HVAC - The Ultimate Guide to HVAC and Its Components


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The Ultimate Guide to HVAC and Its Components


Presentation Transcript

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Heating Ventilation and Air- Conditioning HVAC Part 3: HVAC systems and components Supplementary Training Modules on Good Manufacturing Practice

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Objectives In the following slides we will study the components of air- handling systems in order to: 1. Become familiar with the components 2. Know their functions 3. Become aware of possible problems HVAC

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+ Production Room Exhaust air treatment Central air handling unit Terminal air treatment at production room level Fresh air treatment make-up air HVAC Main subsystems

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Components Components in HVAC may include depending on need: • Filters • Fans • no fan failure including supply air fans return air fans exhaust air fan dust extract system fans • Driers • Drying of air with chemical driers e.g. rotating desiccant wheel • Frost coils for preheating air

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General • Pharmaceutical products should be manufactured in areas of appropriate cleanliness • Prevent contamination and cross-contamination • Design of HVAC dependent on various factors e.g. • Outside air quality • Recirculation of air or not • Products and range of products • Risk assessment to determine clean room conditions.

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General • Two basic concepts of air delivery –a re-circulation system and –a full fresh air system 100 outside air supply. • Recirculation – determine the amount of fresh air based on criteria: –to compensate for leakage and loss –to comply with national building regulations and –for odour control.

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General • Validated automated monitoring systems e.g. Building management systems BMS building automation system BAS or system control and data acquisition SCADA system - capable of indicating any out-of- specification condition without delay e.g. by means of an alarm – Also helps with preventive maintenance and trend logging – Critical alarms easily identifiable visible and/or audible • Fan interlock failure matrix • Fan failures can cause a system imbalance resulting in a pressure cascade malfunction with a resultant airflow reversal.

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Air distribution • Positioning of supply and extract grilles to provide effective room flushing. • Low-level return or exhaust air grilles preferred. • If not possible a higher air change rate may be needed to achieve a specified clean area condition e.g. where ceiling return air grilles are used. • There may be alternative locations for return air 7.2.1 – 7.2.2

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+ Production Room Exhaust air Return air recirculated Fresh air make-up air Supply air Air types HVAC

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Recirculation systems • Increased risk of contamination and cross-contamination. • Need HEPA filters EN1822 classification of H13 • HEPA filters may not be required: – a single product facility and there is evidence that cross-contamination would not be possible. – No dust generated e.g. secondary packing • HEPA filters installed in the air-handling unit or terminally placed – If terminally mounted - not with flexible ducting • If highly toxic processes – never recirculate

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Ventilation with recirculated air + make-up air Central Air-Handling Unit Return air Exhaust Unit HVAC

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Full fresh-air systems • 100 fresh air normally used in a facility dealing with toxic products or solvents where recirculation of air with contaminants should be avoided • Degree of filtration of the exhaust air depends on the exhaust air contaminants and local environmental regulations • HEPA filters in the exhaust system normally when handling hazardous materials

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Ventilation with 100 fresh air no air recirculation W Washer optional Central Air-Handling Unit Production Rooms Exhaust Unit HVAC

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Energy-recovery wheels • Risk assessment to determine cross-contamination risks • Should not become a source of possible contamination • Alternatives include crossover plate heat exchangers and water-coil heat exchangers • Prevent air leakage between the supply air and exhaust air – exhaust air system operates at a lower pressure than the supply system.

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Components Components in HVAC may include depending on need: • frost coils to preheat the air • reheaters for humidity control moisture eliminators • automatic air volume control devices • sound attenuators • snow eliminators dust eliminators • fresh air precooling coils

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Filter Silencer Terminal filter Weather louvre Control damper Fan Flow rate controller Humidifier Heating coil Cooling coil with droplet separator Production Room Overview components + Prefilter Exhaust Air Grille Heater Secondary Filter Recirculated air HVAC

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• Weather louvre • Silencer • Flow rate controller • Control damper • To prevent insects leaves dirt and rain from entering • To reduce noise caused by air circulation • Automated adjustment of volume of air night and day pressure control • Fixed adjustment of volume of air Components 1 HVAC

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• Heating unit • Cooling unit/ dehumidifier • Humidifier • Filters • Ducts • To heat the air to the proper temperature • To cool the air to the required temperature or to remove moisture from the air • To bring the air to the proper humidity if too low • To eliminate particles of predetermined dimensions and/or microorganisms • To transport the air Components 2 HVAC

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De-humidification Filter Pressure Gauges AHU with fan Variable Speed Controller Humid room air Air heater Regeneration air Humid room air Adsorber wheel Dry air Air-handling unit HVAC

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Primary panel filter Secondary filter HEPA or tertiary filter HVAC

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1 Filter 2 Tightening frame 3 Register outlet 4 Screw fixation for register 1 2 3 4 HVAC

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• Flow rate controller • Control damper • Humidifier • Cooling battery • Filters • Ducts • Blocked • Poorly adjusted bad pressure differential system • Bad water/steam quality/ poor drainage • No elimination of condensed water/ poor drainage • Incorrect retention rate/damaged/badly installed • Inappropriate material/internal insulator leaking Problems with components HVAC

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