ), and prana , or vital energy ( tha ). Compared to the seated asana, or sitting meditation posture, of Patanjali's Raja yoga,it marks the development of asanas (plural) into the full body 'postures' now in popular usage and, its many modern variations, is the style that many people associate with the word "Yoga" today.

Yoga practices in other traditions:

Yoga practices in other traditions Buddhism and Hinduism#Meditation The Buddha depicted in yogic meditation, Kamakura , Japan Early Buddhism incorporated meditative absorption states .The most ancient sustained expression of yogic ideas is found in the early sermons of the Buddha.One key innovative teaching of the Buddha was that meditative absorption must be combined with liberating cognition.

Slide 17:

The difference between the Buddha's teaching and the yoga presented in early Brahminic texts is striking. Meditative states alone are not an end, for according to the Buddha, even the highest meditative state is not liberating. Instead of attaining a complete cessation of thought, some sort of mental activity must take place: a liberating cognition, based on the practice of mindful awareness. The Buddha also departed from earlier yogic thought in discarding the early Brahminic notion of liberation at death.Liberation for the Brahminic yogin was thought to be the realization at death of a nondual meditative state anticipated in life. In fact, old Brahminic metaphors for the liberation at death of the yogic adept ("becoming cool", "going out") were given a new meaning by the Buddha; their point of reference became the sage who is liberated in life.

Slide 18:

Yogacara Buddhism Yogacara (Sanskrit: "yoga practice", also spelled yogāchāra, is a school of philosophy and psychology that developed in India during the 4th to 5th centuries. Yogacara received the name as it provided a yoga , a framework for engaging in the practices that lead to the path of the bodhisattva .The Yogacara sect teaches yoga in order to reach enlightenment. Adho Mukha Svanasana , Sun Salutation

Slide 19:

Indo-Tibetan Buddhism Yoga is central to Tibetan Buddhism . In the Nyingma tradition, the path of meditation practice is divided into nine yanas , or vehicles, which are said to be increasingly profound. The last six are described as "yoga yanas": Kriya yoga , Upa yoga , Yoga yana , Mahā yoga , Anu yoga and the ultimate practice, Ati yoga The Sarma traditions also include Kriya, Upa (called Charya ), and Yoga, with the Anuttara yoga class substituting for Mahayoga and Atiyoga. Other tantra yoga practices include a system of 108 bodily postures practiced with breath and heart rhythm. The Nyingma tradition also practices Yantra yoga (Tib. Trul khor ), a discipline that includes breath work (or pranayama), meditative contemplation and precise dynamic movements to centre the practitioner. The body postures of Tibetan ancient yogis are depicted on the walls of the Dalai Lama's summer temple of Lukhang . A semi-popular account of Tibetan Yoga by Chang (1993) refers to caṇḍalī (Tib. tummo ), the generation of heat in one's own body, as being "the very foundation of the whole of Tibetan Yoga".Chang also claims that Tibetan Yoga involves reconciliation of apparent polarities, such as prana and mind, relating this to theoretical implications of tantrism .

Slide 20:

Jainism Tirthankara Parsva in Yogic meditation in the Kayotsarga posture. Kevala Jñāna of Mahavira in mulabandhasana posture According to Tattvarthasutra , 2nd century CE Jain text, Yoga , is the sum total of all the activities of mind, speech and body. Umasvati calls yoga the cause of asrava or karmic influx as well as one of the essentials— samyak caritra —in the path to liberation.In his Niyamasara , Acarya Kundakunda , describes yoga bhakti —devotion to the path to liberation—as the highest form of devotion. Tirthankara Parsva in Yogic meditation in the Kayotsarga posture

Slide 21:

Acarya Haribhadra and Acarya Hemacandra mention the five major vows of ascetics and 12 minor vows of laity under yoga. This has led certain Indologists like Prof. Robert J. Zydenbos to call Jainism, essentially, a system of yogic thinking that grew into a full-fledged religion. Dr. Heinrich Zimmer contended that the yoga system had pre-Aryan origins that did not accept the authority of the Vedas, and hence had to be reckoned as one of the heterodox doctrines similar to Jainism. Jain iconography depicts Jain Tirthankara 's meditation in Padmasana or Kayotsarga yogic poses. Mahavira was said to have achieved Kevala Jnana "enlightenment" siting in mulabandhasana ('root-lock') position, which is first mentioned in the Acaranga Sutra and later in Kalpasutra

Slide 22:

The five yamas or the constraints of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali bear an uncanny resemblance to the five major vows of Jainism , indicating a strong influence of Jainism.This mutual influence between the Yoga philosophy and Jainism is admitted by the author Vivian Worthington who writes: "Yoga fully acknowledges its debt to Jainism, and Jainism reciprocates by making the practice of yoga part and parcel of life. Kevala Jñāna of Mahavira in mulabandhasana posture

Slide 23:

The Indus valley seals and iconography also provide a reasonable evidence of the existence of a proto-yogic tradition akin to Jainism. More specifically, scholars and archaeologists have remarked on close similarities in the yogic and meditative postures depicted in the seals with those of various Tirthankaras: the "kayotsarga" posture of Rsabha and the mulabandhasana of Mahavira along with seals depicting meditative figure flaked by upright serpents bearing similarities to iconography of Parsva . All these are indicative of not only links between Indus Valley Civilisation and Jainism, but also show the contribution of Jainism to various yogic practices

Slide 24:

Islam The development of Sufism was considerably influenced by Indian yogic practises, where they adapted both physical postures ( asanas ) and breath control ( pranayama ). The ancient Indian yogic text, Amritakunda, ("Pool of Nectar)" was translated into Arabic and Persian as early as the 11th century. Several other yogic texts were appropriated by Sufi tradition but typically the texts juxtapose yoga materials alongside Sufi practices without any real attempt at integration or synthesis. Yoga became known to Indian Sufis gradually over time but engagement with yoga is not found at the historical beginnings of the tradition

Slide 25:

Malaysia's top Islamic body in 2008 passed a fatwa , which is legally non-binding, against Muslims practicing yoga, saying it had elements of " Hindu spiritual teachings" and that its practice was blasphemy and is therefore haraam . Muslim yoga teachers in Malaysia criticized the decision as "insulting". Sisters in Islam , a women's rights group in Malaysia, also expressed disappointment and said that its members would continue with their yoga classes. The fatwa states that yoga practiced only as physical exercise is permissible, but prohibits the chanting of religious mantras,and states that teachings such as the uniting of a human with God is not consistent with Islamic philosophy.In a similar vein, the Council of Ulemas , an Islamic body in Indonesia, passed a fatwa banning yoga on the grounds that it contains "Hindu elements" These fatwas have, in turn, been criticized by Darul Uloom Deoband , a Deobandi Islamic seminary in India.

Slide 26:

In May 2009, Turkey's head of the Directorate of Religious Affairs , Ali Bardakoğlu , discounted personal development techniques such as yoga as commercial ventures that could lead to extremism. His comments were made in the context of yoga possibly competing with and eroding participation in Islamic practice. The only sect of the Islam community that has successfully incorporated yoga into its practice is the Jogi Faqir , whose followers are Muslim converts from the Hindu Jogicaste .

Slide 27:

Christianity Main articles: A Christian reflection on the New Age and Aspects of Christian meditation The Roman Catholic Church , and some other Christian organizations have expressed concerns and disapproval with respect to some eastern and New Age practices which include yoga and meditation. In 1989 and 2003, the Vatican issued two documents: Aspects of Christian meditation and A Christian reflection on the New Age which were mostly critical of eastern and New Age practices. The 2003 document was published as a 90 page handbook detailing the Vatican's position. The Vatican warned that concentration on the physical aspects of meditation "can degenerate into a cult of the body" and that equating bodily states with mysticism "could also lead to psychic disturbance and, at times, to moral deviations." Such concerns can be traced to the early days of Christianity, when the church opposed the gnostics' belief that salvation came not through faith but through a mystical inner knowledge.

Slide 28:

The letter also says, "one can see if and how [prayer] might be enriched by meditation methods developed in other religions and cultures" but maintains the idea that "there must be some fit between the nature of [other approaches to] prayer and Christian beliefs about ultimate reality." The Rev. John Wijngaards points out the long Judaic and Christian histories of absorbing elements from surrounding religions. He notes that the absence of any intense experience of God's power has sent some Christians eastward. Many Roman Catholics now bring elements of Yoga, Buddhism, and Hinduism into their spiritual practices. Some fundamentalist Christian organizations consider yoga practice to be incoherent to their religious background and therefore a non-Christian religious practice. It is also considered a part of the New Age movement and therefore inconsistent with Christianity

Slide 29:

Tantra Tantrism is a practice that is supposed to alter the relation of its practitioners to the ordinary social, religious, and logical reality in which they live. Through Tantric practice, an individual perceives reality as maya , illusion, and the individual achieves liberation from it . This particular path to salvation among the several offered by Hinduism , links Tantrism to those practices of Indian religions , such as yoga, meditation, and social renunciation , which are based on temporary or permanent withdrawal from social relationships and modes

Slide 30:

As Robert Svoboda attempts to summarize the three major paths of the Vedic knowledge, he exclaims: Because every embodied individual is composed of a body, a mind and a spirit, the ancient Rishis of India who developed the Science of Life organized their wisdom into three bodies of knowledge: Ayurveda, which deals mainly with the physical body; Yoga, which deals mainly with spirit; and Tantra, which is mainly concerned with the mind. The philosophy of all three is identical; their manifestations differ because of their differing emphases. Ayurveda is most concerned with the physical basis of life, concentrating on its harmony of mind and spirit. Yoga controls body and mind to enable them to harmonize with spirit, and Tantra seeks to use the mind to balance the demands of body and spirit.

Slide 31:

During tantric practices and studies, the student is instructed further in meditation technique, particularly chakra meditation . This is often in a limited form in comparison with the way this kind of meditation is known and used by Tantric practitioners and yogis elsewhere, but is more elaborate than the initiate's previous meditation. It is considered to be a kind of Kundalini Yoga for the purpose of moving the Goddess into the chakra located in the "heart", for meditation and worship.

Slide 32:

Goal of yoga The goals of yoga are varied and range from improving health to achieving Moksha .Within Jainism and the monist schools of Advaita Vedanta and Shaivism , the goal of yoga takes the form of Moksha, which is liberation from all worldly suffering and the cycle of birth and death ( Samsara ), at which point there is a realisation of identity with the Supreme Brahman . In the Mahabharata, the goal of yoga is variously described as entering the world of Brahma , as Brahman , or as perceiving the Brahman or Atman that pervades all things. For the bhakti schools of Vaishnavism , bhakti or service to Svayam bhagavan itself may be the ultimate goal of the yoga process, where the goal is to enjoy an eternal relationship with Vishnu .

Yoga Postures/Asanas:

Yoga Postures/Asanas Uttanasana Standing Forward Bend Paschimottanasana Intense stretch of the west

Slide 34:

Adho Mukha Savasana Downward Facing Dog Bhujangasana Cobra

Slide 35:

Dhanurasana Bow Halasana Plow

Slide 36:

Urdhva Dhanurasana Upward Bow Ardha Padmasana is an intermediate seated posture

Slide 37:

Shirsasana Head Stand Shavasana Corpse Pose

Slide 38:

Vajrasana Diamond Pose Vrukshasana Tree Pose

Slide 39:

Bakāsana Crane Bālāsana Child’s pose

Slide 40:

Gomukhāsana Cow Face Matyasasana Fish

Slide 41:

Kākāsana Crow Hanumanāsana Named after Hanuman

Slide 42:

Śalabhāsana Locust or Grass-hopper Mayūrāsana Peacock

Slide 43:

Paścimottānāsana Seated Forward Bend Sarvāṅgāsana Shoulder Stand

Slide 44:

Vajrāsana Thunderbolt Uṣṭhāsana Camel

MEDITATION:

MEDITATION This article is about the mental discipline. For the form of alternative dispute resolution, Meditation is a holistic discipline during which time the practitioner trains his or her mind in order to realize some benefit.

Meditation is generally a subjective, personal experience and most often done without any external involvement, except perhaps prayer beads to count prayers. Meditation oftentimes involves invoking and cultivating a feeling or internal state, such as compassion, or attending to some focal point, etc. The term can refer to the process of reaching this state, as well as to the state itself.There are hundreds of specific types of meditation.  The word, 'meditation,' means many things dependent upon the context of its use. People practice meditation for many reasons within the context of their culture. Meditation is a component of many religions, and has been practiced since antiquity, especially by monastics. To date, the exact mechanism at work in meditation remains unclear.:

Meditation is generally a subjective, personal experience and most often done without any external involvement, except perhaps prayer beads to count prayers. Meditation oftentimes involves invoking and cultivating a feeling or internal state, such as compassion , or attending to some focal point , etc. The term can refer to the process of reaching this state, as well as to the state itself.There are hundreds of specific types of meditation.  The word, 'meditation,' means many things dependent upon the context of its use. People practice meditation for many reasons within the context of their culture. Meditation is a component of many religions, and has been practiced since antiquity, especially by monastics. To date, the exact mechanism at work in meditation remains unclear.

History of Meditation :

History of Meditation The word meditate comes from the Latin root meditatum , i.e. to ponder. In the Old Testament hāgâ (Hebrew: הגה ‎), means to sigh or murmur, but also to meditate. When the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek, hāgâ became the Greek melete . The Latin Bible then translated hāgâ/melete into meditatio .The use of the term meditatio as part of a formal, stepwise process of meditation goes back to the 12th century monk Guigo II .

Apart from its historical usage, the term meditation was introduced as a translation for Eastern spiritual practices, generally referred to as dhyāna, which comes from the Sanskrit root dhyai, meaning to contemplate or meditate. The term "meditation" in English may also refer to practices from Islamic Sufism, or other traditions such as Jewish Kabbalah and Christian Hesychasm. A recent edited book about "meditation", for example, included chapter contributions by authors describing Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Islamic, and Taoist traditions.]Scholars have noted that "the term 'meditation' as it has entered contemporary usage" is parallel to the term "contemplation" in Christianity. It is difficult to trace the history of meditation without considering the religious context within which it was practiced. Data suggest that even at prehistoric times older civilizations used repetitive, rhythmic chants and offerings to appease the gods. Some authors have even suggested the hypothesis that the emergence of the capacity for focused attention, an element of many methods of meditation, may have contributed to the final phases of human biological evolution. References to meditation with Rishabha in Jainism go back to the prehistoric age with the Acaranga Sutra dating to 500 BC. Some of the earliest written records of meditation date to 1500BC in HinduVedantism. Around 500-600BC Taoists in China and Buddhists in India began to develop meditative practices.:

Apart from its historical usage, the term meditation was introduced as a translation for Eastern spiritual practices, generally referred to as dhyāna , which comes from the Sanskrit root dhyai , meaning to contemplate or meditate. The term "meditation" in English may also refer to practices from Islamic Sufism , or other traditions such as Jewish Kabbalah and Christian Hesychasm . A recent edited book about "meditation", for example, included chapter contributions by authors describing Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Islamic, and Taoist traditions. ] Scholars have noted that "the term 'meditation' as it has entered contemporary usage" is parallel to the term "contemplation" in Christianity. It is difficult to trace the history of meditation without considering the religious context within which it was practiced. Data suggest that even at prehistoric times older civilizations used repetitive, rhythmic chants and offerings to appease the gods. Some authors have even suggested the hypothesis that the emergence of the capacity for focused attention, an element of many methods of meditation, may have contributed to the final phases of human biological evolution. References to meditation with Rishabha in Jainism go back to the prehistoric age with the Acaranga Sutra dating to 500 BC. Some of the earliest written records of meditation date to 1500BC in Hindu Vedantism . Around 500-600BC Taoists in China and Buddhists in India began to develop meditative practices.

Slide 49:

In the west, by 20BCE Philo of Alexandria had written on some form of "spiritual exercises" involving attention (prosoche) and concentration and by the 3rd century Plotinus had developed meditative techniques, which however did not attract a following among Christian mediators. The Pāli Canon , which dates to 1st century BCE considers Indian Buddhist meditation as a step towards salvation. By the time Buddhism was spreading in China,the Vimalakirti Sutra which dates to 100CE included a number of passages on meditation,clearly pointing to Zen .The Silk Road transmission of Buddhism introduced meditation to other oriental countries, and in 653 the first meditation hall was opened in Japan, Returning from China around 1227Dōgen wrote the instructions for Zazen . The Islamic practice of Dhikr had involved the repetition of the 99 Names of God in the Qur'an since the 8th or 9th century. By the 12th century, the practice of Sufism included specific meditative techniques, and its followers practiced breathing controls and the repetition of holy words.Interactions with Indians or the Sufis may have influenced the Eastern Christian meditation approach to hesychasm , but this can not be proved Between the 10th and 14 th centuries, hesychasm was developed, particularly on Mount Athos in Greece, and involves the repetition of the Jesus prayer .

Western Christian meditation contrasts with most other approaches in that it does not involve the repetition of any phrase or action and requires no specific posture. Western Christian meditationprogressed from the 6thcentury practice of Bible reading among Benedictine monks called Lectio Divina, i.e. divine reading. Its four formal steps as a "ladder" were defined by the monk Guigo II in the 12th century with the Latin terms lectio, meditatio, oratio, and contemplatio (i.e. read, ponder, pray, contemplate). Western Christian meditation was further developed by saints such as Ignatius of Loyolaand Teresa of Avila in the 16th centuryBy the 18th century, the study of Buddhism in the West was a topic for intellectuals. The philosopherSchopenhauer discussed it, and Voltaire asked for toleration towards Buddhists.The first English translation of the Tibetan Book of the Dead was published in 1927.:

Western Christian meditation contrasts with most other approaches in that it does not involve the repetition of any phrase or action and requires no specific posture. Western Christian meditation progressed from the 6 th century practice of Bible reading among Benedictine monks called Lectio Divina , i.e. divine reading. Its four formal steps as a "ladder" were defined by the monk Guigo II in the 12th century with the Latin terms lectio , meditatio , oratio , and contemplatio (i.e. read, ponder, pray, contemplate). Western Christian meditation was further developed by saints such as Ignatius of Loyola and Teresa of Avila in the 16th centuryBy the 18th century, the study of Buddhism in the West was a topic for intellectuals. The philosopher Schopenhauer discussed it, and Voltaire asked for toleration towards Buddhists.The first English translation of the Tibetan Book of the Dead was published in 1927.

Slide 51:

Secular forms of meditation were introduced in India in the 1950s as a Westernized form of Hindu meditative techniques and arrived in the United States and Europe in the 1960s. Rather than focusing on spiritual growth, secular meditation emphasizes stress reduction, relaxation and self improvement. Both spiritual and secular forms of meditation have been subjects of scientific analyses. Research on meditation began in 1931, with scientific research increasing dramatically during the 1970s and 1980s.Since the beginning of the '70s more than a thousand studies of meditation in English-language have been reported.However, after 60 years of scientific study, the exact mechanism at work in meditation remains unclear.

Slide 52:

Meditation styles Religious and spiritual There are literally hundreds of specific approaches to meditation.Some meditative traditions, such as yoga or tantra , are common to several religions. Bahá'í Faith The Bahá'í Faith teaches that meditation is necessary for spiritual growth, alongside obligatory prayer and fasting. `Abdu'l-Bahá is quoted as saying: Meditation is the key for opening the doors of mysteries to your mind. In that state man abstracts himself: in that state man withdraws himself from all outside objects; in that subjective mood he is immersed in the ocean of spiritual life and can unfold the secrets of things-in-themselves. Although the founder of the Faith, Bahá'u'lláh , never specified any particular forms of meditation, some Bahá'í practices are meditative. One of these is the daily repetition of the Arabic phrase Alláhu Abhá ( Arabic : الله ابهى ‎) (God is Most Glorious) 95 times preceded by ablutions . Abhá has the same root as Bahá' ( Arabic : بهاء "splendor" or "glory") which Bahá'ís consider to be the "Greatest Name of God"

 Buddhist meditation The gift of learning to meditate is the greatest gift you can give yourself in this life. For it is only through meditation that you can undertake the journey to discover your true nature, and so find the stability and confidence you will need to live, and die, well. Meditation is the road to enlightenment. -Sogyal Rinpoche, The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying:

Buddhist meditation The gift of learning to meditate is the greatest gift you can give yourself in this life. For it is only through meditation that you can undertake the journey to discover your true nature, and so find the stability and confidence you will need to live, and die, well. Meditation is the road to enlightenment. - Sogyal Rinpoche , The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying Dynamic tranquility: the Buddha in contemplation .

A strong believer in Christian meditation, Saint Padre Pio stated: "Through the study of books one seeks God; by meditation one finds him".:

A strong believer in Christian meditation , Saint Padre Pio stated: " Through the study of books one seeks God; by meditation one finds him ". Christian meditation A strong believer in Christian meditation , Saint Padre Pio stated: " Through the study of books one seeks God; by meditation one finds him ". Christian traditions have various meditative practices. These include traditions such as Lectio Divina , rosary meditations , and Eucharistic Adoration in Catholicism , or the Hesychast tradition in Eastern Orthodoxy , and the saying of the Jesus Prayer .

Slide 55:

Some Western Christian meditative practices, such as those derived from the 13th century English text, The Cloud of Unknowing , rely upon the repetition of a single word or short phrase.In many methods of Christian contemplative practice, "meditation" is the middle level in a broad three stage characterization of prayer: it involves more reflection than first level vocal prayer , and is more structured than the multiple layers of contemplation in Christianity.Saints such as Thomas Aquinas and Teresa of Avila have emphasized the importance of meditation in Christianity. While Protestants view salvation in terms of faith and grace alone (i.e. sola fide and sola gratia ) both Western and Eastern Christians see a role for meditation on the path to salvation and redemption.

Slide 56:

Apostle Paul stated in Romans 9:16 that salvation only comes from "God that hath mercy".The path to salvation in Christian meditation is not one of give and take, and the aim meditation is to bring joy to the heart of God. The initiative in Christian salvation is with God, and one does not meditate or love God to gain his favor. Some mystics in both the Western and Eastern churches have associated feelings of ecstasy with meditation, e.g. St. Teresa of Avila 's legendary meditative ecstasy and the Eastern Orthodox approach to theosis via Hesychasm .However, St. Augustine failed to achieve meditative ecstasy via the teachings of Plotinus [91] and St. Gregory of Sinai , one of the originators of Hesychasm, stated that the goal of Christian meditation is "seeking guidance from the Holy Spirit , beyond the minor phenomenon of ecstasy". According to E. P. Clowney it is the search for wisdom, not ecstasy that marks the path of Christian meditation, a wisdom sought in the " Christ of Scripture and the Scripture of Christ".

A large statue in Bangalore depicting Lord Shiva meditating :

A large statue in Bangalore depicting Lord Shiva meditating Hinduism Meditation A large statue in Bangalore depicting Lord Shiva meditating The earliest clear references to meditation in Hindu literature are in the middle Upanishads and the Mahabharata , which includes the Bhagavad Gita . [103] [104] According to Gavin Flood , the earlier Brihadaranyaka Upanishad refers to meditation when it states that "having becoming calm and concentrated, one perceives the self ( ātman ) within oneself".

Slide 58:

The practices of Yoga help one to control the mind and senses so the ego can be transcended and the true self ( atman ) experienced, leading to moksha or liberation. Yoga practice includes ethical discipline ( Yamas ), physical postures ( Asanas ), breath control ( Pranayama ), withdrawl from the senses ( Pratyahara ), one-pointedness of mind ( Dharana ), meditation ( Dhyana ), and eventually Samadhi , which is often described as the union of the Self ( Atman ) with the omnipresent , and is the ultimate goal of all Hindu Yogis. Meditation in Hinduism is not confined to any school or sect and has expanded beyond Hinduism to the West. Today there is a new branch of Yoga which combines Christian practices with Yogic postures known popularly as Christian Yoga

Dhikr singing :

Dhikr singing Islam Meditation Muraqaba and Dhikr Dhikr singing. A Muslim is obliged to pray at least five times a day: once before sunrise, at noon, in the afternoon, after sunset, and once at night. During prayer a Muslim focuses and meditates on God by reciting the Qur'an and engaging in dhikr to reaffirm and strengthen the bond between Creator and creation, with the purpose of guiding the soul to truth .[ citation needed ] Such meditation is intended to help maintain a feeling of spiritual peace , in the face of whatever challenges work, social or family life may present.

Slide 60:

The five daily acts of peaceful prayer are to serve as a template and inspiration for conduct during the rest of the day, transforming it, ideally, into one single and sustained meditation: even sleep is to be regarded as but another phase of that sustained meditation. Meditative quiescence is said to have a quality of healing , and—in contemporary terminology—enhancing creativity . The Islamic prophet Muhammad spent sustained periods in contemplation and meditation. It was during one such period that Muhammad began to receive the revelations of the Qur'an

Lord Mahaveer in meditative posture :

Lord Mahaveer in meditative posture Jain meditation Lord Mahaveer in meditative posture Meditation has been one of the core spiritual practices undertaken by the Jains since the era of first Tirthankar Lord Rishabha . All the twenty four Tirthankars have practiced deep meditation and attained enlightenment.They are all shown in meditative postures in the images or idols. Lord Mahaveer practiced deep meditation for twelve years and attained enlightenment.

Slide 62:

The Acaranga Sutra dating to 500 BC, addresses the meditation system of Jainism in detail. Jain Acharya Bhadrabahu of 4th century BC practiced deep Mahaprana meditation for 12 years. Acharya Kundakunda of 1st century BCE, opened new dimensions of meditation in Jain tradition through his books Samayasara , Pravachansar, etc. Jain meditation and spiritual practices system was referred to as salvation-path. It has three important parts, Right perception and faith, Right knowledge and Right conduct, which are also known as Three Jewels. Meditation in Jainism aims at realizing the self, attaining salvation, take the soul to complete freedom. It aims to reach and to remain in the pure state of soul which is believed to be pure conscious, beyond any attachment or aversion. The practitioner strives to be just a knower-seer (Gyata-Drashta). Jain meditation can be broadly categorized to Dharmya Dhyana and Shukla Dhyana .

Slide 63:

There exists a number of meditation techniques such as pindāstha-dhyāna, padāstha-dhyāna, rūpāstha-dhyāna, rūpātita-dhyāna, savīrya-dhyāna , etc. In padāstha dhyāna one focuses on Mantra . A Mantra could be either a combination of core letters or words on deity or themes. There is a rich tradition of Mantra in Jainism. All Jain followers irrespective of their sect, whether Digambara or Svetambara practice Mantra. Mantra chanting is an important part of daily lives of Jain monks and followers. Mantra chanting can be done either loudly or silently in mind. Yogasana and Pranayama has been an important practice undertaken since ages. Pranayama – breathing exercises – are performed to strengthen the ten Pranas or vital energy. Yogasana and Pranayama balances the functioning of neuro-endocrine system of body and helps in achieving good physical, mental and emotional health. Contemplation is a very old and important meditation technique. The practitioner meditates deeply on subtle facts. In agnya vichāya , one contemplates on seven facts - life and non-life, the inflow, bondage, stoppage and removal of karmas , and the final accomplishment of liberation.

Slide 64:

In apaya vichāya , one contemplates on the incorrect insights one indulges into and that eventually develops right insight. In vipaka vichāya , one reflects on the eight causes or basic types of karma . In sansathan vichāya , when one thinks about the vastness of the universe and the loneliness of the soul. Acharya Mahapragya formulated Preksha Meditation in 1970s and presented a well organised system of meditation. It is an important milestone in the history of Jain meditation system. Yogasana and Pranayama , meditation, contemplation, Mantra , therapy are its integral parts. Numerous Preksha meditation centers came into existence around the world and numerous meditations camps are being organized to impart training in it.

Slide 65:

Jewish meditation There is evidence that Judaism has had meditative practices that go back thousands of years. For instance, in the Torah , the patriarch Isaac is described as going " לשוח " ( lasuach ) in the field—a term understood by all commentators as some type of meditative practice ( Genesis 24:63), probably prayer. Similarly, there are indications throughout the Tanach (the Hebrew Bible ) that meditation was central to the prophets. In the Old Testament , there are two Hebrew words for meditation: hāgâ ( Hebrew : הגה ‎), which means to sigh or murmur , but also to meditate , and sîḥâ ( Hebrew : שיחה ‎), which means to muse , or rehearse in one's mind .

Slide 66:

The Jewish mystical tradition, Kabbalah , is inherently a meditative field of study. The Talmud refers to the advantage of the scholar over the prophet, as his understanding takes on intellectual, conceptual form, that deepens mental grasp, and can be communicated to others. The advantage of the prophet over the scholar is in the transcendence of their intuitive vision. The ideal illumination is achieved when the insights of mystical revelation are brought into conceptual structures. For example, Isaac Luria revealed new doctrines of Kabbalah in the 16th Century, that revolutionised and reordered its teachings into a new system. However, he did not write down his teachings, which were recounted and interpreted instead by his close circle of disciples. After a mystical encounter, called in Kabbalistic tradition an "elevation of the soul" into the spiritual realms, Isaac Luria said that it would take 70 years to explain all that he had experienced. As Kabbalah evolved its teachings took on successively greater conceptual form and philosophical system. Nonetheless, as is implied by the name of Kabbalah, which means "to receive", its exponents see that for the student to understand its teachings requires a spiritual intuitive reception that illuminates and personalises the intellectual structures.

Slide 67:

Corresponding to the learning of Kabbalah are its traditional meditative practices, as for the Kabbalist, the ultimate purpose of its study is to understand and cleave to the Divine. Classic methods include the mental visualisation of the supernal realms the soul navigates through to achieve certain ends. One of the most well known types of meditation in early Jewish mysticism was the work of the Merkabah , from the root /R-K-B/ meaning "chariot" (of God). In modern Jewish practice one of the best known meditative practices is called " hitbodedut " ( התבודדות , alternatively transliterated as "hisbodedus"), and is explained in Kabbalistic , Hasidic , and Mussar writings, especially the Hasidic method of Rabbi Nachman of Breslav . The word derives from the Hebrew word "boded" ( בודד ), meaning the state of being alone. Another Hasidic system is the Habad method of "hisbonenus", related to the Sephirah of "Binah", Hebrew for understanding. This practice is the analytical reflective process of making oneself understand a mystical concept well, that follows and internalises its study in Hasidic writings.

Slide 68:

Sikhism Meditation In Sikhism , the practices of simran and Nām Japō encourage quiet meditation. This is focusing one's attention on the attributes of God. Sikhs believe that there are 10 'gates' to the body; 'gates' is another word for 'chakras' or energy centres. The top most energy level is called the tenth gate or dasam dwar. When one reaches this stage through continuous practice meditation becomes a habit that continues whilst walking, talking, eating, awake and even sleeping. There is a distinct taste or flavour when a meditator reaches this lofty stage of meditation, as one experiences absolute peace and tranquility inside and outside the body.

Slide 69:

Followers of the Sikh religion also believe that love comes through meditation on the lord's name since meditation only conjures up positive emotions in oneself which are portrayed through our actions. The first Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached the equality of all humankind and stressed the importance of living a householder's life instead of wandering around jungles meditating, the latter of which being a popular practice at the time. The Guru preached that we can obtain liberation from life and death by living a totally normal family life and by spreading love amongst every human being regardless of religion. In the Sikh religion, kirtan , otherwise known as singing the hymns of God is seen as one of the most beneficial ways of aiding meditation, and it too in some ways is believed to be a meditation of one kind.

Scenes of Inner Taksang, temple hall, built just above the cave where Padmasambhava was believed to have meditated :

Scenes of Inner Taksang, temple hall, built just above the cave where Padmasambhava was believed to have meditated Research on meditation Over 1,000 publications on meditation have appeared to date. Many of the these early studies lack a theoretically unified perspective, oftentimes resulting in poor methodological quality.

Slide 71:

A review of scientific studies identified relaxation, concentration, an altered state of awareness, a suspension of logical thought and the maintenance of a self-observing attitude as the behavioral components of meditation;it is accompanied by a host of biochemical and physical changes in the body that alter metabolism , heart rate, respiration , blood pressure and brain chemistry. Meditation has been used in clinical settings as a method of stress and pain reduction. Meditation has also been studied specifically for its effects on stress. In June, 2007 the United States National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine published an independent, peer-reviewed, meta-analysis of the state of meditation research. The result was mixed: some studies showed substantial, detectable, changes in the brain of people who meditated, while other studies were very poor in quality and could not be reliably depended upon. More rigor in future studies was called for.

Slide 72:

Meditation in popular culture Various forms of meditation have been described in popular culture sources. In particular, science fiction stories such as Frank Herbert 's Dune , Star Trek , Artemis Fowl , Star Wars , Maskman , Lost Horizon by James Hilton , and Stargate SG-1 have featured characters who practice one form of meditation or another. Mediation also appears as the overt theme of novels such as Jack Kerouac 's The Dharma Bums . Usually these practices are inspired by real-world meditation traditions, but sometimes they have very different methods and purposes

By INSP.SARAVANABAVA.S:

By INSP.SARAVANABAVA.S THANK YOU

authorStream Live Help