FMDHolland2

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FMD: 

FMD State Veterinarian Sam Holland SD Animal Industry Board, Pierre, SD

HISTORY: 

HISTORY Centuries in Europe, Middle East, Africa, South America Perpetuated through Livestock and Product Movement Endemic in “Less Developed” Countries — Economics - Management Ability — Culture - Education — Infrastructure - Economic and Culture-Related

Map of Outbreak: 

Map of Outbreak

Transmission: 

Transmission Contact between animals Exhaled air contains a large amount of aerosol virus All excretions and secretions can contain virus Milk and semen up to 4 days before clinical infection Aerosol FMD virus can spread a considerable distance as a plume, esp. if humidity is >60% and typography doesn’t cause turbulence Spread by non-susceptible wildlife such as birds and dogs unlikely

Signs of FMD: 

Signs of FMD Ruptured blisters on nose mouth, and tongue of cow. Vesicle at the end of cow’s teat.

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FMD “Recent” North American Experience : 

FMD “Recent” North American Experience 1952 - Type A Near Regina, Canada - 24 premises slaughtered buried in 5 1/2 feet frozen ground (February) - April - repeat case within 50 miles of U.S. Border - stamped out 6000 cattle imported to the U.S. during the time were quarantined - LUCKED OUT! German visitor incriminated clothing or sausage. 1914-1918 Chicago Stockyards 18 States 13 Stockyards Closed Injunctions against slaughter in Illinois

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1924 - California 900 herds 22,000 deer killed by U.S. Army 1929 - California < 3,500 animals destroyed 1946 - 1954 - > U.S./ Mexican Stamp-out effort > 60 mile buffer zone still exists across the Panama Canal U.S.

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8,000 Cattle from 18 States & Canada CATTLE IMPORTS April 14 - 20

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438,137 Cattle from 46 States 2000 ANNUAL CATTLE IMPORTS

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19,000 Swine From 10 States & Canada SWINE IMPORTS April 14 - 20

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997,800 Swine From 46 States 2000 ANNUAL SWINE IMPORTS

Governor Janklow’s South Dakota Contingency Plan For FMD : 

Governor Janklow’s South Dakota Contingency Plan For FMD Animal Health Emergency Plan - 1998 - Background I Prevent II Prepare III Respond - Recover

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FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE ADVISORY A worldwide spread of Foot and Mouth Disease seriously threatens the livestock industry and wildlife populations of our country and our state. People traveling to countries where livestock are affected by Foot and Mouth Disease are capable of carrying the virus on their persons, clothing, luggage or other inanimate objects. Any planned travel to countries where this disease exists must be reconsidered in light of the potential threat to South Dakota’s huge livestock economy and that of the United States.

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Every effort should be made to suspend travel to and from countries with livestock affected by Foot and Mouth Disease. Prior to any planned travel abroad please call to determine the FMD status of that country: South Dakota State Veterinarian’s office (605) 773-3321 Or US Department of Agriculture, Veterinary Services, Pierre, SD (605) 224-6186

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RECOMMENDATIONS: ABSOLUTELY NO TRAVEL TO OR FROM COUNTRIES WITH LIVESTOCK AFFECTED BY FMD UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE. SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR FARM VISITORS FROM ALL FOREIGN COUNTRIES: (1) NO VISITS to farms, sale barns, stockyards, animal laboratories, packinghouses, zoos, fairs or other animal facilities for 5 days prior to travel. (2) Before travel to the United States, launder or dry-clean all clothing and outerwear. All dirt and soil should be removed from shoes by thorough cleaning prior to wiping with cloth dampened with a bleach solution. (5 teaspoons of household bleach in 1 gallon of water). Luggage and personal items (including watches, cameras, laptops, CD players and cell phones), if soiled, should be wiped with a cloth dampened with a bleach solution.

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(3) NO CONTACT with livestock or wildlife for 5 days after arrival in the United States. Extra precautionary measures should be taken by people traveling from farms in infected locales to visit or work on farms in the United States. It is advisable that employers or sponsors provide arriving travelers with a clean set of clothing that can be worn after the visitor showers and shampoos thoroughly. Visitor’s traveling clothes should be laundered or dry-cleaned immediately. Off-farm activities should be scheduled for the visitor’s first 5 days in country and contact with livestock or wildlife should be strictly avoided.

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FMD is not considered a human health risk but humans can carry the virus on their clothing, shoes, body (particularly the throat and nasal passages) and personal items. The disease is extremely contagious and spreads easily among cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, and deer. Introduction of FMD into this country would be disastrous to the American livestock industry and wildlife community. For this reason all visits to farms or other livestock facilities in FMD infected areas and all food items and other materials of plant or animal origin in the traveler’s possession must be reported on the US Customs Declaration Form upon entering the country.

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NOTE: Countries with outbreaks in recent weeks include: Great Britain, Ireland, France, Netherlands, Argentina NOTICE: Should anyone traveling from a country with FMD into South Dakota and visit a farm in violation of the 5 day NO CONTACT PERIOD: The entire premise WILL BE QUARANTINED and no movement off the premise will be allowed without disinfection and permit by the State Veterinarian. This is all-inclusive including vehicles and persons. (END OF ADVISORY)

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(FMD PAMPHLET) FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE FACTS: Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is caused by a fast-spreading virus, and all cloven-footed animals are susceptible to the disease. Nearly 100% of the animals in an exposed herd will become ill, and young animals may die from the disease. *FMD does not affect people (only certain animals). These animals would include: *Cattle *Buffalo *Sheep/Goats *Elk and Deer *Swine *Any other split-toe animals

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What does FMD look like? Blisters (vesicles) may form in the animal’s mouth or muzzle, causing slobbering and drooling. Later, the blisters will break, forming raw patches or ulcers. Blisters and sores also can develop on the animal’s teats, causing mastitis in dairy cattle. Blisters on the feet result in lameness. Affected animals will be reluctant or unable to drink, eat or walk, and they will lose weight rapidly. Swine and cattle usually will show signs of disease within two to seven days after being exposed to the virus. Sheep and goats may have only minimal clinical signs of disease after an incubation period of up to 14 days.

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FMD Outbreaks Worldwide Foot and Mouth Disease has been diagnosed in 34 countries during the past 18 months. The latest outbreaks have occurred in Great Britain, Northern Ireland, Argentina and France. The only continents currently free of the disease are North America, Australia, and Antarctica. Most of the affected countries are still battling FMD. Outbreaks disrupt animal industry, including the export of animals and animal products. Once infected, animals become “virus factories”. The virus can become airborne and can be breathed in by nearby susceptible animals.

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The disease also can be spread by animal movements, feed, utensils, vehicles, clothing, facilities, raw meat, animal products or milk, wastefood, and meat scraps. Even people, although not affected by the virus, can harbor the FMD virus for a period of time in their respiratory tract and thus act as carriers!

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Economic Impact of FMD Implications of FMD introduction: Consumers can lose confidence in the safety of meat food products, (even though meat is safe). Prohibitions on sale and shipment of animals and animal products. Eradication costs are very high. All animals exposed must be destroyed. Vaccines provide only temporary protection and revaccination needed at six-month intervals. Vaccinated animals must be slaughtered before international trade can be resumed. For at least three months after the eradication of an outbreak – or at least three months after the slaughter of the last vaccinated animal – an affected country is banned from shipping meat or meat products to international trading partners.

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The US has regulations in place to prevent the introduction of FMD infected animals and animal products. But …so did many of the currently affected countries! If you suspect a disease problem, report it immediately to your local veterinarian or regulatory animal health official. In the UK, the disease may have been present for three weeks prior to detection! FMD spreads fast! Early detection and reporting are critical. Don’t move animals that may be affected! Stop all visitors from entering your premise, if you suspect a problem!

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Traveling abroad? Take precautions: Don’t travel to countries known to have FMD! Avoid contact with animals or areas where animals have been held for at least five days before returning to the US. Before returning to the US, launder or dry-clean all clothing, jackets or coats! If you have visited a farm abroad, or if you’ve traveled and live, work or plan to visit a farm in the US, shower, shampoo, and change into clean clothing. Wash or dry clean clothes – don’t risk taking the FMD virus home on contaminated clothing! Remove all dirt or organic material from shoes, luggage, personal items, etc. Wipe the items with disinfectant. Don’t bring prohibited products home. NO contact with livestock or wildlife for at least five days when you get home! Ask any visitors from FMD affected countries to delay planned visits to US farms.

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Disinfectants for FMD These products can be used effectively to disinfect for FMD: Sodium hydroxide (lye) solution (2 percent). Mix a 13-ounce can in five gallons of water. Sodium carbonate (soda ash) solution (4 percent). Mix one pound in three gallons of water. Citric acid 0.2 percent solution. Acetic acid (vinegar) 2 percent solution. Mix one gallon of vinegar (4 percent) in a gallon of water. Virkon S (Antec International) at a 1:200 dilution. Sodium Hypochlorite (household bleach). Mix three parts bleach to two parts water.

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Don’t Stall! Call! Report suspicious cases immediately! Call the USDA’s Veterinary Services at (605) 224-6186 OR South Dakota’s State Veterinarian at (605) 773-3321.

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I Prevention A) FMD Foreign Travel/Foreign Visitor Policy All educational institutions, public and private All media All Agriculture related contacts All state employees All REAS All Veterinary Pharmaceutical Reps

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B) FMD Informational Packet FMD Pamphlet FMD Fact Sheets Foreign Travel/Foreign Visitor Policy C) FMD Advisory Packet for Veterinarians Information as in A and B Reminder of reporting requirements FMD suspect Cases - Procedures for Containment Notice of potential Deputization D) PUBLIC NOTICES - APPEALS Airports, Ports of Entry, Rest Areas Military E) All State Agencies request to further distribute information F) All State Legislators FMD Pamphlet FMD Advisory

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G) Public Land Agencies - Review & Training on FMD Signage Handouts Website Information Identify international tour operators - info Train staff - video H) Coordinate with USDA Meeting with USDA/VS Staff, Secretary Veneman - Also FSIS, PPQ, FEMA, Import/Export

II Preparation: 

II Preparation A) EARLY DETECTION Meeting with State-wide Industry Leaders a) Review FMD b) Report on recent chronology FMD worldwide c) Biosecurity, health certificates d) Legal Reporting Requirements e) Ensure Leaders distribute FMD Pamphlets/Advisories f) Discuss response scenario & Contingency Plan Training a) State - Federal VMOS 12 veterinarians b) AIB inspectors - information and training (20) inspectors B) Response Management Meeting Visit SEOC, discuss plan Review Plan with Ag, Health, DENR, GFP, DEM

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