South Asia: South Asia World Cultures South Asia: South Asia
India and several other countries-Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives-make up the area known as South Asia. South Asia: South Asia
India is often called a subcontinent, or a landmass that
is like a continent only smaller. South Asia: South Asia Towering mountains in the
north separate South Asia from
the rest of the continent of Asia. Bordering South Asia are three large bodies of water: the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea, and the Bay of Bengal. South Asia : South Asia India Slide6: Location: Location
India takes up about 75 percent of the land area of South Asia.
India covers 1,147,950 square miles [2,973,191 sq. km] - about one-third the area of the United States. Location: Location
Mountains run along three sides and through the middle of the country.
Plateaus and desert plains run through the rest of the country. Mountains: Mountains
Two huge walls of mountains-the Karakoram Range and the Himalayas- form India’s northern border. Mountains: Mountains The Himalayas – made up of several ranges – stretch more than 1,500 miles [2,414 km] across northern South Asia. They are the tallest mountains in the world. Mountains: Mountains In the center of India lies another mountain range – the Vindhya (VIHN•dyuh) Mountains.
These low mountains divide India in half. They have helped to create two different cultures in northern and southern India. Mountains: Mountains Two chains of hills and mountains called the Eastern Ghats (GAHTS) and Western Ghats edge the southern coasts of India. These Mountain chains lie just inland from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea. Elevation Map of South Asia: Elevation Map of South Asia Plains and Plateaus: Plains and Plateaus
Sweeping through Northern India between the Himalayan and Vindhya ranges is the Ganges Plain. It boasts some of the most fertile soil in the country. At the edge of the Ganges Plain lies the Thar (TAHR) Desert.
Thar Desert: Thar Desert Plains and Plateaus: Plains and Plateaus
The Deccan Plateau is located south of the Vindhya Mountains and makes up two-thirds of India.
Forests, fertile farmland, and rich deposits of minerals make the plateau a valuable region. Deccan Plateau: Deccan Plateau Central Deccan Plateau Kanha National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India : Central Deccan Plateau Kanha National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India Rivers: Rivers
The Ganges River begins in the Himalayas and flows through the Ganges Plain to the Bay of Bengal. Major Rivers of India: Major Rivers of India Rivers: Rivers 'The Ganga, especially, is the river of India, beloved of her people, round which are intertwined her memories, her hopes and fears, her songs of triumph, her victories and her defeats. She has been a symbol of India's age-long culture and civilization, ever changing, ever flowing, and yet ever the same Ganga.'
- Jawaharlal Nehru, First Prime Minister of India, born in Allahabad on the Ganges. Ganges River: Ganges River Ganges River: Ganges River Climate: Climate The people of India can thank the Himalayas for their warm climate as these mountains block cold northern air from entering India. As a result, most places in India are warm or hot most of the year.
Monsoons are another important influence on India’s climate. Climate: Climate Monsoon (derived from mausium, Arabic for 'season'), are winds that changes direction with the change of seasons.
Monsoons occur primarily within India and SE Asia, but also to a lesser degree in portions of all other continents except Antarctica. Climate: Climate Most of India has three seasons – cool, hot, and rainy.
The cool season begins in November and lasts through February.
The hot season from March through April is the result of monsoon winds from the north bringing dry air.
The rainy season from May through October – Monsoon winds reverse and bring moist air from the Indian Ocean. Climate: Climate The change of wind direction is caused by the differences in temperatures of landmasses in contrast to that of oceans.
For example, the dry, or winter, monsoon of Asia is largely the result of an area of high pressure that develops over S Siberia. From this area dry winds blow outward, crossing India from northeast to southwest and SE Asia from north to south. Climate: Climate The wet, or summer monsoon is caused by low pressure that develops over South Asia as the landmass warms. Moisture-laden air over the oceans is drawn toward this center of low pressure. The air cools as it ascends the slopes of mountain barriers; it can no longer retain moisture, resulting in heavy rainfall. Slide29: Climate: Climate Human/Environmental Interaction: Human/Environmental Interaction The Economy Economy: Economy Agriculture and industry are equally important to India’s economy. The government of India has set up plans to increase the production of farm and industrial goods.
The goal is to improve the overall standard of living for India’s people. Agriculture: Agriculture Agriculture: Agriculture
Most of India’s best farmland lies in the Ganges Plain and the Deccan Plateau.
In both places you will see many farmers working small plots of land. Agriculture: Agriculture Agriculture: Agriculture
India is the world’s second largest producer of rice. Industry and Mining: Industry and Mining Huge factories in India turn out cotton textiles and produce iron and steel.
Oil and sugar refineries loom over the industrial landscape of many cities.
Other factories produce locomotives, cars, cement, and chemical products. Industry and Mining : Industry and Mining India’s mica mines produce much of the worlds supply of this mineral.
Industry and Mining: Industry and Mining Cottage industries are also the source of many Indian products.
A cottage industry is based in a rural village where family members use their own equipment.
Goods produced in cottage industries include cotton cloth, silk cloth, rugs, leather products, and metal ware. India must continue to open its markets for the economy to grow.: India must continue to open its markets for the economy to grow. The People: The People = 50,000,000: = 50,000,000 India
States The People: The People India has more the 988 million people.
It is the worlds second largest country in population. Only China is larger.
The People: The People
The people of India speak 14 major languages and more than 1,000 other languages and dialects.
Hindi is India’s official language, but English is commonly spoken in government and business. Influences of the Past: Influences of the Past About 4,000 years ago, the first Indian civilization was built in present day Pakistan.
About 1500 B.C.E. warriors known as Aryans entered the subcontinent from central Asia. Influences of the Past: Influences of the Past The Aryans forced many Indian peoples to move southward.
The Aryans brought Hinduism and the traditional system of social grouping to India’s culture. Influences of the Past: Influences of the Past Beginning in the 700s, Muslims from Southwest Asia brought Islam to India.
In the 1500s the Mogul [MOH•guhl] Empire, which lasted for more than 200 years, was founded. Influences of the Past: Influences of the Past The British ruled large areas of India from the 1700s to the mid-1900s.
They built roads, railroads, and seaports that increased India’s rate of development. Influences of the Past: Influences of the Past An Indian leader named Mohandas Gandhi led a movement that brought India independence from the United Kingdom in 1947.
Since independence, India has been a democracy.
Religion: Religion About 80 percent of India’s people are Hindus.
Hindus believe that all living things have souls that belong to one eternal spirit.
After the body dies, the soul is reborn and returns to the earth. This process s repeated many times until the soul reaches perfection in a higher state of existence. Religion: Religion Islam claims many followers in India.
India’s 140 million Muslims form one of the largest Muslim populations in the world.
Other religions in India are Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism, and Christianity. Religions of South Asia: Religions of South Asia Slide53: The Arts:
Religion has influenced the arts of India.
The Arts The Arts: The Arts Ancient Hindu builders constructed temples with tall, elaborately carved towers. The Arts: The Arts Hindu writers left stories, poems, and legends.
The Arts: The Arts Hindu artists developed dances and music that are still performed today. The Arts: The Arts The Arts: The Arts Muslims have added to India’s artistic heritage also.
One of the finest Muslim buildings in India is the Taj Mahal.
A monument built by a ruler in the mid-1600s as a memorial to his beloved wife. Islamic Contributions : Taj Mahal : Agra is famous as being home to one of the seven wonders of the world-the Taj Mahal.
Sikandara : A suburb of Agra, the last resting place of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. Akbar was the greatest of the Mughal emperors and one of the most secular minded royalists of his time. Islamic Contributions The Arts: The Arts
By the 1800s European influences affected the arts of India.
Today Indian arts reflect a blend of both East and West, old and new. Slide62: Original watercolor of Bufton Park, Fyzabad, (Eastern India) by an amateur English artist
(Size 10' x 7').
One example of watercolors of Indian interest.
European influences Slide63: Slide64:
India makes more movies than any other country in the world.
Action, adventure, and romance movies are the most popular forms of entertainment in India today. Bollywood: Bollywood Movies occupy a special place in the hearts of the Indian people. Indian cinema is rich with scenes from the lifestyle and culture of daily life.
More than 20 million people watch an average of one movie daily in 13,000 theaters throughout the country. With a population over one billion, India continues to offer the movie industry an exceptional opportunity for growth. Slide66: Bollywood Dreams : Bollywood Dreams Daily Life: Daily Life Daily Life: Daily Life About 74 percent of India’s people live in rural villages.
Some villagers live in brick homes, which others live in mud-and-straw shelters.
Daily Life: Daily Life The Indian government has made attempts to improve access to electricity, drinking water, schooling, and roads in recent years.
Still, large numbers of people continue to move from rural to urban areas. Daily Life: Daily Life India's cities are very crowded.
Delhi, Calcutta, and Mumbai (formerly Bombay) contain more than 5 million people each. Daily Life: Daily Life Modern high rise apartment and office buildings coexist with the poverty of slums.
Bicycle carts, animals and people fill the narrow streets lined by small family owned shops. New Delhi: New Delhi Lotus Temple Chandni Chowk States of India: States of India Discover India: Discover India