02 Human body

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200 hour yoga teacher training in rishikesh, India registered with Yoga Alliance, USA, based on Hatha and Ashtanga Yoga organized by affiliated yoga schools of Rishikesh Yog Peeth - RYS 200, 500.


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Human body :

Human body Levels of Organization CHEMICAL LEVEL - includes all chemical substances necessary for life CELLULAR LEVEL - cells are the basic structural and functional units of the human body & there are many different types of cells (e.g., muscle, nerve, blood, and so on) TISSUE LEVEL - a tissue is a group of cells that perform a specific function and the basic types of tissues in the human body include epithelial, muscle, nervous, and connective tissues ORGAN LEVEL - an organ consists of 2 or more tissues that perform a particular function (e.g., heart, liver, stomach, and so on) SYSTEM LEVEL - an association of organs that have a common function; the major systems in the human body include Digestive, Nervous, Endocrine, Circulatory, Respiratory, Urinary, Lymphatic and Reproductive……..

The Cell:

The Cell The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living, and is often called the building bricks of life. Some organisms, such as most bacteria, are unicellular (consist of a single cell). Humans, are multicellular. (Humans have an estimated 100 trillion cells; a typical cell size is 10 µm; a typical cell mass is 1 nanogram.) All cells come from pre-existing cells. Vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells. There are two types of cells that make up all living things on earth: Prokaryotic cells , like bacteria, have no 'nucleus'. Eukaryotic cells , like those of the human body, do. So, a human cell is enclosed by a cell, or plasma, membrane. Enclosed by that membrane is the cytoplasm (with associated organelles) plus a nucleus………..

Cell Organelles :

Cell Organelles Nucleus: The organelle that determines all of cell activities and produces new cells. Centrosome: Regulator of cell-cycle progression. Cell Membrane: A covering that hold the cell together and separates it from surroundings. Endoplasmic Reticulum: Protein translation, folding, and transport. Cytoplasm: A jelly like substance that contains many chemicals to keep the cell functions. Golgi: Delivery system for the cell. Ribosome: Assembles proteins. Mitochondria: Organelles that releases energy from food………….


COMPONENTS OF THE CELL Water: comprises 60 - 90% of most living organisms (and cells), important because it serves as an excellent solvent & enters into many metabolic reactions Ions (atoms or molecules with unequal numbers of electrons and protons) : found in both intra- & extra cellular fluid, examples of important ions include sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride Carbohydrates: about 3% of the dry mass of a typical cell composed of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen atoms (glucose), an important source of energy for cells Lipids: about 40% of the dry mass of a typical cell composed largely of carbon & hydrogen generally insoluble in water Proteins: about 50 - 60% of the dry mass of a typical cell sub-unit is the amino acid & amino acids are linked by peptide bonds Nucleic Acids: DNA, RNA (including mRNA, tRNA, & rRNA)………….

Cells: Size & Shape:

Cells: Size & Shape Size and Shape depend upon its function. Red blood cells are small and disc shaped to fit through the smallest blood vessel. Muscle cells are long and thin. When they contract they produce movement. Nerve cells which carry signals to the brain are very long.

The Tissues :

The Tissues Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism. Hence, a tissue is an ensemble of cells Tissues can be grouped into four basic types. Multiple tissue types comprise organs and body structures Connective tissue , Muscle tissue, Nervous tissue , Epithelial tissue………

The Organs:

The Organs an Organ is a collection of tissues joined in structural unit to serve a common function…………..

The cell, Tissues, Organs & Systems:

The cell, Tissues, Organs & Systems Cells that work together to perform a specific function form a tissue. Just as cells that work together form a tissue, tissues that work together form an organ. Organs that work together to perform a function form a system. Example: circulatory system. Plant cells also form tissues, such as the bark of a tree. And plant cells work together, forming organs, such as roots and leaves……..

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