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Developmental Psychology for Sport Scientists (2): 

Developmental Psychology for Sport Scientists (2) PS1112 Introduction To Psychology In Sport Mike Eslea 29 March 2007


Outline Attachment Play Morality Aggression Sex-role development

Learning Objectives: 

Learning Objectives To apply the cognitive developmental perspective (covered last week) to a variety of aspects of development To examine in more detail some aspects of development particularly relevant to sports




Definitions ATTACHMENT: 'A close emotional relationship between two persons, characterised by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity' (Shaffer) ATTACHMENT THEORY: 'Many forms of psychiatric disturbance can be attributed to deviations in the development of attachment' (Bowlby)

Development Of Attachments(Schaffer & Emerson, 1964): 

Development Of Attachments (Schaffer andamp; Emerson, 1964) Asocial Stage (0-6 weeks) Respond equally to social and non-social stimuli Indiscriminate Attachments (up to 6/7 months) Prefer social stimuli, but don’t mind who it is Specific Attachments (7-9 months) Attach to one figure, usually mother Multiple Attachments (a few weeks later) Develop attachments with other carers

Quality Of Attachments: 

Quality Of Attachments Secure attachment About 65% of US children Happy to explore when carer present Happy with strangers when carer present Anxious when separated Warm greeting on reunion Child welcomes physical contact with carer

Quality Of Attachments 2: 

Quality Of Attachments 2 Resistant attachment One type of insecure attachment Approx 10% of US children Stay near carer and explore very little Wary of strangers, even when carer present Very distressed by separation But seem resentful and resist contact upon reunion

Quality Of Attachment 3: 

Quality Of Attachment 3 Avoidant attachment Another insecure type of attachment Approx 20% of US children No signs of stranger anxiety No signs of separation anxiety Often ignore carer upon reunion

Quality Of Attachment 4: 

Quality Of Attachment 4 Disorganised or Disoriented attachment The most insecure attachment pattern Approx 5-10% of US children A mixture of resistant and avoidant responses May alternate between clinging to and avoiding carer Confused, dazed or sometimes frozen appearance upon reunion

What Causes Differences In Quality Of Attachment?: 

What Causes Differences In Quality Of Attachment? The caregiving hypothesis (Ainsworth, 1979) Secure attachments arise from close, expressive, stable, sensitive parenting Insecure attachments are caused by inconsistent, impatient or over-zealous parenting Disorganised attachment may be a response to previous episodes of neglect or abuse (Main andamp; Solomon, 1990)

Differences In Attachment 2: 

Differences In Attachment 2 The temperament hypothesis (Kagan, 1984) Quality of attachment depends primarily on the temperament of the child: Easy temperament =andgt; Secure attachment Difficult temperament =andgt; Resistant attachment Slow temperament =andgt; Avoidant attachment Conclusion: attachment depends on the interaction of caregiving and temperament, but caregiving is the primary determinant



Peer Relations And Play: 

Peer Relations And Play Up to 6 months: solo play 6-12 months: parallel play social facilitation (the 'ZPD') 12-18 months: simple pretend play 18-36 months: complimentary andamp; reciprocal play 36+ months: complex social play

The “Zone Of Proximal Development”: 

The 'Zone Of Proximal Development' A key concept discovered by Lev Vygotsky If an average golf player wanted to improve as rapidly as possible, who should they play with? A mate they can usually beat A mate who usually beats them Tiger Woods

The Importance Of PlayIsaacs (1929): 

The Importance Of Play Isaacs (1929) 'Play is indeed the child’s work, and the means whereby he grows and develops. Active play can be looked upon as a sign of mental health; and its absence either of some inborn defect or of mental illness.' Some aspects of play DO correlate with other important characteristics: Creativity (Hutt andamp; Bhavnani 1972), Intelligence (Johnson 1982), Social competence (Connolly andamp; Doyle 1984)

The “Idealization” Of PlaySutton-Smith & Kelly-Byrne (1984): 

The 'Idealization' Of Play Sutton-Smith andamp; Kelly-Byrne (1984) Sutton-Smith and Kelly-Byrne argue that children’s play is often Unpleasant Forced Rigid Dysfunctional Savage How does ADULT play fit into this argument?



Piaget’s Theory Of Morality: 

Piaget’s Theory Of Morality Based on games of marbles with children of various ages Presented children with moral dilemmas: John breaks 15 cups while helping his mother... Henry breaks 1 cup while stealing jam... Children under 6 are 'Premoral' Two stages of morality Moral realism (heteronomous morality) 6-10 Moral relativism (autonomous morality) 10+

Moral Realism: 

Moral Realism Rules are unbreakable, laid down from above Being 'right' means following the rules Naughtiness is related to outcome Breaking 15 cups deserves stronger punishment than breaking 1 cup, whatever the circumstances Punishment is inevitable: 'Immanent Justice' Suggested punishments bear no relation to the 'crimes' being punished

Moral Relativism: 

Moral Relativism Rules can be challenged or even changed, and are subservient to human needs Naughtiness is related to intent Breaking 1 cup while stealing is worse than breaking 15 when trying to be helpful Punishments are 'reciprocal' Relativism develops as egocentrism declines encouraged by same-status peer contact discouraged by parent authoritarianism



Development Of Aggression 1: 

Development Of Aggression 1 Infancy: Instrumental Aggression and Unfocused Tantrums Very young babies use aggression 'to remove obstructions' (Piaget 1952) One year-olds 'quite forceful' in order to control toys (Caplan 1991) Two year-olds have more conflicts, but are more likely to negotiate or share rather than fight (Caplan 1991). This may be how we learn social skills (Hay 1984)

Development Of Aggression 2: 

Development Of Aggression 2 Preschool: Increasingly Hostile Aggression More likely to demand toys that others are playing with, even if they then throw them away (Hay andamp; Ross 1982) or if a duplicate toy is available (Caplan 1991) Unfocused tantrums become more directed towards specific people, especially playmates (Goodenough 1931) Physical aggression replaced by verbal aggression and retaliation (Hartup 1974)

Development Of Aggression 3:Crime & Delinquency: 

Development Of Aggression 3: Crime andamp; Delinquency Middle Childhood Onwards: Individual Differences In Aggression Stable patterns of aggression from childhood to adolescence and adulthood (Farrington 1994) For example, aggressive eight year-olds are more likely to become violent criminals by age thirty (Huesmann et al 1984) Greater range and sophistication of aggressive acts available to older people

Sex Role Development: 

Sex Role Development

The Development Of Sex Typing: 

The Development Of Sex Typing Three aspects of development 1. Gender identity Developing a gender concept and placing oneself in one category 2. Sex-role stereotypes Developing ideas about what males and females are like 3. Sex-typed behaviour Developing patterns of 'appropriate' behaviour

Development Of Gender Identity: 

Between six months and one year: Recognise male and female voices Discriminate photos of male and female adults 2-3 years: Correctly use terms 'mummy' andamp; 'daddy' first, then 'boy' andamp; 'girl' Accurately label selves as boy or girl 5-7 years: Realise that gender is fixed and unchanging Development Of Gender Identity

Development Of Stereotypes: 

Development Of Stereotypes Some evidence of stereotypes in 2-3 year-olds (Kuhn et al, 1978) Girls play with dolls and help mummy cook, boys play with cars and help daddy build things 3-7 year old 'gender chauvinists' believe sex-roles to be hard and fast rules May exaggerate gender roles as part of clarifying their own gender identity (Maccoby, 1980)

Development Of Stereotypes 2: 

Development Of Stereotypes 2 8-9 year olds become more flexible, realising that sex-roles are customary but not obligatory (Damon, 1977) 12-15 year olds again become 'gender chauvinists' (Stoddart andamp; Turiel, 1985) This 'gender intensification' may serve to clarify roles in order to facilitate new relationships with the opposite sex Older adolescents eventually return to greater flexibility

Gender Chauvinism In Childhood: 

Gender Chauvinism In Childhood Moral Gender How Bad Is....? Age

Development Of Sex-Typed Behaviour: 

Development Of Sex-Typed Behaviour Children prefer sex-appropriate toys at only 14 months (Smith andamp; Dalglish, 1977) 2-3 year olds begin to select mostly same-sex playmates, until by age 6 same-sex outnumber opposite-sex by ten to one 10-11 year olds who maintain clear 'gender segregation' are rated more competent and popular by peers (Sroufe, 1993)


Conclusions A developmental perspective can provide us with valuable insights into the psychology underpinning sports behaviour Many aspects of adult personality, including aggression and moral thinking, can be traced back to roots in childhood experience But we should be aware of huge cultural differences, particularly regarding sex roles, morality and play

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