Ph 6 Logic

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By: jucarta (96 month(s) ago)

nice implication

By: jucarta (96 month(s) ago)

nice implication

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Notes, Etc. : 

Notes, Etc. 1. Reading for Monday: Argument. 2. Class webpage: www.csus.edu/indiv/f/freelove on the webpage . . . syllabus Argument reading assignment list class info 3. Everything in Argument is testable on future quizzes and the final exam. 4. Today's slides will be posted to the class webpage.

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I. Reasoning, Inference, and Logic

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All human beings are mammals. All mammals are animals.

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All human beings are mammals. All mammals are animals. ?

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All human beings are mammals. All mammals are animals. All human beings are animals. "inferring" "reasoning" reasoning: recognizing, or judging, that if one or some propositions are true, then another must be true or is probably true.

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All cats are dogs. All dogs fly. reasoning: recognizing, or judging, that if one or some propositions are true, then another must be true or is probably true.

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All cats are dogs. All dogs fly. All cats fly. reasoning: recognizing, or judging, that if one or some propositions are true, then another must be true or is probably true.

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No cats are dogs. reasoning: recognizing, or judging, that if one or some propositions are true, then another must be true or is probably true.

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No cats are dogs. No dogs are cats. reasoning: recognizing, or judging, that if one or some propositions are true, then another must be true or is probably true.

Good and Bad Inferences: 

Good and Bad Inferences

Good and Bad Inferences: 

Good and Bad Inferences All human beings are mammals. All mammals are animals. All human beings are animals.

Good and Bad Inferences: 

Good and Bad Inferences All human beings are mammals. All human beings are mammals All mammals are animals. All mammals are animals. All human beings are animals. Every student owns a car.

Good and Bad Inferences: 

Good and Bad Inferences All human beings are mammals. All human beings are mammals All mammals are animals. All mammals are animals. All human beings are animals. Every student owns a car. No cats are dogs. No dogs are cats.

Good and Bad Inferences: 

Good and Bad Inferences All human beings are mammals. All human beings are mammals All mammals are animals. All mammals are animals. All human beings are animals. Every student owns a car. No cats are dogs. No cats are dogs. No dogs are cats. Some dogs are cats.

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All cats are dogs. All dogs fly. All cats fly. reasoning: recognizing, or judging, that if one or some propositions are true, then another must be true or is probably true.

Logic: 

Logic The study of good and bad inference. Aristotle (384-322 BC) The first logician.

Reasoning and Knowledge: 

Reasoning and Knowledge

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All human beings are mammals. All mammals are animals. All human beings are animals. true propositions correct inference Reasoning and Knowledge

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All human beings are mammals. All mammals are animals. All human beings are animals. true propositions correct inference Reasoning and Knowledge false propositions correct inference All cats are dogs. All dogs fly. All cats fly.

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All human beings are mammals. All mammals are animals. All human beings are animals. true propositions correct inference Reasoning and Knowledge false propositions correct inference All cats are dogs. All dogs fly. All cats fly. All human beings are mammals. All mammals are animals. Every student owns a car. true incorrect inference

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All human beings are mammals. All mammals are animals. All human beings are animals. true propositions correct inference Reasoning and Knowledge false propositions correct inference All cats are dogs. All dogs fly. All cats fly. All human beings are mammals. All mammals are animals. Every student owns a car. true incorrect inference Questions? Comments?

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II. Arguments

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. An argument is set of propositions, one of which, the conclusion, is taken by someone to be supported by the rest, the premises.

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. All human beings are mammals. All mammals are animals. All human beings are animals. An argument is set of propositions, one of which, the conclusion, is taken by someone to be supported by the rest, the premises.

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. All human beings are mammals. All mammals are animals. All human beings are animals. An argument is set of propositions, one of which, the conclusion, is taken by someone to be supported by the rest, the premises. premises conclusion

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. All human beings are mammals. All mammals are animals. All human beings are animals. An argument is set of propositions, one of which, the conclusion, is taken by someone to be supported by the rest, the premises. premises conclusion Why are arguments important? 1. They are a means by which we can adopt beliefs that are true. 2. We express arguments to persuade others to adopt beliefs that are true.

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Two important activities of the course . . . 1. Identifying arguments. 2. Evaluating arguments.

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III. Identifying Arguments

Common Indicator Words : 

Common Indicator Words

Common Indicator Words : 

Common Indicator Words conclusion indicators hence thus so therefore consequently in conclusion

Common Indicator Words : 

Common Indicator Words conclusion indicators hence thus so therefore consequently in conclusion premise indicators for since because for the reason that given that

Common Indicator Words : 

Common Indicator Words conclusion indicators hence C(onclusion) thus C so C therefore C consequently C in conclusion C premise indicators for P(remise) since P because P for the reason that P given that P

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"Well, but look, you have to agree that Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq. For, either Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq, or else they are still in Iraq. But, they are not in Iraq. Hence, they were shipped out of Iraq."

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"Well, but look, you have to agree that Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq. For, either Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq, or else they are still in Iraq. But, they are not in Iraq. Hence, they were shipped out of Iraq." conclusion indicators hence thus so therefore consequently in conclusion premise indicators for since because for the reason that given that

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"Well, but look, you have to agree that Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq. For, either Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq, or else they are still in Iraq. But, they are not in Iraq. Hence, they were shipped out of Iraq." Either Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq, premise or else they are still in Iraq. Saddam's WMD were shipped out of Iraq. conclusion inference bar

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"Well, but look, you have to agree that Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq. For, either Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq, or else they are still in Iraq. But, they are not in Iraq. Hence, they were shipped out of Iraq." Either Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq, premise or else they are still in Iraq. Saddam's WMD are not in Iraq. premise Saddam's WMD were shipped out of Iraq. conclusion inference bar

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"Well, but look, you have to agree that Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq. For, either Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq, or else they are still in Iraq. But, they are not in Iraq. Hence, they were shipped out of Iraq." (1) Either Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq, or else they are still in Iraq. (2) Saddam's WMD are not in Iraq. (3) Saddam's WMD were shipped out of Iraq. "standard form"

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"Well, but look, you have to agree that Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq. For, either Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq, or else they are still in Iraq. But, they are not in Iraq. Hence, they were shipped out of Iraq." P1. Either Saddam shipped his WMD out of Iraq, or else they are still in Iraq. P2. Saddam's WMD are not in Iraq. C. Saddam's WMD were shipped out of Iraq. "standard form"

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Maria: It's going to rain. John: It's perfectly clear outside! Why think that? Maria: Because Cody Stark on Ch. 13 forecasts rain for tomorrow, and he never gets it wrong.

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Maria: It's going to rain. John: It's perfectly clear outside! Why think that? Maria: Because Cody Stark on Ch. 13 forecasts rain for tomorrow, and he never gets it wrong. conclusion indicators hence thus so therefore consequently in conclusion premise indicators for since because for the reason that given that

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Maria: It's going to rain. John: It's perfectly clear outside! Why think that? Maria: Because Cody Stark on Ch. 13 forecasts rain for tomorrow, and he never gets it wrong. Cody Stark on Ch. 13 forecasts rain for tomorrow. premise ---------------------

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Maria: It's going to rain. John: It's perfectly clear outside! Why think that? Maria: Because Cody Stark on Ch. 13 forecasts rain for tomorrow, and he never gets it wrong. Cody Stark on Ch. 13 forecasts rain for tomorrow. premise --------------------- It's going to rain. conclusion

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Maria: It's going to rain. John: It's perfectly clear outside! Why think that? Maria: Because Cody Stark on Ch. 13 forecasts rain for tomorrow, and he never gets it wrong. Cody Stark on Ch. 13 forecasts rain for tomorrow. premise Cody Stark never gets the weather wrong. premise --------------------- It's going to rain. conclusion

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"The flight from Orange County arrives at 3:00 pm. Your rental car will be available at 2:50. The key is available at the Hertz counter."

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"The flight from Orange County arrives at 3:00 pm. Your rental car will be available at 2:50. The key is available at the Hertz counter." conclusion indicators hence thus so therefore consequently in conclusion premise indicators for since because for the reason that given that

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"The flight from Orange County arrives at 3:00 pm. Your rental car will be available at 2:50. The key is available at the Hertz counter."

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"The flight from Orange County arrives at 3:00 pm. Your rental car will be available at 2:50. The key is available at the Hertz counter." An argument is set of propositions, one of which, the conclusion, is taken by someone to be supported by the rest, the premises.

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"Catherine owns a computer, since all students at State U. own computers."

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"Catherine owns a computer, since all students at State U. own computers." conclusion indicators hence thus so therefore consequently in conclusion premise indicators for since because for the reason that given that

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"Catherine owns a computer, since all students at State U. own computers." All students at State U. own computers. premise ------------------------------

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"Catherine owns a computer, since all students at State U. own computers." All students at State U. own computers. premise ------------------------------ Catherine owns a computer. conclusion

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"Catherine owns a computer, since all students at State U. own computers." Catherine is a student at State U. "hidden premise" All students at State U. own computers. premise ------------------------------ Catherine owns a computer. conclusion

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"Catherine owns a computer, since all students at State U. own computers." State U. mandates that all the non-student sisters of any student who owns a computer must own a computer. State U's mandates are always followed. Catherine is not a student at State U. Catherine's sister, Jennifer is a student at State U. All students at State U. own computers. premise ------------------------------ Catherine owns a computer. conclusion

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"Catherine owns a computer, since all students at State U. own computers." Catherine is a student at State U. "hidden premise" All students at State U. own computers. premise ------------------------------ Catherine owns a computer. conclusion

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Questions? Comments?

Review: 

Review

Review: 

Review What is an argument?

Review: 

Review What is an argument? What two kinds of propositions make up an argument?

Review: 

Review What is an argument? What two kinds of propositions make up an argument? What are common conclusion indicators?

Review: 

Review What is an argument? What two kinds of propositions make up an argument? What are common conclusion indicators? What are common premise indicators?

Review: 

Review What is an argument? What two kinds of propositions make up an argument? What are common conclusion indicators? What are common premise indicators? True or False? When reconstructing an argument in standard form, the conclusion is placed above the "inference bar".

Review: 

Review What is an argument? What two kinds of propositions make up an argument? What are common conclusion indicators? What are common premise indicators? True or False? When reconstructing an argument in standard form, the conclusion is placed above the "inference bar".

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