Chapter 5 From Intersection to Collision

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Chapter 5 From Intersection to Collision: Women’s Sport 1920 –1980: 

Chapter 5 From Intersection to Collision: Women’s Sport 1920 –1980 Stevie Chepko & Lynn Couturier notes by N. Bailey from Women in Sport, Greta Cohen, Ed.

Women’s & Men’s Worlds Collide: 

Women’s & Men’s Worlds Collide Greater prosperity, voting rights, sexual mores changing, social mobility growing, access to education Homosocial world of their grandparents made little sense now Men and women brought together as friends in schools, churches, and in recreational settings

The 60’s movement: 

The 60’s movement Following the Black Civil Rights Movement of the 50’s women questioned assumptions about gender roles Demanded equality in government, schools, employment, in the family Questioned gender stereotypes Changed the world forever

Intersecting Worlds: 

Intersecting Worlds WWI women took men’s jobs and services Occupations still gendered Consumer culture growing YMCA included men, YWCA excluded men Family ties important for the YM

Transition Period: 

Transition Period Women’s organizations became subsumed under men’s organizations: YMCA & YWCA pattern for later: AIAW and NCAA 1920’s symbolized a new sexuality The flapper era

Sexologists and Sport: 

Sexologists and Sport The sexual revolution put men and women together in governmental, recreational, school settings. New generation of feminists rejected female solidarity and the homosocial world of previous generations Only heterosexual sex is acceptable; homosocial was suspect as homosexual

Krafft-Ebing Sexologist: 

Krafft-Ebing Sexologist Girls should avoid certain behavior in order to avoid Uranism He described what we would call a “tomboy” today and claimed that those girls have a masculine soul and were suspect Sexual freedom a double edged sword for the older generation of women

How Marriage Changed: 

How Marriage Changed The Victorian marriage gave way to ideal of companionship and emotional intimacy New model removed earlier feminists argument against marriage College women now began marrying at higher rates than earlier. Mrs. Degree

Enforced Heterosexual Stereotype: 

Enforced Heterosexual Stereotype Example of the Babe being femme Dress, makeup, hairdo, etc. Sex identity tested in female Olympians Since the Babe’s time, female athletes continue to think it wise to present a feminine image If challenge the image get labeled

Industrial Leagues: 

Industrial Leagues Working class women Companies used sport for health promotion YWCA sponsored competitions Married women didn’t much participate because of domestic duties and social expectations Leagues remained past the depression

Class Issues: 

Class Issues Working class women could participate in team sports Middle and upper class women played golf, tennis, archery, Women’s sport stars emerged AAU furnished women Olympians Women stars didn’t challenge the male sporting world – were the exception

Olympic Participation: 

Olympic Participation Establishment of the Modern Olympics tried to exclude women Women’s place was in the stands cheering on their males Welfare capitalism of the corporations put women into the Olympics Over the objections of the women physical educators

African American Women’s Sport Experience: 

African American Women’s Sport Experience Through traditionally black schools and colleges Men usually served as coaches Much like the Negro League in baseball, African American women organized regional and national competition in various sports

Tidye Pickett & Louise Stokes: 

Tidye Pickett & Louise Stokes Qualified for the Olympic relay team but were replaced by white women who hadn’t qualified – 1932 They competed in 1936 without much training or coaching Jesse Owens received widespread support and training

Tuskegee Relays: 

Tuskegee Relays Beginning in 1927 the Tuskegee Relays showcased African American men in track and field, golf, tennis in H.S. and College. Women shared in the relays in 1929 First African American gold Olympic medal was won by a woman: Alice Coachman

Pride, Purpose, and Visibility: 

Pride, Purpose, and Visibility Black colleges allowed women to participate in sport and celebrated their success Tennessee State coach raised the standard: recruiting, year ‘round practice, financial support Sport for women: an opportunity for education and economic advancement

Women & World War II Era: 

Women & World War II Era The war effort The Al American Baseball Girls Baseball League Postwar – Women told to go home G.I Bill sent women to college Women retuning to college after family raised was started with this generation

The Cold War: 

The Cold War American women could stay home and take care of the family Russian women had to work Old notions of appropriate roles remained even though women and men intersected in the workplace, social settings and in sport

The Inevitable Collision: 

The Inevitable Collision Women’s Liberation of the 1960’s The Women’s Sports Movement Battle for equality Billie Jean King increased prize money Organizations that recognized race: National Black Feminist Organization, Las Chicanas, The National Welfare Rights Organization, Indian women’s movement

Battles for Equality Raged: 

Battles for Equality Raged Sport mirrored the women’s movement in the larger culture Left DGWS for AIAW activism Title IX enacted 1972 Strides have been made But we’re not there yet Still not in compliance

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